Obrazy na stronie

phebolion ; and, 3. The Anthesteria or Lenæa, in the from taxes to his posterity. (Plut., Vit. Ages., c. 35.) inonth Anthesterion. These last were celebrated There were, however, other claimants for this honour. within a large enclosure called Lenæum, and in a quar- The Mantinæans asserted that one of their citizens, by ter of the city termed Limnæ, or " the pools." Meur- name Machærion, gave the fatal blow. The Athenians, sius had before distinguished the Lenza from the An. on the other hand, make Epaminondas to have fallen thesteria (Græc. Fer., vol. 3, Op. col., 917 and by the hand of Gryllus, son of Xenophon. (Compare 918.) Böckh also regards the Lenea as a distinct Pausan., 8, 11.-12., 9, 15; and Wesseling, ad Diod. festival from the Anthesteria. (Vom Unterscheide der Sic., 15, 87.) Altischen Lenaen, &c., Juhrg., 1816, 1817, p. 47, ANTICYRA, I. a town of Thessaly, at the mouth of . scqq.) Both the latter opinions, however, arc incorrect. the Sperchius. (Herodot., 7, 198.-Strabo, 428.) It (Compare Creuser, Symbolik, vol 3, p. 319, seqq.) was said to produce the genuine hellebore, so much

Antheus, I. a son of Antenor.-II. One of the com- recommended by ancient physicians as a cure for inpanions of Æneas. (Virg., Æn., 1, 514.)- III. A sanity. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Avrikupa.)—11. A tonn statuary mentioned by Pliny (34, 8) as having flour- of Phocis, on the isthmus of a small peninsula in the ‘ished in Olymp. 155, and as approved among the ar- Sinus Corinthiacus. It was celebrated, in coinmon tists of his own time. In some editions of Pliny the with the one already mentioned, for its hellebore name is written Antæus. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) (Scylar, p. 14. - Theophr., 9, 10.–Strabo, 418.)

ANTHIUM, a town of Thrace, afterward called Apol- Pausanias affirms (10, 36) that ihe inhabitants of Anlonia. The name was subsequently changed to Sozop- ticyra were driven from their town by Philip, the son olis, and is now pronounced Sizeboli. (Plin., 4, 11.) of Amyntas, on the termination of the Sacred War.

Anthores, a companion of Hercules, who followed At a later period it was besieged and taken by LæviEvander, and settled in Italy. He was killed in the nus, the Roman prætor, who delivered it up to the war of Turnus against Æneas. (Virg., Æn., 10, 778.) Ætolians. (Liv., 26, 26.) And subsequently, in the

ANTHROPOPHAGI, a people of Scythia that fcd on hiu- Macedonian war, it was occupied by Tiius Q. Flamman flesh. Herodotus (4, 106) calls them the Anininus, on account of the facilities which its harbour drophagi, and states that they lived in a more savage presented for the operations of the Roman fleet in the manner than any other nation, having no public distri. Corinthian Gulf. (Liv., 32, 18.-Pausan, 10, 36.-bution of justice nor established laws. le informs Polyb., 18, 28.-11., 27, 14.) The site of Anticyra us also that they applied themselves to the breeding corresponds, as is generally believed, with that of Asof cattle, clothed themselves like the Scythians, and propili

, in a bay of some extent, parallel to that of Saspoke a peculiar language. Rennell thinks that they lona. Here is a good port," says Sir W. Gell (Itin., must have occupied Polish Russia, and both banks of p. 174), " and some remains of antiquity." Chandthe river Prypelz, the western head of the Borysthe- ler remarks, that “the site is now called Asprosptia, nes. (Rennell, Geogr. of Herod, p. 86, 4to ed.) or the white houses ; and some traces of the buildings,

ANTHYLLA, a city of Egypt about west from the from which it was so named, remain. The port is Canopic branch of the Nile, and northwest from Nau- land-locked, and frequented by vessels for corn." cratis. It is supposed by Larcher to have been the (Travels, vol. 2, p. 301.)— The ancients had a provsame with Gynecopolis. (Compare Mannert, Geogr., erb, Naviget Anticyram, applied to a person that was vol. 10. p. 596 ) According to Herodotus, it furnish- regarded as insane, and alluding to the hellebore proed sandals to the wife of the Persian satrap, who was duced at either Anticyra. (Compare Erasmus, Chil., vicert, for the line being, over Egypt. This was in 1, cent. 8, 52.--Naviget Anticyras, II2EÚDELEV elç imitation of the royal custom at home, in the case of 'Avrikúpas.) Horace has been supposed by some to the queens of Persia. (Herod., 2, 98.-Consult Bähr, allude to three places of this name, but this is a misad loc.) Athenæus says it supplied girdles (1, p. 33. take; the poet merely speaks of a head so insane as --Compare Bähr, ad Cles., p. 209 )

