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1 Pharaoh's two dreams. 25 Joseph interpreleth

them. 33 He giveth Pharaoh counsel. 38 Joseph is advanced. 50 He begetteth Manasseh and

Ephraim. 54 The famine beginneth. And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed : and, behold, he stood by the river.

2 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine and fatfleshed; and they fed in a meadow.

3 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured and leanfleshed ; and stood by the other kine upon the brink of the river.

4 And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat

EGYPTIAN KING ON HIS THRONE. kine. So Pharaoh awoke..

5 And he slept and dreamed the second interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, time : and, behold, seven ears of corn came up that "thou canst understand a dream to interupon one stalk, 'rank and good.

pret it. 6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted 16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, with the east wind sprung up after them. I It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an

7 And the seven thin ears devoured the answer of peace. seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, In my and, behold, it was a dream.

dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the 8 And it came to pass in the morning, that | river: his spirit was troubled ; and he sent and called 18 And, behold, there came up out of the for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the river seven kine, fatfleshed and well favoured ; wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his and they fed in a meadow : dream; but there was none that could inter 19 And, behold, seven other kine came up pret them unto Pharaoh.

after them, poor and very ill favoured and 91 Then spake the chief butler unto Pha- | leanfleshed, such as I never saw in all the land raoh, saying, I do remember my faults this of Egypt for badness : day:

20 And the lean and the ill favoured kine 10 Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, | did eat up the first seven fat kine : and put me in ward in the captain of the 21 And when they had 'eaten them up, it guard's house, both me and the chief baker: could not be known that they had eaten them;

11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, but they were still ill favoured, as at the beginI and he; we dreamed each man according to ning. So I awoke. the interpretation of his dream.

22 And I saw in my dream, and, behold, 12 And there was there with us a young | seven ears came up in one stalk, full and man, an Hebrew, servant to the captain of the good : guard ; and we told him, and he 'interpreted 23 And, behold, seven ears, 'withered, thin, to us our dreams; to each man according to and blasted with the east wind, sprung up his dream he did interpret.

after them : 13 And it came to pass, as he interpreted 24 And the thin ears devoured the seven to us, so it was; me he restored unto mine good ears : and I told this unto the magicians; office, and him he hanged.

but there was none that could declare it to me. 14 T 3Then Pharaoh sent and called Jo- | 25 | And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The seph, and they brought him hastily out of the dream of Pharaoh is one : God hath shewed dungeon : and he shaved himself, and changed Pharaoh what he is about to do. his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh.

26 The seven good kine are seven years ; 15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have and the seven good ears are seven years : the dreamed a dream, and there is none that can dream is one. 1 Heb. fat. 2 Chap. 40. 12, &c. 3 Psal. 105. 20. Heb. made him run. 5 Or, when thou hearest a dream, thou canst interpret it. 6 Heb. come to the inward parts of them. 7 Or, small.

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27 And the seven thin and ill favoured him, "Bowl* the knee: and he made him kine that came up after them are seven years; ruler over all the land of Egypt. and the seven empty ears blasted with the east | 44 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am wind shall be seven years of famine.

Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift 28 This is the thing which I have spoken up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt. unto Pharaoh : What God is about to do he 1 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name sheweth unto Pharaoh.

Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife 29 Behold, there come seven years of great | Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah ''priest plenty throughout all the land of Egypt: of On. And Joseph went out over all the

30 And there shall arise after them seven land of Egypt. years of famine ; and all the plenty shall be 46 | And Joseph was thirty years old forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. shasl consume the land ;

And Joseph went out from the presence of 31 And the plenty shall not be known in Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of the land by reason of that famine following ; | Egypt. for it shall be very &grievous.

47 And in the seven plenteous years the 32 And for that the dream was doubled ) earth brought forth by handfuls. unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is 48 And he gathered up all the food of the 'established by God, and God will shortly seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, bring it to pass.

and laid up the food in the cities : the food of 33 Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a the field, which was round about every city, man discreet and wise, and set him over the | laid he up in the same. land of Egypt.

49 And Joseph gathered corn as the sand 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint of the sea, very much, until he left numberl'officers over the land, and take up the fifth ing; for it was without number. part of the land of Egypt in the seven plente- | 50 q 18 And unto Joseph were born two sons ous years.

before the years of famine came, which Asenath 35 And let them gather all the food of the daughter of Poti-pherah 'priest of On

bare unto him. under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep 51 And Joseph called the name of the firstfood in the cities.

born 2°Manasseh: For God, said he, hath 36 And that food shall be for store to the made me forget all my toil, and all my father's land against the seven years of famine, which

house. shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land 52 And the name of the second called he *'perish not through the famine.

