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BERMONDSEY, a parish adjoining to Southwark, is the seat of many very large establishments for tanning, wool-stapling, leather-dressing, &c. Here was formerly a priory, founded in 1082, in which Catharine, widow of Henry V, died in 1437, and Elizabeth, queen of Edward IV, was confined until her death, by her son-in-law, Henry VII. Some remains of the ancient buildings were visible a few years ago, but they have since disappeared before the ceaseless march of modern improvement.
A Church is mentioned in the Domesday Book as existing here at the period of that survey; but the present edifice, which is dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, has no pretensions to so remote an origin. It is a homely structure of brick and plaster, the body of which was erected about 1680. It had at the west end a low tower, apparently of more ancient date, with a small turret; and against the tower was built a School, supported on pillars, under which lay the foot-path. This building has, however, been recently pulled down, and the west front "repaired and beautified;". a large Gothic window, which had been hidden behind the School-house, restored in the florid style; and a new tower erected, ornamented with a pinnacle at each corner, and surmounted by a kind of spire, with a large gilt ball and vane.
The great increase of the inhabitants in this parish has led to the erection of a second Church, at a convenient distance from the old one, which is dedicated to St. James, and is a handsome edifice, of Grecian architecture, built of a light-coloured brick, with a
gust, 1599, Queen Elizabeth paid a visit to Sir Francis Carew, at Beddington, for three days, and again in the same month the ensuing year. Sir Hugh Platt tells an anecdote, in his Garden of Eden, relating to one of these visits, which shews the pains Sir Francis took in the management and cultivation of his fruit trees: Here I will conclude,' says he, with a conceit of that delicate knight, Sir Francis Carew, who, for the better accomplishment of his royal entertainment of our late Queen Elizabeth, of happy memory, at his house at Beddington, led her majesty to a cherrytree, whose fruit he had of purpose kept back from ripening, at the least one month after all other cherries had taken their farewell of England. This secret he performed by straining a tent, or cover of canvas, over the whole tree, and wetting the same now and then with a scoop or horn, as the heat of the weather required; and so, by withholding the sun-beams from reflecting upon the berries, they grew both great, and were very long before they had gotten their perfect cherry colour; and, when he was assured of her majesty's coming, he removed the tent, and a few sunny days brought them to their full maturity.'
stone portico, tower and spire, of elegant construction.
BLECHINGLEY, a very ancient borough, which has sent two Members to Parliament ever since the twenty-third year of Edward I, is pleasantly situated on the side of a hill which commands an extensive prospect. It had formerly a weekly Market, which has been long disused; and it is now a place of small consequence, the population in 1821 being only 1187 persons. The Church is a large and handsome building, with a low square tower, which was surmounted by a lofty spire until 1606, when it was burnt by lightning, and has not been rebuilt. Within the walls are interred Sir Robert Clayton, the patriotic and charitable Lord Mayor of London, to whom and his lady a magnificent monument is erected; and Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Rochester, with his wife, a descendant of Sir Robert.
Here is a Free Grammar School, founded in 1633, by Thomas Evans, Esq. for the education of 20 poor boys; and an Alms-house for aged persons. Some traces of the Castle supposed to have been erected in the reign of William the Conqueror, may still be observed on the brow of a hill at the western extremity of the town.
Box HILL, a well-known eminence, near Dorking, received its name from the number of box trees planted upon it by the Earl of Arundel, in the reign of Charles I. These groves are intersected by agreeable walks; and from the summit of the hill, in a clear day, is a delightful prospect over Surrey and Sussex, as far as the South Downs, a distance of sixand-thirty miles. On the north and west the view is nearly as extensive, comprehending a great part of Surrey and Middlesex; and advancing to that ridge of the hill which is nearest to Mickleham, the scene offers a rare combination of the sublime and beautiful; the vale beneath has the appearance of a wellcultivated garden, and "the soft windings of the silent Mole" add an inexpressible charm to this lovely prospect. Many elegant residences have, as might be expected, been built in the immediate neighbourhood.
BRIXTON, a hamlet of the parish of Lambeth, is now of considerable extent, although forty years ago scarcely a house was erected on its site. It consists principally of handsome detached villas, and rows of neat houses, extending, under the denominations of Brixton Causeway, North Brixton, and Brixton Hill, upwards of two miles from Kennington Common. A handsome Church has been erected, in a commanding situation, and several Dissenting Chapels are also established here. The House of Correction for the county of Surrey stands on the west side of the road from London; it is an extensive brick building, with a chapel, and a tread-mill, worked by the prisoners, which grinds corn for their use.