not to be cured by the produce of three Anticyras, if Astia lex, was made for the suppression of luxury there even were three, and not merely two. (Ep., ad at Rome. Its particulars are not known, but it could Pís., 300.) not be enforced. The enactor was Antius Resto, who ANTIDÕrus, a Greek painter, a pupil of Euphranor. afterward never supped abroad for fear of being him. He flourished about 364 B.C. His colouring was seself a witness of the prolusion and extravagance which vere, and his productions were remarkable for their his law meant to destroy, but without effect. (Ma- caresul execution rather than their number. His princrob., 3, 17.)

cipal pieces were a Wrestler and a Flute-player." He Antias, a name given to the goddess Fortune, from was the instructer of Nicias of Athens. (Plin., H. N.. her splendid teniple at Antium, where she was par. 35, 11.- Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 249.) ticularly worshipped. (Vid. Antium.)

ArtigĚNEs, one of Alexander's generals, publicly ANTICLEA, a daughter of Autolycus and Amphithea. rewarded for his valour. (Quint. Curt., 5, 14.) She was the mother of Ulysses, but not, it is said, by ANTIGENĪDAS, a famous musician of Thebes, disci. Laertes This individual was only the reputed fa- ple to Philoxenus. He introduced certain innovather of the chieftain of Ithaca, and the actual paternity tions in the construction of the nute, and in the art of belonged to Sisyphus. It is said that Anticlea killed playing upon it. . (Cic., Brul., 97.) herself when she heard a false report of her son's Antigone, a daughter of Edipus, king of Thebes, death. (Homer, Od., 11, 19.--Hygin., fub., 201, 243. by his mother Jocasta. After the death of Edipus -Pausan., 10, 29.)

and his sons Eteocles and Polynices, Antigone repairANTICLİDEs, a Greek historian, a native of Athens, ed to Thebes, in order to effect the sepulture of her whose works are lost. (Consult Athenaus, ed. Schw. brother Polynices. Creon, inonarch of Thebes, her -Ind. Auct., s. v., vol. 9)

maternal uncle, had forbidden the interment of the ANTICRĀGUS, a detached chain of the ridge of Mount young prince under the penalty of death, on account Cragus in Lycia, running in a northeast direction along of the war which the latter had waged against his the coast of the Sinus Glaucus. It is now called own country. Antigonc, however, disregarding all Soumbourlou. Captain Beaufort estimates the height personal considefations, succeeded in sprinkling dust at not less than 6000 feet. (Cramer's Asia Minor, ihree times on her brother's remains, which was equir. vol. 2, p. 245.)

alent to sepulture, but was sebscquently seized by the ANTICRĂTES, a Spartan, who, according to Plutarch, guards who had been placed to watch the corpse and stabbed Epaminondas, the Theban general, at the bat- prevent its interinent. For this she was immured tle of Mantinea. Great honours and rewards were alive in a tomb, where she hung herself. Hæmon, decreed to him by the Spartans, and an exemption the son of Creon, to whom she had been betrothed.


efected an entrance and killed himself by her corpse, 1 metrius, and usurped the kingdom. He was called and his mother Eurydice likewise put an end to her Doson (duowv. “about to give," i. e., always promisexistence. This sad story forms the basis of one of ing), from his proinising inuch and giving nothing. the tragedies of Sophocles. (Vid. Sophocles.) He conquered Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and obli

ANTIGONEA, I a city of Epirus, southwest of Apol-ged him to retire into Egypt, because he favoured the lonia. (Plin., 4, 1.)-11. One of Macedonia, in the Æolians against the Greeks. He died B.C. 222, district of Mygdonia, founded by Antigonus, son of after a reign of 11 years, leaving his crown to the

Gonatas. (Id., 4, 10.)-III. One in Syria, on the lawful possessor, Philip, who became conspicuous by • borders of the Orontes, built by Antigonus, and in his cruelties and the war he made against the Romans.

tended as the residence of the governors of Egypt (Justin, 28 et 29.-- Plut., Vil. Cleum )-1V. Son of and Syria, but destroyed by him when Seleucia was Echecrates, and nephew of Philip, the father of Perbuilt, and the inhabitants reinov d to the latter city.