Ephraim : For God hath caused me to be ; 37 And the thing was good in the eyes fruitful in the land of my affliction. of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 53 | And the seven years of plenteousness,

38 | And Pharaoh said unto his servants, that was in the land of Egypt, were ended. Can we find such a one as this is, a man in 54 '' And the seven years of dearth began whom the Spirit of God is ?

to come, according as Joseph had said : and the 39 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Foras- | dearth was in all lands; but in all the land of much as God hath shewed thee all this, there Egypt there was bread. is none so discreet and wise as thou art : L 55 And when all the land of Egypt was,

40 ??Thou shalt be over my house, and famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for according unto thy word shall all my people bread : and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyp"be ruled : only in the throne will I be greater | tians, Go unto Joseph ; what he saith to you, than thou.

do. 41 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I 56 And the famine was over all the face of have set thee over all the land of Egypt. the earth: And Joseph opened all the store- 1

42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his houses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt. arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put 57 And all countries came into Egypt to a gold chain about his neck;

Joseph for to buy corn; because that the 43 And he made him to ride in the second famine was so sore in all lands. chariot which he had ; and they cried before 8 Hels. heavy. Or, prepared of God. 10 Or, overseers. 11 Heb. be not cut off 12 Psal. 105, 21. 1 Mac. 2. 53. Acts 7. 10. 13 IIeb. be armed, or, kiss. 14 Or, silk. 15 Or, Tender father. 16 Heb. Abrech. - 17 Or, prince. 28 Chap. 46. 20. and 43. 3.

19 Or, prince. 20 That is, forgetting. 21 That is, fruitful. 29 Psal. 105. 16. ^ 23 Heb. all wherein was.

unose good years thalather all the food of before the y

13 Princess, credor God.

Verse 2. There came up out of the river seven well - Ina meadow.'The ng achu is elsewhere (Job viii. favoured kine.'-It should be observed, as indicated by

11) translated flag;' by the Septuagint Boutouov: but in Rosenmüller, after Clement of Alexandria, that the ox, in

this place, as not knowing a proper Greek word for it, they the symbolical writings of the Egyptians, signifies agri

content themselves by saying ¿v to a xel, which is the oriculture and subsistence: and the river Nile being by its ginal in different characters. We know at present of no inundations the exclusive source of fertility in Egypt, the

river-herb which has so fair a title to be considered the emergence of the oxen from its waters renders the appli

achu as the palivaláxia of Theophrastus and the Cyperus cation of the dream obvious when the clue is once ob

esculentus of the moderns. The genus Cyperus is distintained; and its identity with the other dream also becomes

guished by its elegant spikelets, which bear a row of scales apparent. At the same time, the action of the oxen in

on each side, wherein the seeds are concealed. The Cycoming up out of the water is quite natural, and such as

perus esculentus is remarkable for the edible nature of its Pharaoh might have witnessed every day. Animals of the

roots, which are in tubercles of about the size of a walnut; buffalo kind, in hot countries, seem almost amphibious;

they contain much oil and starch, and were eaten, in the they delight to stand for hours in the water, with their

days of Theophrastus, as Tpaynuára, or sweetmeats. He bodies immersed except the head; and they will swim the

tells us that every part of the plant was eaten by sheep and most broad and rapid rivers without reluctance or diffi

oxen. He speaks also of a different kind which grows in culty. This may be often witnessed in the Nile; and the

the lakes and marshes, and is given to cattle when green, writer has also seen it in the Tigris and other rivers of

and laid up in a state of dryness as winter fodder. It was Asia. Dr. A. Clarke, not being aware how kine could be

given them while they were at work and when they rerepresented as coming up out of the river, concludes that

quired the best food. It seems, therefore, that the vision the hippopotamus, or river-horse, is intended.

represented one of the best kinds of pasturage, if not the very best, for the cattle of Egypt.

5. “Seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk.'—M. de Lamarck is of opinion that several kinds of wheat, which are generally looked upon by botanists as distinct species, are all of them only varieties of the Triticum hibernumLammas or winter wheat. And when we consider the varieties that arise from cultivation, and that the originals cannot be found in a state of nature, this opinion seems to be founded upon reason and analogy. Nothing certain about the original country of the wheat is known: Sicily, Siberia, and Persia, have been in their turn pointed out as claimants, but without any unequivocal evidence. If we were to suggest Egypt as the birth-place of the wheat we should not, perhaps, be far from the truth ; since the first time we hear of it, in the most ancient of all histories, is in Egypt, from whence the cultivated wheat might have extended to the islands of the Mediterranean, and subsequently to Greece, and her colonies to the westward.