CAMBERWELL, a beautifully situated village, about three miles from London bridge, contains a great number of handsome houses, and its inhabitants have very much increased since 1821, when they amounted to 17,876, including the hamlets of Dulwich and Peckham. The old Church, dedicated to St. Giles, which is a neat edifice, with a low tower and spire, having been found inadequate to the accommodation of the increasing population, a new one has been built, which is a handsome structure, of Grecian architecture, with a fine portico, tower and spire; it is dedicated to St. George, and stands on the bank of the Surrey Canal, which runs through this parish. Here are also several Dissenting Chapels, à Free Grammar School, and various other institutions for the education or relief of the poor inhabitants.
The Grove, which is one of the principal ornaments of this neighbourhood, is a delightful walk, nearly half a mile in length, once overshadowed by noble trees, many of which have lately been cut down, and having a gradual ascent; on arriving at the summit, the view is extensive and picturesque, comprising the metropolis, and the surrounding country to a considerable distance. Near the top of this walk, on the east side, is the Manor-house, once the residence of the benevolent Dr. Lettsom, who embellished the premises with great taste and elegance, and was much pleased with this spot, which he used to designate, on account of the beauty of its situation, and the salubrity of its air, the Montpelier of
England. On the west side of the Grove is an excellent tavern, called Grove-house, with a large assembly room, in which were many capital paintings, now removed. The bowling-green attached to this house is traditionally reported to have been the scene of the murder on which Lillo founded his well-known tragedy of George Barnwell.
CARSHALTON, a small village, about 11 miles from the metropolis, is situated among numerous springs, which unite in forming a little stream, communicating with the Wandle, and on which are several mills, for oil, paper, calico printing, &c. The Church is an ancient building, and contains a curious monument in memory of Nicholas Gaynesford, who was five times Sheriff of Surrey, and died early in the sixteenth century. The population of this parish was, in 1821, 1775 persons.
CHEAM is seated on an eminence near Sutton, and 12 miles from London. The Manor House, which is at a considerable distance from the village, is a venerable structure. The Church was much injured by lightning in 1639, but the original tower and some other parts remain; and in the interior are several ancient monuments, particularly one in memory of Lady Jane Lumley, who was one of the most learned. females of her age, having translated some of the plays of Euripides, and the Orations of Isocrates, from the Greek into English and Latin; she died in 1577. The inhabitants of Cheam, in 1821, were 790.
This town is very pleasantly situated on the Thames, over which it has a fine stone bridge of seven arches, at the distance of 20 miles from London. It is of considerable antiquity, and had an Abbey, founded in 666, which was destroyed by the Danes, but rebuilt in the tenth century by King Edgar, who conferred on it various privileges. Its Abbot was one of the twenty-nine who sat in Parliament, and its possessions included the greater part of the hundred in which it was situated, and which from thence acquired the appellation of God's ley, or land, and is still sometimes called Godley. In the Church of this
Abbey Henry VI was privately interred, but was afterwards removed by Henry VII, and deposited with royal pomp at Windsor. Of the monastic buildings a few fragments of the walls are now the only remains, with the exception of a barn, attached to the Abbey House, which, if not a part of the ancient edifice, has been constructed with some of its materials.
The parish Church, being very ancient and much decayed, was taken down about 1804, and the present edifice, a handsome and spacious Gothic building, erected in its stead. It has a square tower, and the east window contains some painted glass. Here are also places of worship for Dissenters, a Charity School, Alms-houses, and a well-regulated Workhouse. A handsome Market-house stands in the principal street, and the Market, which is held on Wednesday, is well supplied. Considerable business is done here in flour, malt, &c.; and four fairs are annually held. The population, in 1821, was 4279.
In a residence called the Porch House, "the melancholy Cowley" lived; and here he died, in July, 1667. The room in which he studied is still preserved by the good taste of R. Clarke, Esq. Chamberlain of London, to whom the house now belongs.
About a mile from Chertsey is St. Anne's Hill, which commands an extensive and richly-varied prospect, stretching on one side to Shooter's Hill, and on the other to Harrow, with the metropolis, its domes and spires, in the centre; and the silver Thames, intersecting the plain with a thousand meanders. On the side of this hill is a mansion once occupied by the Right Hon. C. J. Fox, and still the residence of his widow.
CLANDON (EAST and WEST), two contiguous villages, about four miles from Guildford; near the latter of which is Clandon Place, the elegant seat of Earl Onslow, esteemed one of the finest in the county.
CLAPHAM, about four miles south of London, consists principally of numerous handsome residences, surrounding a Common, commanding pleasant views, and so beautifully planted with trees, as to have the