He was the only one of the Macedonian noIV. Another in Asia Minor. Vid. Alexandrea, IX.) bles who reinained faithful when Perseus conspired

ANTIGoNUS, I. a general of Alexander's, and one of against his parents ; and to him, moreover, Philip those who played the inost important part after the owed the discovery of the plot. Charmed with his death of that monarch. In the division of the provin- virtuous and upright character, the monarch intended ces after the king's death, he received Pamphylia, Ly to inake him his successor, but the death of Philip pre cia, and Phrygia. Two years aster the decease of Al-vented this being done. Perseus succeeded bis father, exander, he united with Antipater and Plolemy against and, a few days after, pui Anugonus to death, B.C. Perdiccas, who aimed at the supremnacy. Perdiccas 179. (Liv , 40, 54, &c. HV. Son of Aristobulus Il., having died this same year (B.C. 322), and Antipater king of Judæ, was conducted to Roine along with beiny placed at the head of the government, Antigonus his fathe after the capture of Jerusalem by Pompey. was named commander of all the forces of the empire, When Cæsar became dictator, Antigonus endeavoured, and inarched against Eumenes. After various con- but in vain, to get himself re-established in his heredflicts, during a war of three years, he succeeded in itary dominions, and at last was compelled to apply getting Eumenes into his power boy treachery, and to Pacorus, king of the Parthians. Pacorus, on the starved him to death. Become now all powerful by proinise of 1000 talents, marched into Judæa at the the death of this forinidable rival, he ruled as king, but head of a large army, and replaced Antigonus on the without assuming the title, over all Asia Minor and throne; but Marc Antony, at the solicitation of Herod, Syria ; but his conduct eventually excited against him sent Gabinius against him, who took Jerusalem, and a formidable league, in which Seleucus, Ptoleiny, Ly. put Antigonus to an ignominious death. He reigned simachus, and Cassander arrayed themselves against 3 years and 3 months. (Justin, 20, 29, &c.)VI. Antigonus, and the celebrated Demetrius, his son. Carystius, an historian in the age of Ptolemy PhilaAfter varied success, the confederates made a treaty delphus, who wrote the lives of some of the ancient with him, and surrendered to him the possession of philosophers : also a heroic poein, entitled “ Antithe whole of Asia, upon condition that the Grecian pater," mentioned by Athenæus ; and other works. cities should remain free. This treaty was soon The only remains we have of them are his “Collec. broken, and Ptolemy made a descent into Lesser Asia tions of wonderful Stories" concerning animals and and on some of the Greek isles, which was at first suc. other natural bodies. This work was first published cessful, but he was defeated in a seafight by Deme. at Basle, 1568, and was afterward reprinted at Ley. trius, the son of Antigonus, who took the island of Cy- den by Meursius, 1619, in 410. It forms a part also prus, made 16,000 prisoners, and sunk 200 of his ships. of the volume entitled Historiarum Mirabilium AucAfter this fainous naval battle, which happened 26 tores Græci, printed at Leyden in 1622, in 4to. years after Alexander's death, Antigonus and his son ANTILIBĂNUS, a ridge of mountains in Syria, east assuined the title of kings, and their example was sol- of, and running parallel with, the ridge of Libanus. lowed by all the rest of Alexander's generals. From (Vu. Libanus. - Plin., 5, 20.) this period, B C. 306, his own reign in Asia, that of Antil Chus, I. the eldest son of Nester by EurydPtolemy in Egypt, and those of the other captains of ice. He went to the Trojan war with his father, and Alexander in their respective territories, properly com- was killed by Memnon, the son of Aurora, according