Compare this passage with v. 47, where it is said that 'the earth brought forth by handfuls: by which we are probably to understand that each stalk, in the plentiful years, produced as much corn as, popularly speaking, the hand could grasp. This, or even more than this productiveness is not at this day unusual in Egypt. Mr. Jowett, in his Christian Researches, states that, when in Egypt, he plucked up at random a few stalks out of the thick corufields. “We counted the number of stalks which sprouted from single grains of seed, carefully pulling to pieces each root, in order to see that it was one plant. The first had seven stalks; the next three; then eighteen; then fourteen. Each stalk would bear an ear.' Even greater numbers




than these are mentioned by Dr. Shaw, and still more by Pliny. It also often happens that one of the stalks will bear two ears, while each of these cars will shoot out into a number of lesser ears; affording a most plentiful increase. But in the present case the species was probably the Triticum compositum, or Egyptian wheat, which is extensively cultivated in Egypt, and which naturally bears several ears upon one stalk. The extraordinary fulness of the ears seems to have been the matter for admiration in this instance especially; the lateral ears are of much inferior size and fulness to the erect central one.

6. Blasted with the eust wind.' - The blighting effect which a shrewd and eager' wind has upon vegetation is often exemplified among us in early spring. Nothing but observation can make us sensible of the wide difference between a sheltered and an unsheltered spot, in reference to the health of some plants, during spring and autumn. In severe climates a plant may often be seen in full blossom a few inches from the snow. Just uuder the brow of some eminence, in a little recess, it will seem to enjoy all the advantages of a more genial season, simply because it was sheltered from the wind, and the air about it was

bably do on a similar occasion ; but, carefully considered, this is one of many passages in which the truth of the Scripture narrative is attested by an incidental and slight allusion to remarkable customs, which no mere inventor would think of noticing, or notice without explaining. Shaving was a remarkable custom of the Egyptians, in which they were distinguished from other oriental natiors, who carefully cherished the beard, and regarded the loss of it as a deep disgrace. That this was the feeling of the Hebrews, we shall frequently have occasion to observe: but here Joseph shaves himself in conformity with an Egyptian usage, of which this passage conveys the earliest intimation, but which is confirmed not only by the subsequent accounts of Greek and Roman writers, but by the ancient sculptures and paintings of Egypt, in which the male figure is usually beardless. It is true that in sculptures some heads have a curious rectangular beard, or rather beard-case attached to the chin; but this is proved to be an artificial appendage, by the same head being represented sometimes with and at other times without it: and still more by the appearance of a band which passes along the jaws and attaches it to the cap on the head, or to the hair. It is possible that this appendage was never actually worn, but was used in sculpture to indicate the male character: but it seems quite as likely that it was sometimes worn as a part of high dress. This peculiar beard, with its attaching ligature, is clearly shown in the Memnon's head in the British Museum. (See Professor Long's Eyyptian Antiquities, vol. ii. 81, 82.) From all this it is quite clear that Joseph could not appear before


8. * All the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof'- The same classes of persons re-appear in Exod. vii, 11; and in the sequel they are represented as the wise · men of the nations, the possessors of secret arts. Now we

find in Egyptian antiquity an order of persons to whom that which is here ascribed to the magicians, is entirely appropriate. The priests had a double office-the practical worship of the gods, and the pursuit of that which, in Egypt, was accounted as wisdom. The first belonged to the so-called prophets; the second to the holy scribes (icpoypaupateis, hierogrammatists). These last were the learned men of the nation; as in the Pentateuch they are called wise men, so the classical writers call them sages. These men were applied to for explanation and aid in all things that lay beyond the circle of cominon knowledge and action. Thus, in severe cases of sickness, for example, along with the physician a holy scribe was called,


SACRED SCRIBE. who, from a book and astrological signs, determined whether recovery was possible. The interpretation of dreams, and also divination, belonged to the order of holy scribes. In times of pestilence they applied themselves to magic arts to avert the disease (Drumann, Inschrift von Rosetta, pp. 120, 122, 130). A passage in Lucian, cited by Jablonski (Panth. ÁÉgypt. Proll. p. 31, sq.), furnishes a particularly interesting parallel to the accounts in the Pentateuch respecting the practice of magic in Egypt. There was with us in the vessel, a man of Memphis, one of the holy scribes, wonderful in wisdom, and skilled in all stores of Egyptian knowledge. It was said of him that he had lived twenty-three vears in subterranean sanctuaries, and that he had been there instructed in magic by Isis.' See Hengstenberg's Egypt and the Books of Moses, pp. 29, 30.

