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afford: an example of ingenious Common Prayer, as by a collateral exand successful exposition.

position, a fair latitude of interpretation, We feel some little awkward- sufficiently harmonizing with the views

of the body." ness in encountering the following Essay, "on the present state of

We should really have felt ourfeeling between Calvinists and selves much indebted to Mr. GisAnti-Calvinists; and on the com- borne if, instead of this unsupbination of Calvinistic, and Anti- ported statement, he had given us Calvinistic opinions.” Mr. Gis- plain and tangible authorities. borne's professed intention, and We should like to see something we do not mean to insinuate the rather more solid than barren asslightest doubt of his entire sin- sertions, brought forward as an cerity, in this Essay, is to hold apology for Arminian subscripthe balance fairly between the tion. The tranchant tone in which two parties, to state the question the following sentences are deliof difference fairly and liberally, vered, is but an inadequate subto expose and to rebuke the uno stitute for clear and cogent reasoncharitable constructions put by the ing. disputants of either side, on the “ 'The charge which has frequently sentiments of their opponents. been urged by Calvinists, that the AntiAll this is extremely plausible, calvinistic doctrine derogates from the and it might seem that so truly foundation. "The controversy between amiable and candid an individual the two parties does not, in any degree as Mr. Gisborne, must be exactly whatever, involve a question as to the the sort of arbiter required. It is rightful, perfect, and controulable sore

reignty of God. In the recognition of not, however, a matter that we

that sovereignty, of its illimitable exfeel at all inclined to commit to ar- tent, of its intinite perfection, the Cal. bitration, and if we were, we must vinist and the Anticalvinist thoroughly take leave to remember, that Mr. accord. The difference between them G. is an Arminian, and to put in is, that of two modes in which the di

vine sovereignty might be hypothetically our caveat against his election to represented as exercised over mankind, the office of umpire. We object, the Calvinist believes that the Deity has for instance, to the very positive God has been pleased to prefer the other. way in which he affirms that the

Sovereignty does not consist in the mode, but “Reformers, divided


them- in the right of crercise. Unlimited soveselves, in common with the rest of reignty would not impeach its own rights, Christian Europe in that agc, on the if, by a spontaneous act of its own soPredestinarian points; and deeply ser- vereign will, it should ordain certain sible of the injury caused to the inte- events to be within a certain measure rests of Protestantism, by the divisions dependent on the proceedings of other and subdivisions of its professors, and of moral agents. Add to unlimited sovethe plausibility thus afforded to the ar- reignty the attribute of unlimited foreguments of the Roman Catholics in sup- knowledge; and the supposition that, by port of the necessity of an infallible so ordaining the contingency of certain church, wisely determined to erect the events, soyereignty impeached its own church of England on the amplest basis rights, becomes still more irrational. compatible with the security of sound- Assume the Supreme Sovereign to have ness of doctrine in essentials. Their ordained that every human being shall aim, therefore, with respect to Calvinists, attain salvation; or that every one shall and Anti-Calvinists, was to avoid, in the fall into perdition ; or that any given liturgy, such language as might be rea- portion shall be saved, and the remainder sonably offensive to the peculiarities of shall be lost; or that the salvation and either body; and, in the articles, so to the perdition shall be in every case despeak concerning predestination in broad pendent and contingent on the moral and indefinite expressions, and so to qua- agency and responsibility of the indilily those expressions by a general refer- vidual; or that in no case shall it be ence to Scripture, that the mass of each dependent and contingent on that moral description might perceive, in the terms agency, but necessary and inevitable; thus selected and modified, and also ac the essence of sovereignty would equally companied by the rest of the Book of remain unimpeachable and undiminished.


If the denial of predestination, displaces absurd as language can express : God from the throne of the universe ;

there may be conditional promises and such language has been sanctioned by no light authority on the Calvinistic and conditional compacts,

but how side; I see not how it is possible to conditionality can be predicated of escape the blasphemous conclusion, a predestination, we have not enough conclusion, however, which the mass of Calvinists would utterly and sincerely

of (Edipus about us to discover. disclaiın, that every sin committed by

But the most extraordinary, and, any man is directly ascribable to God.” to our feelings, the most indefen

With this entangled and un- sible portions of this essay, are substantial paragraph, it is quite those which make the award of impossible to grapple in syllogis- the State Government, the standard tic contest. If, indeed, Mr. Gis- of orthodoxy. borne had felt it expedient to

“ How unbecoming then must it be in illustrate the ordination of a con- a Calvinist bitterly to declaim against tingency, or if he had proved, in- the Anticalvinistic system as heretical, stead of contenting himself with a

when the Imperial Parliament of Great simple assertion, that, in the pecu

Britain solemnly declares the National

Church of England, which comprehends liar relation subsisting between

that system, to be a true Church of man and God, the divine

Christ! Even more unbecoining, if it reignty does not consist in the be possible, must be the conduct of the mode, but in the right of exer

Anticalvinist, who should furiously in.