Antigonus now formed the design of driving to Homer (Od., 4, 187), who is followed by Pindar Ptoleny froin Egypt, but failed. His power soon be (Pyih., 6, 28), and hy Hyginus (fab., 113). Ovid, came so formidable that a new confederacy was forined on the contrary, makes him to have been slain by Hecagainst hiin by Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and tor (ller., 1, 15). We must therefore alter the text Piolemy. The contending parties met in the plain of of the latter, and for Antilochum read either AnchiaIpsus in Phrygia, B.C. 301. Antigonus was defeated, lum with Muncker (from Hom., II., 18, 185), or Amand died or his wounds; and his son Demetrius fed phimachum with Scoppa (from Dares Phrygius, c. from the field. Antigonus was 84 years old when 20).-II. A poet, who wrote some verses in praise of he died. (Vid. Demetrius. — Pausan., 1, 6, &c.— Lysander, and received a cap full of silver in return. Justin, 13, 14, el 15 –C. Nep., Vit. Eumen.-- Plut., (Plut., Vit. Lysandr., c. 18.) Vit. Demetr.-Eumen.ci Arat.)-11. Gonatas, so call ANTIMĂCHUS, I. a poet of Colophon, and pupil of ed from Gonni in Thessaly, the place of his birth, was Panyasis. He was the contemporary of Cherilus, the son of Demetrius, and grandson of Antigonus. and Aourished between 460 and 431 B.C. With Ile made himself master of Macedonia B.C. 277, and Antimachus would have commenced a new era in the assuined the title of king. In the course of his reign, history of epic verse, if that department of poetry had he defeated, with great slaughter, the Gauls, who had been capable of resuming its former lustre. In com. made an irruption into his kingdoin. Having refused mon with Chærilus, he perceived that the period of succours to Pyrrhus of Epirus, he was driven from the Homeric epic had irrevocably passed; but in place his throne by that warlike monarch. He afterward of substituting the historic epic, as the former did, he recovered a great part of Macedonia, and followed returned to mythological subjects ; merely treating Pyrrhus to the neighbourhood of Argos. In a conflict them, however, in a manner more in accordance with thai ensued there, Pyrrhus was slain. After the death the taste of the day. The success which he obtained, of Pyrrhus, he recovered the remainder of Macedonia, and the admiration which was subsequently testified and died after a reign of 34 years, leaving his son, De- for his productions by the Alexandrean school, prove metrius the Second, to succeed, B.C. 243. (Jusiin, that he was not mistaken in the judgment he had formed el et 25.)—III. The guardian of his nephew, Philip, of the spirit of the age, and that he augured well rethe son of Demetrius, who married the widow of De- ) specting the opinion of posterity. The Alexandrean


critics (according to Quintilian, 10, 1) cited his The- Antakia, and has suffered severely by a late earthbaïs as a work worthy of being compared with the quake. At the distance of four or five miles below poems of Homer, and of terminating the list of epic was a celebrated grove, called Daphne; whence, for poems of the first class.

They extolled the grandeur the sake of distinction, it has been called Antiochia of his ideas and the energy of his style, but they con. near Daphne, or Antiochia Epidaphnes ('Avrióxela i sessed, at the same time, that he was deficient in ele apòs Aúøvnv. Hicrocl. Synecdem , p. 711.Plin., 5, gance and grace. Antimachus was also the author 21.-Antiochia Epiduphnes, vid. Daphne.)II. A city of an elegy entitled Lyde, which the ancients regarded of Lycaonia, near the northern confines of Pisidia, as a chef-d'æuvre. Ii is now entirely lost. The An- sometimes called Antiochia of Pisidia ('Avrióxela thology has preserved for us one of his epigrams Hoidias). According to Strabo, it was founded by The fragments of Antimachus have been collected and a colony from Magnesia on the Mæander. This prob. published by Schellenberg, under the title “ Antimachi ably took place under the auspices of Antiochus, from Culophonii fragmenta, nunc primum conquisita," &c., whom the place derived its naine. It became, under Halæ, 1786, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. the Romans, the chief city of their province of Pisidia, 245, and 2, p. 126.)--11. A Trojan, whom Paris bribed which extended farther to the north than Pisidia proper. to oppose the restoring of Helen to Menelaus and (Hierocles, p. 672.)—III. A city of Cilicia Trachea, Ulysses, who had come as ambassadors to recover her. situate on a rocky projection of the coas! terined CraHe recommended to put them to death. His sons, gus, whence the place, for distinction' sake, was Hippolochus and Pisander, were killed by Agamemnon. called 'Avrióxela étè Kpúyo. (Strabo, 669.) The (II., 11, 122, se99.)

Byzantine writers call it the Isaurian Antiochia. Hi. ANTINOELA, annual sacrifices and quinquennial games erocles makes mention of it (Synecdem, p. 708), as in honour of Antinous, iustituted by the Emperor Ha- also the writers on the Crusades, under the name of drian at Mantinea, where Antinous was worshipped as Antioceta. (Sanuli, secrela fidelium, l. 2, p. 4, c. 26. a divinity. They were celebrated also at Argos. - Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 84.)---IV. A city at the (Potter, Gr. Antiq., vol. I, p. 424.)

fuot of Mount Taurus, in Comagene, a province of ANTINOOPõlis or Antinoe, a town of Egypt, built Syria. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 497.)-V. A city in honour of Antinous, opposite Hermopolis Magna, of Caria, on the river Mæander, where that stream was on the eastern bank of the Nile. It was previously an joined by the Orsinus or Massinus. (Plin., 5, 29.) obscure place called Besa, but became a magnificent Steph. Byz. states, that it was founded loy Antiochus, city. (Vid. Antinous.) It is now called Ensené, son of Seleucus, in honour of his mother. It had been and a revered sepulchre has also caused it to receive previously called Pythopolis. The environs abounded the name of Shek-Abadé. (Ammiun. Marcellin., 19, in fruit of every kind, but especially in the fig called 12.-Dro Cass., 69, 11.-Spartiun., Vit Hadr., 14. " triphylla." The ancient site corresponds with Jeni- Description de l’Egypte, vol. 4. p. 197, seyg.) sher. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 209 )-VI. A