11. He shaved himself.'This is what we should pro

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the king without having his beard closely shaved. “So between these views than appears at first sight; for it is particular,' says Wilkinson, 'were they on this point, that not only possible, but highly probable, that the Egyptians to have neglected it was a subject of reproach and ridi should make the name of the sun a royal title, and that cule; and whenever they intended to convey the idea of a custom should at length render it equivalent to • king.' man of low condition, or a slovenly person, the artists 34. Let Pharaoh.....appoint officers over the land.'represented him with a beard.' The same writer states

We have every reason to conclude that these officers were that, although foreigners who were brought to Egypt had similar to the nomarchs of a later date, and the beys of a beards on their arrival in the country, we find that as soon more recent period. At the time Egypt first became as they were employed in the service of this wicked

known in profane history, it was divided into nomes or dispeople, they were obliged to conform to the cleanly habits

tricts, over each of which was an officer or governor with of their masters; their beards and heads were shaved, and

the title of nomarch. These functionaries, like the beys they adopted a close cap' (Anct. Egyptians, iii. 357; iv.

of the present system, superintended all the agricultural 1-6). The priests shaved not only the beard but the head;

regulations established for the interests of the peasant, or and others, if they did not shave the head with a razor,

connected with the claims of government in their several were accustomed to wear it cropped very close. The

districts. abundant and long hair which often covers the head of

42. . Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it figures in the monuments, was probably false, like our

upon Joseph's hand.'--This was, no doubt, a principal cirwigs. This was considered by the neighbouring nations,

cumstance in Joseph's investiture in the high office of chief and especially the Asiatics, as a peculiar and distinguishing

minister to the king of Egypt. Investiture by a ring is not characteristic of the Egyptians (Rozellini, Monumenti dell'

unknown in the history of Europe during the middle ages Egilto, ii. 2, 395).

But the present ring was undoubtedly a signet or seal-ring, 15. Pharaoh, nyne.-- This is the name or rather

which gave validity to the documents to which it was honorary title given throughout Scripture, to the Egyptian affixed, and by the delivery of which, therefore, Pharaoh kings. it stands without addition in the earlier books, and delegated to Joseph the chief authority of the state. The assumes, to those unacquainted with its meaning, the king of Persia in the same way gave his scal-ring to his aspect of a proper name, like Ptolemy at a later age, in the successive ministers Haman and Mordecai; and in Esther saipe country, and like Cæsar, in the Roman empire; but viii, 8, the use of such a ring is expressly declared :— The in later books the proper name of the particular sovereign writing which is written in the king's name, and sealed is sometimes added. It is an Egyptian word; and its sig with the king's riug, may no man reverse.' The possesnification is, therefore, not to be sought in the Hebrew sion of such a ring, therefore, gave absolute power in all language; and it is a striking fact in corroboration of the things to the person to whom it was entrusted. This may high antiquity of this book, and of the connection of its au in some degree be understood by the use of a seal among thor with Egypt, that this native Egyptian title of the kings ourselves to convey validity to a legal instrument or public occurs. Josephus intimates that it meant the king’in the document; and still more, perhaps, by the use of the Great Egyptian language; and this seems to be confirmed by our Seal, the person who holds which is, at least nominally finding the word .king' written in the dialect of Memphis the second person in the state. But our usages do not peras OURO, and, with the masculine article, POURO, which is a | fectly illustrate the employment of the seal as it exists in sufficiently near resemblance to the Hebrew form of the the East, because we require the signature in addition to word. It has, however, been more recently suggested that the seal; whereas in the East, the seal alone has the effect the word is identical with the Egyptian word PHRA, the which we give to both the seal and the signature. The sun,' which, in the monuments, is placed as an hierogly-' Orientals do not usually sign their names. They have phic symbol over the titles of kings; and it is correctly seals in which their names and titles are engraven, and observed that the Hebrew word may be exactly so read if with which they make an impression with thick ink on all we disregard the points. There is, perhaps, less difference occasions for which we use the signature. To give a man

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This cut represents different seal-rings of ancient Egypt, and are very curious, not only is such, but for the specin

ient ligypt, and are very curious, not only as such, but for the specimens of ancient sealneraviny which they offer. It will be observed that in some of the specimens the stone is a cube engraved on each of its four sides, and made to revolve in the ring, so that any of the inscriptions might be used at the option of the possessor. The hands in the centre of the engraving are copied from a mummy-case in the British Museum, and are those of a female. They serve to show the manner in which finger-rings were worn, and the awkward profusion in which they were exhibited by the women of ancient Egypt. The bracelets will also engage the notice of the reader, as illustrating the principal form of an ornament so often mentioned in the Scripturcs. ]

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