reigh against Calvinism as heresy; when cise,” we might have either argued the same Imperial Legislature of his or conceded the points in agita- country avers the National Church of tion; but believing as we do that Scotland, founded on a basis exclusively the analogy of a Poi faineunt is Calvinistic, to be a true Church of utterly inapplicable to the sovereignty of the Divine Being, and We were about to use strong that this supremacy is as much language, but it may be as well concerned in the mode as in the to abstain. The Imperial Parliaright of its exercise, we are per- ment of Great Britain, the last fectly at variance with Mr. G. appeal in matters of faith ! If it throughout the whole of his specu- must be so, at least we shall not lations. As nothing can be more stop here,—we shall not accept easy, so nothing can be less satis- our creed from a secular legisfactory than this method of treat- lature, we will be consistent, and ing a grand question. Strip it of go at once to an ecclesiastical parall its peculiarities, summarily dis- liament;—the College of Cardinals, card every difficulty that may and the ounci of Trent. We stand in the


of a favorite ex- have met, in the course of our position, reduce all that is myste- reading, with broad and fearless rious to a bald and sterile analogy, statements, but we recollect none jump to a dashing and peremptory more unguardedly intrepid than conclusion, and the thing is done. this. The right divine of the Occupy large ground, investigate country gentlemen of England, minutely and deeply, take in every--the hereditary skill, in matpoint that claims affinity to the ters theological, of the Lords subject, and it will at least appear Temporal, — the unerring counin a very different light from that sels of the Spiritual Peers, in which it is placed by Mr. G. ultimate authorities in matters of

In an early part of this essay faith and discipline! This beats Mr. Gisborne speaks of “condi- Bellarmine, and throws the ultrational" predestination; we have montane casuists into the shade. often heard this phrase used, and Where in Scripture is this transmisto our understandings it implies sion of divine power to be found ? a contradiction as manifest and as Where is the promise of this septennial pentecost? With what

bridge. In two volumes. 8vo. reverence must we not hence

London: Rivingtons. 1821. forward visit the hallowed ruins. We are a little prejudiced against of Corfe Castle, and pause upon publications of this class. Withthe holy ground of Old Sarum, out any disposition to question endowed as are those mystic pre- their usefulness, both as works of cincts with the power of commu- reference, and as supplying a clear nicating the character of infalli- and steady view of the general bility to their senatorial delegates! and specific arrangement of ScripWith what respectful awe must ture narrative and composition, we not contemplate for the future,

we feel some apprehension of the the inspired electors who may be injurious effects of doing that for engaged in bestowing this sublime - the student which he ought to do faculty on the legislators of their for himself; and we are not withchoice! But we cannot pursue out our fears, that there may

be this matter any longer with levity! some danger of diverting attention we should feel bitterness in our from those peculiar modes of prejesting, and sadness in our mirth. senting Bible facts and instrucIf, in the nineteenth century, tions, which have, on the whole, these are the genuine sentiments seemed most expedient to infinite of Church of England men, we wisdom. We suspect that the feel unspeakable gladness that present age is not remarkable for we have not so taken up our those close and continued habits religious creed.

We have no of scriptural research, which dis. knowledge of that “ Church of tinguished the theologians of forChrist,” though Mr. Gisborne may mer times. They were thrown dignify it with the epithet “true," upon their own resources; the which depends for its establish- materials for reflection and invesment on the declaratory acts of tigation were either remote, or else any legislative body, civil or eccle- lay hidden within the deep and siastical. Our appeal is to the Law 'tortuous recesses of many an unand to the Testimony, and we can wieldy tome; yet with these diffind no sanction there for the ser- ficulties and discouragements, they vility which adjusts its faith or fearlessly and perseveringly strugo regulates its ritual observances, by gled; and whatever of caprice or the decrees of parliaments, san- imperfection might mingle with hedrims, conclaves, or councils. their honest efforts to ascertain

There are several other essays the import and the connexion of in this little volume, chiefly re- Holy Writ, they became profound lating to the subject of prophecy, and expert Biblicists, and have but we have neither space nor left, in their gigantic labours, inclination for farther comment. mines rich with valuable ore,

quarries which have supplied the

strength and ornament of many a The Old Testament, arranged in showy structure.