Antious, I. a youth of Bithynia, of whom the city of Cilicia Trachea, in the district of Lamotis Emperor Hadrian was so extremely fond, that at his (Piol., p. 129.) death he erected temples to him, established a priest ANTIÕCHIS, I. the name of the mother of Antiochus, hood for the new divinity, built a city in honour of him the son of Seleucus.-II. A tribe of Athens. (did. Antinoopolis), and caused a constellation in the ANTIÕCHUS, I. surnamed Soter, was the eldest son heavens to be called by his name. According to one of Seleucus, the first king of Syria and Babylonia. account, Antinous was drowned in the Nile, while He succeeded his father B.C. 280

When still young, another and more correct statement gives the occasion he fell into a lingering disease, which none of his faof his death as follows: Hadrian, consulting an oracle ther's physicians could cure for some time. till it was at Besa, was informed that he was threatened with discovered that his pulse was more irregular than usual great danger, unless a person that was dear to him when Stratonice, his stepmother, entered his room, was immolated for his preservation. Upon hearing and that love for her was the cause of his illness. this, Antinous threw hirnself from a rock into the Nile, This was told to the father, who willingly gave Sıratas an offering for the safety of the emperor, who built onice to save a son on whom he founded all his hopes. Antinoopolis on the spot. Nor was this all. The When Antiochus came to the throne, he displayed, at artists of the empire were ordered to inmortalize by the head of his forces, talents worthy of his sire, and their skill the gries of the inonarch and the memory gained inany battles over the Bithynians, Macedonians, of his favourite. Painters and statuaries vied with and Galatians. He attacked also Ptolemy Philadeleach other, and some of the master-pieces of the lat. phus, king of Egypt, at the instigation of Magas, who ter have descended to our own times. The absurd had revoited against this prince, but without success. and disgusting conduct of Hadrian needs no comment. He failed also in an expedition which he undertook -II. A native of Ithaca. son of Eupeithes, and one after the death of Phileterus, king of Pergamus, with of Penelope's suiters. He was brutal and cruel in his a view of seizing on bis kingdoin, and he was vanmanners, and was the first of the suiters that was slain quished near Sardis by Eumenes, the successor of by Ulysses on his return. (Od., 22, 8, &c.)

that prince. He returned after this to Antioch, and Antiochia, I. a city of yria, once the third city died not long subsequently, having occupied the throne of the world for beauty, greatness, and population for nineteen years. He was called Soler (Ewrup) or It was built by Seleucus Nicator, in memory of his • Preserver," for having preserved his subjects from father Antiochus, on the river Orontes, about 20 miles an irruption of the Galatians or Gauls, whom he defrom its mouth, and was equidistant from Constanti. seated in battle. His successor was Antiochus Theos. nople and Alexandrea, being about 700 miles from (Justin, 17, 2, &c.)—II. Son of Antiochus Soter, and each. Here the disciples of our Saviour were first surnamed Theos (Oɛós), “God,” by the Milesians, called Christians, and the chief patriarch of Asia re- because he put to death their tyrant Timarchus. He sided. It was afterward known by the name of Te succeeded his father B.C. 261, and at the instigation of trapolis, being divided, as it were, into four cities, his sister Apamea, the widow of Magas, renewed the each having its separate wall, besides a common one war with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt He enclosing all. The first was built by Seleucus Nica- was as unsuccessful, however, as his father had been; tor, the second by those who repaired thither on its and, being compelled to sue for peace, only obtained being made the capital of the Syro-Macedonian empire, it on condition of repudiating his wife Laodice, and the third by Seleucus Callinicus, and the fourth by espousing Berenice the sister of Ptolemy. The male Antiochus Épiphanes. (Strabo, 750,--Compare Man issue, moreover, of this latter marriage were to inherit nert, vol. 6, part I, p. 468, segg.) It is now called the crown. It was during this war that he lost all his

provinces beyond the Euphrates by a revolt of the provinces, and he had also to pay a yearly tribute of Parthians and Bactrians. Ptolemy dying two years 2000 taients. His revenues being insufficient for this after this, Antiochus repudiated Berenice and restored heavy demand, he attempted to plur.der the treasures Laodice. The latter, resolving to secure the success of the temple of Belus in Susiana; but the inhabitants sion to her son, poisoned Antiochus and suborned Ar- of the country were so irritated at this sacrilege, that temon, whose features were similar to his, to represent they slew him, together with his escort, B.C. 187. He him as king. Arteinon, subservient to her will, pre- had reigned thirty-six years. In his character of king, tended to be indisposed, and, as king, recommended Antiochus was humane and liberal, the patron of learnto them Seleucus, surnamed Callinicus, son of Laodice, ing, and the friend of merit. He had three sons, as his successor. After this ridiculous imposture, it Seleucus Philopater, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Demewas made public that the king had died a natural death, irius. The first succeeded hin, and the two others and Laodice placed her son on the throne, and de. were kept as hostages by the Romans. (Justin, 31 el spatched Berenice and her son, B.C. 246. (Juslin, 27, 32.- Liv., 34, 59. Flor., 2, 1 - Appian, Bell. Syr.) 1.-- Appian.)-IN. Surnamed Hierax (lepas), “ bird -V. Surnamed Epiphanes, or Illustrious, was king of of prey," son of Antiochus Theos and Laodice, was Syria after the death of his brother Seleucus Philopa. the brother of Seleucus Callinicus. . Froin his early ter, having ascended the throne 175 B.C. He was ihe years this prince was devoured by ambition. In order fourth of the name, and was surnamed Epiphanes io attain to power, no crime or evil act deterred him; ('Eripavńs), the Illustrious," and reigned eleven his thirst for rule, as well as his wicked and turbulent years. Taking advantage of the infancy of Prolemy spirit, oblained for hin the appellation, so characteristic Philometor, he seized upon Calosyria, and even penof his movements, which we have mentioned above. etrated into Egypt, where he took Memphis, and obUnder pretext of aidi his brother against Proleiny tained possession of the person of the young king, Euergeies, he attempied to dethrone him. Seleucus whom he kept prisoner for many years. The guardi. having marched against him for the purpose of coun ans of the young Ptolemy, however, having applied teracting his ambitious designs, Hierax defeated him for aid to the Romans, the senate sent Popilius Lænas near Ancyra. He could not, however, derive any ad- unto Epiphanes, who compelled him to renounce his vantage from this victory, since the Gauls, who formed conquests and set the Egyptian monarch at liberty. the principal part of his army, revolted and declared The Jews having revolted during the reign of Epiphthemselves independent; and it was only by paying anes, he marched against Jerusalem, deposed the higha large sum of monev that Hierax could save his life. priest Onias, profaned the temple by sacrifices to JuEumenes, king of Pergamus, took advantage of this piter Olympius, plundered all the sacred vessels, and circumstance to rid himself of an unquiet and trouble slaughtered, it is said, 80,000 inhaluitants of this illsome neighbour. He attacked Hierax, defeated him, fated city. After this he proceeded into Persia, and, and compelled him to take refuge with his brother-in- while traversing Elymais, wished to plunder the temlaw Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. Ariarathes soon ples that were there : but the inhabitants having rebecame tired of him, and formed the design of putting volted, he was compelled to retreat to Babylon. There bim to death; but Hierax, informed of his design, fied he learned that the Jews, commanded by Matathias into Egypt. He was thrown into prison by Ptolemy, and and Judas Maccabrus, had gained several victories perished a few years after in attempting to make his over the generals whom he had left in Judæa. Transescape.--IV. The Greal, as he was surnamned, was the ported with fury at the intelligence, he assembled a third of the name that actually reigned, and the son new army, and swore to destroy Jerusalem ; but, at the of Seleucus Ceraunus, and succeeded his father 223 moment of his departure, he fell from his chariot, was B.C. He passed the first years of his reign in regu- subsequently seized with a disgusting malady, and lating the affairs of his kingdom, and in bringing back died in the most agonizing sufferings. The Persians to their duty several of his officers who had made them- attributed the manner of his death to his iinpious enselves independent. Desirous after this of regaining terprise against the temple of Elymais; the Jews saw Syria, which had been wrested from Seleucus Callini- in it the anger of Heaven, for his having profaned the cus by Ptolemy Evergetes of Egypt, he was met at temple of Jerusalem. He died B C. 164. Epiphanes Raphia and defeated by Ptolemy Philopater, 218 B.C., was not without some good qualities. lle was genand was compelled to surrender the whole of his con- erous, loved the arts, and displayed considerable abilquests in Syria which he had thus far made He was ity in the wars in which he was engaged ; but his more successful, however, in Upper Asia, where he re vices and follies tarnished his character. (Justin, 34, covereủ possession of Media, and made treaties with the 5.-- Macchab., 1, 1, &c.)-VI. Eupator, son of the kings of Parthia and Bactria, who agreed to aid him in preceding (from eŭ and mathp, born of an illustrious regaining other of his foriner provinces, if their respect- sire''), succeeded to the throne at the age of nine years. ive kingdoms were secured to them. He crossed over The generals of this prince continued the war against also into India, and renewed his alliance with the king the Jews, and Jerusalem was on the point of becoming, of that country. After the death of Philopater, he re- for the second time, the prey of the Syrians, when sumed his plans of conquest, and Ptolemy Epiphanes Demetrius Soter, the cousin german of Eupator, by a being yet quite young, he seized npon the whole of sudden invasion, seized upon the capital of Syria. Syria. He granted, however, peace to Prolemy, and The generals of Eupator made peace with the Jews, even gave him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage, and marched against Demetrius; but the soldiers, with Syria for her dowry. Antiochus then turned his ashamed of serving a mere child, went over to the inarnis against the cities of Asia Minor and Greece; but vader, who put Eupator to death after a reign of about whese cities having implored the aid of Rome, the sen- eighteen months — VII. (the sixth of the name) Son ato sent to Antiochus to summon him to surrender of Alexander Bala, took the surname of Theos (“God”), his conquests. Excited, however, by Hannibal, to claiming descent,like his father, from Antiochus Theos whom he had given an asylum, he took no notice of already mentioned. To this surname he afterward this order, and a war ensued. The plan, however, added that of Epiphanes (" the illustrious"). Demewhich Hannibal traced out for him, was not followed. trius Nicator having disbanded his army, and being Defeated at Thermopylae by Glabrio, he fled into Asia, entirely without apprehension of any foe, Tryphon took where a second and more complete defeat, by Scipio advantage of this, and having brought Antiochus from Asiaticus, at Magnesia, compelled him to sue for Arabia, still young in years, caused him to be propeace, which he obtained only on the hardest condi- claimed king, about 144 B.C. The attempt succeedtions.