They toiled Historical and Chronological Or- unremittingly; they bore the lader, (on the basis of Lightfoot's bour and exhaustion of the day, Chronicle,) in such manner, that and others have seized the fruit the Books, Chapters, Psalms, and the reward of their exertions. Prophecies, fc. may be read as Still they obtained a large and ore connected History, in the immediate remuneration in their Words of the Authorized Trans- extensive and minute acquaintance lation. With copious Indexes. with the sacred records. ComBy the Rev. George Townsend, pelled to master the original M. A. of Trinity College, Cam- tongues, and to elicit for them, selves the meaning of many an since we can procure them with obscure passage, or else pursuing out difficulty or loss of time. But the investigations of some antece- there is reason to fear that, in dent inquirer of their own class, too many instances, the accessary they acquired habits of study, at is made the substance, and the the very recital of which our mo- possession of the facilities of fardern nerves begin to tremble, and ther progress, serves at once for our eyes to grow dim. But we of the show of acquisition, and as the present day are so hemmed in the pretext for indolent satiswith the mechanism and adminin faction with imperfect attaincula of study, that we seldom ments. To the real student, the think of investigating in painful aids to which we are now advertearnest; we are so bolstered up ing, are invaluable; they save with cushions and couches, that him many a weary return upon we imbibe a relish for the indul. his path ; they give him many a gence of mental indolence; we profitable hour; they keep him have so many royal roads to scrip- from wasting his midnight oil, tural knowledge, so many cheap and they frequently help him forand readable manuals of divinity ward pleasantly in toilsome investimade easy, that we are tempted to gations. consider the severe but invigo- These remarks are, in a consirating processes of our ancestors, derable degree, applicable to the as not only irksome, but altogether volumes before us. Harmonies and absurdly unprofitable. It were and arrangements are highly valueasy, though rather invidious, to able when used as subsidiary to illustrate all this by specific refer- the originals, and when brought ence; but it rather seems expe- to the test of our own independent dient that we should qualify these investigations; but when they are remarks, by some of those prudent adopted implicitly, and consulted reserves which, in nine cases out habitually, without reference to of ten, perfectly neutralise the their sources, we regard them as pithy suggestions of which they exceedingly injurious. The disbring up the rear. While then tinct and apparently disorderly we anxiously deprecate all such statements of Holy Writ, are neilistless and servile dependence on ther “ without a plan,” nor withauthority as may have a tendency out specific advantages in their to debilitate the mind, we would common form; the last no one not be understood to object to the should lose sight of in his prediuse of those available abstracts lection for any supposed order, and arrangements, which may con- the first every one should trace

veniently come in aid of memory, out for himself. without superseding honest appli- With respect to the present cation. There are many useful, work, it appears to us, on the but tedious processes,

which, whole, to have been constructed however desirable it may be to on a well-judged plan, and it will obtain their connexion and their be found extremely useful as a results, it would scarcely quit companion to the Old Testament, cost were we to work out for but as a companion only; and ourselves. Like tables of loga- strongly as we feel inclined to rithms, or lunar calculations, recommend it in this character, it is highly important to have we should still more earnestly disthem constantly at hand, and yet suade from its adoption, if it it would be absurd to undertake were likely to interfere with the the labour of their construction, habitual use of the Old TestaCONG, Mag. No. 63.


ment in its native division. Mr. Travels along the Mediterrancan Townsend seems to have brought and parts adjacent ; in company to his important task, exem- with the Earl of Belmore, during plary caution and diligence; to the Years 1816, 17, 18; exhave examined the merits of pre- tending as far as the second vious harmonizers, and in taking Cataract of the Nile, Jerusalem, the chronicle of Lightfoot as his Damascus, Balbec, fc. fc. guide, to have wisely exercised will Plans and Engrarings. his own judgment, in the intro- By Robert Richard.soi, M. D. duction of such improvements as 2 volumes, 8vo. London: Cadell, consideration and research might 1822. suggest.

He divides his work Few countries present objects of into eight periods. 1. From the greater attraction to the traveller, Creation to the Deluge. 2. To than Egypt and the Holy Land. the Death of the Patriarchs. 3. The first was the cradle of EuTo the Death of Moses. 4. To

ropean art and knowledge; the the Death of David. 5. The latter is consecrated by historical Reign of Solomon. 6. To the and religious associations of the Babylonish Captivity. 7. The deepest interest.

Both these retime of the Captivity. 8. To the gions have been explored by men completion of the Canon of the of intelligence and science, who Old Testainent by Simon the have communicated to the world Just. Several valuable indexes are

the result of their observations ; appended ; and a considerable but art has lavished its magnifinumber of important notes are cence with inexhaustible profusion interspersed throughout the vo

on the banks of the Nile; and in lumes. On the whole, and with. Syria and Palestine, to say nothing out reference to those minor dif

of local and temporary interest, ferences of opinion, respecting the too large a field presents itself for arrangements of particular transe inquiry into the traces of the past, actions, to which

such com-

to suffer curiosity to become lanplicated work as the present must guid, or diligence to relax its exerbe liable, we highly approve of tions. Names of merited celebrity the way in which Mr. Townsend

are connected with these investi. has executed his task; he has, in gations. Pococke, Norden, Nieour judgment, furnished the Bib- buhr, were men alike distinlical student with a convenient guished for learning and entermanual, and we have little doubt, prize; nor have their successors, that his book will become popular. à fair proportion of them at least, There is one part which we have been deficient in those indispenfound peculiarly instructing in the sable qualifications of the scienperusal; we allnde to the insertion tific traveller. Dr. Richardson is of the prophecies in the narrative, among the last who have visited in the order of their communi. these countries, and of him we cation. It gives a freshness and feel no hesitation in expressing distinctness to their language our opinion that he has produced and import, that will be both

a highly interesting book; he has gratifying and profitable to those given to “old things,” an air of who have not been accustomed novelty, and he has, partly from to read them in their historical advantageous circumstances conorder. The volumes are well nected with his medical character, printed; a matter of no small but chiefly from his own habits importance in a work of this of active and sagacious obserkind,

vation, presented us with a large

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