He was obliged to retire beyond Mount Taurus. Ied. Demetrius was defcated, and Antiochus ascendAll his territories on this side of Taurus became Roman cd the throne. He reigned, however, only in name.

The actual monarch was Tryphon, who had him put to Heyne, de Fontibus Hist. Diod.- vol. 1, p. lxxxv., death at the end of about two years, and caused him. ed. Bip.)II. A rhetorician and sophist of Ægæa, self to be proclaimed in his stead. (Justin, 36, 1.) the pupil of Dionysius of Miletus. Dio Cassius (77, VIII. Surnamed Sidetes (Liontis), “ the hunter," son p. 878) relates, that, in order to rouse the spirits of of Demetrius Soter, ascended the throne 139 B.C. the Roman army, who were worn out with fatiguing He drove from Syria the usurper Tryphon, made war marches, he assumed the character of a cynic, and on the Jews, besieged Jerusalem, and compelled it to rolled about in the snow. This conduct gained for him pay a tribute. He then marched against Phraates, the fatuur of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. He af. king of Parthia, who menaced his kingdom, gained terward went over to Tiridates, king of the Parthians, three victories over him, and oblained possession of whence Suidas styles him Aútópohos, or “the desertBabylon. The following year he was vanquished in er.”—III. A native of Ascalon, the last preceptor of turn by the Parthian king, and lost his life in the con- the Platonic school in Greece. He was the disciple flict. He was a prince of many virtues, but he tar. of Philo, and one of the philosophers whose lectures nished all by his habits of intemperance.-IX. The Varro, Cicero, and Brutus attended, for he taught, at eighth of the name, surnamed Grypus (T'purus) from different times, at Athens, Alexandrea, and Rome. his aquiline nose, was son of Demetrius Nicator and He attempted to reconcile the tenets of the different Cleopatra. He was raised to the throne B.C. 123, to sects, and maintained that the doctrines of the Stoics the prejudice of his brothers, by the intrigues of his were to be found in the writings of Plato. Cicero mother, who hoped to reign in his name. When he greatly admired his eloquence and the politeness of his was declared king, the throne of Syria was occupied manners, and Lucullus took him as his companion into by Alexander Zebinas. He marched against this im- Asia. He resigned the academic chair in the 175th postor, defeated, and put him to death. He then mar-Olympiad. After his time the professors of the Acaried Tryphena, daughter of Ptolemy Euergetes II., demic philosophy were dispersed by the tumults of which ensured peaceable relations between Syria and war, and the school itself was transferred to Rome. Egypt. After having for some time yielded to the au- (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 199, segg.-Enthority of his mother, he resolved at last to reign in his field's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 258, seqq.) own name, a step which nearly cost him his life. His ANTIÕPE, 1. daughter of Nycteus, who was a son of mother prepared a poisoned draught for her son, but, Neptune and king of Thebes, received the addresses being suspected by him, was compelled to drink it of Jupiter, the god having appeared to her under the herself. A bloody war soon after broke out between form of a satyr. Terrified at the threats of her father, this prince and Antiochus the Cyzicenian, his brother, on the consequences of her fault becoming apparent, in which the latter compelled Grypus to cede to him Antiope fled to Sicyon, where she married Epopeus. Calosyria. They thus reigned conjointly for some Nycteus, out of grief, put an end to himself, having time. Grypus was at last assassinated by one of his previously charged his brother Lycus to punish Eposubjects, B.C. 96. (Justin, 39, 1.-Joseph., Ant. peus and Antiope. Lycus accordingly marched an Jud.)-X. Surnamed Cyzicenus, from his having been army against Sicyon, took it, slew Epopeus, and led brought up in the city of Cyzicus, was the ninth of away Antiope captive. On the way to Thebes, she the name. He was son of Antiochus Sidetes, and suc- brought forth twins at Eleutheræ. The unhappy babes ceeded his brother Grypus, after having reigned over were exposed on a mountain; but a shepherd having Cælosyria, which he had previously compelled his found them, reared them both, calling the one Zethus, brother to yield to him. He was a dissolute and indo- the other Amphion. The former devoted himself to lent prince, and possessed of considerable mechanical the care of cattle, while Amphion passed his time in talent. His nephew Seleucus, son of Grypus, de- the cultivation of music, having been presented with a throned him, B.C. 95.- XI. The tenth of the name, lyre by Mercury. Meanwhile, Lycus had put Antiope ironically surnamed Pius, because he married Selena, in bonds, and she was treated with the utmost cruelty the wife of his father and of his uncle. He was the by him and his wife Dirce. But her chains became son of Antiochus IX., and he expelled Seleucus, the loosed of themselves, and she fled to the dwelling of son of Grypus, from Syria ; but he could not prevent her sons in search of shelter and protection. Having two other sons of Grypus, namely, Philip and Deme- recognised her, they resolved to avenge her wrongs. trius, from seizing on a part of Syria. "He perished Accordingly, they attacked and slew Lycus, and ty. soon after by their hands. (Appian.-Joseph., Ant. ing Dirce by the hair to a wild bull, let the animal Jud., 13, 21.) After his death, the kingdom of Syria drag her until she was dead. (Vid. Dirce, Amphion, was torn to pieces by the factions of the royal family Zethus. — Apollod., 3, 5.--Keightley's Mythology, p. or usurpers, who, under a good or false title, under the 299.)—II. A queen of the Amazons. According to name of Antiochus or his relations, established them- one account, Hercules, having taken her prisoner, selves for a little time either as sovereigns of Syria, or gave her to Theseus as a reward of his valour. The Damascus, or other dependant provinces. At last An- more common tradition, however, made her to have tiochus, surnamed Asiaticus, the son of Antiochus the been taken captive and carried off by Theseus himself, ninth, was restored to his paternal throne by the influ- when he made an expedition with his own fleet against ence of Lucullus, the Roman general, on the expulsion the Amazonian race. She is also called Hippolyta. of Tigranes, king of Armenia, from the Syrian domin- Justin says that Hercules gave Hippolyta to Theseus, ions ; but four years after, Pompey deposed him, and and kept Antiope for himself. (Plut., Vit. Thes., 27 observed that he who hid himself while a usurper - Justin, 2, 4.) sat upon his throne, ought not to be a king. From ANTIPĂROS, a small island in the Ægean, ranked that time, B.C. 65, Syria became a Roman province, by Artemidorus among the Cyclades, but excluded and the race of Antiochus was extinguished. There from them by Strabo (10, p. 484, ed. Casaub.). It were also other individuals of the same name, among lay opposite to Paros, and was separated from this latwhom the most deserving of mention are the following: ter island, according to Heraclides of Pontus (Steph. I. A native of Syracuse, descended from an ancient Byz., 8. v. 'N7iapos), by a strait eighteen stadia wide. monarch of the Sicani. He wrote a history of Sicily, The same writer affirins (Plin., H. N., 4, 12), that it which was brought down to the 98th Olympiad, and had been colonized by Sidonians. Its more ancient which Diodorus Siculus cites among the sources name was Oliarus. It is now Antiparo. This island whence he derived aid for his compilation. He com- is famed for its grotto, which is of great depth, and posed also what appears to have been a very curious was believed by the ancient Greeks to communicate, history of Italy, some fragments of which are pre- beneath the waters, with some of the neighbouring served by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. (Compare islands.

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