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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.- No. 465.—16 APRIL, 1853.
CONTENTS. 1. Saul of Tarsus,
Edinburgh Review, . 131 2. Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton,
147 2. Life and Poetry of Edgar Poe,
Chambers' Journal, . 157 4. Last Hours of Napoleon,
162 5. Bozzies,
Eliza Cook's Journal, 165 6. An Old-fashioned Swedish Wedding,
Chambers' Journal, 168 7. Demetrius, the Impostor,
. 174 8. Seventy-eight Years Ago,
178 9. The Well in the Wilderness,
Bentley's Miscellany, 184 10. A Walk through a Mountain,
188 11. Law about Betting on Public Affairs,
192 POETRY : I do believe, 166 ; Loveliness in Death, 164 ; To an Absent Wife, 177 ; Spare
my Heart from Growing Old ; Death, 183; Dawn, 187. Short ARTICLES : Icebergs ; Declivity of Rivers, 161 ; Sale of Slaves in the Chinese Camp,
167 ; Statue of Mr. George Stephenson, 173 ; Reverend Ladies, 192. NEW Books: 166.
Hand-Book of Universal Geography. Ed-instructors, besides the president, professors ited by T. Carey Callicot. 12mo, pp. 856. Geo. emeriti, officers of the observatory and library, P. Putnam & Co.
and of the steward's department, and proctors, This is a new volume of Putnam's useful Home amounting in the whole to 45 persons, omitting Cyclopedia, containing a gazetteer of the world. two professorships now vacant. Instead of With the present rapid development of geograph-"53,000 volumes in its libraries,” the public ical knowledge, and the almost incredible changes Library contains 61,000 volumes, the Medical, that are daily taking place in national affairs, it Law, and Theological Libraries, over 19,000, is difficult to arrange a gazetteer which shall not, and the Society Libraries of the students, 12,in some respects, prove to be behind the age, 000, making a total of about 92,000 volumes. when it comes to appear before the public. We The number of alumni which Mr. Callicot rehave a proof of this in the excellent volume now ports at 5,546, of whom 1,406 have been minisissued. Based on Johnston's Dictionary of Ge- ters of the gospel, would be more correctly stated ography, it shows a good deal of independent at 6,342, of whom 1,707 have been ministers. research, and an evident desire for the attain- Under the head of the “ United States” we find ment of accuracy by consulting various author- several statements which conflict with the most ities. The pains-taking diligence necessary for recent authorities. The exports are said to be the completion of such a work, and which can be $151,898,720, and imports, $178,138,318. But, fully appreciated only by those who have been according to the latest documents, the total exengaged in similar undertakings, has evidently ports were $218,388,011, of which $196,689,been practised by the accomplished editor. Still,718 was domestic produce. The imports for the several errors of detail have escaped his eye, same period amounted to $216,224,932. The many of which might have been avoided by a number of steam frigates in the United States comparison of the most recent sources of infor- navy is made to be 15, which is too large a mation. For instance, under the head of Cam- figure by at least 10. We notice several errors bridge, we are told that Harvard University" has also in the statistics of foreign cities, espec27 professors or other instructors, and 53,000 ially in the population, which often varies from volumes in its libraries.” This is entirely wide that given by the best recent tables, to such a of the mark. The editor must have relied on degree, as, in this department, to make the documents of a quite ancient date. It is singular Gazetteer rather an unsafe guide. The principal that where perfect accuracy was so easily attain- merit of the work consists in its great condensa- . able, he should have fallen into such glaring tion, which enables the editor to compress an errors in regard to the most prominent American extraordinary amount of information within its literary institution. Instead of 27 instructors, pages, and the fulness with which it treats of Harvard College numbers on its catalogue 33 | American geography, especially on points that
CCCCLXV. LIVING AGE. YOL. I. 9
BY S. T. COLERIDGE.
have been neglected by the largest European transfusing eyes,” bending over the fainting gazetteers. With all the defects and inaccuracies form of Hope and wooing her spirit back again. to which we have alluded, it cannot fail to be a Last of all in this drama of education, you behold welcome addition to our standard works of refer- the third group -- as beautiful and more awful ence. — Tribune.
- where Love and Hope, losing heart, would
sink beneath the load, but that “the mute sister, LOVE, HOPE, AND PATIENCE IN EDUCA- Patience,” stands “ with a statue's smile, s
statue's strength" - and“ both supporting does TION.
the work of both."
This poem resembles in its philosophical rein O'er wayward childhood wouldst thou hold firm rule, the productions of some of the early English And sun thee in the light of happy faces ;
poets, but is superior to them in the better Love, Hope, and Patience, these must be thy graces, proportions of the poetic and philosophical eleAnd in thine own heart let them first keep school. ments — in the mastery which the imagination For as old Atlas on his broad neck places
sustains over the metaphysical power. With all Heaven's starry globe, and there sustains it -- SO who know how to recognize and welcome Truth Do these upbear the little world below
embodied in poetic creations, and arrayed in of Education - Patience, Love, and Hope. poetic garb- with all who look on poetry as a Methinks, I see them grouped, in seemly show,
study, the poem, we are confident, will find The straightened arms upraised, the palms aslope, favor. Especially may it be taken to heart by And robes that touching as adown they flow, Distinctly blend, like snow embossed in snow.
all who in any way have a duty of education – part them never! If Hope prostrate lie,
who, having to rule over“ wayward childhood," Love too will sink and die.
are fain to look at the same time upon "the But Love is subtle, and doth proof derivo
light of happy faces." The mother, in whose From her own life that Hope is yet alive ; undying instincts towards her child the three And bending o'er with soul-transfusing eyes, Graces of education have the truest and most And the soft murmurs of the mother dove, beautiful life — the school-mistress, ruling restless Woos back the fleeting spirit and half supplies - childhood -the teacher, who governs unruly boyThus Love repays to Hope what Hope first gave to hood, or guides early manhood — all are made to Love.
feel that Hope often sinks sadly down, and Love Yet haply there will come a weary day,
alone can win her fainting spirit back, and When overtasked at length Both Love and Hope beneath the load give way,
| lastly, how Patience must needs do the all-susThen with a statue's smile, a statue's strength,
taining work, when her two sorrowing sisters are Stands the mute sister, Patience, nothing loth,
drooping at her side. Not only for those who are and both supporting does the work of both. charged with the education of youth is this
apologue significant ; it comes home to those, We desire especially to commend these ad- whose sacred function it is to lead their fellowmirable lines to our readers. As a poem of its beings of erery age — the old as well as the kind, it is well-nigh perfect, both in the concep-young- in the paths of righteousness and truth, tion and the execution. It is philosophy, senti- and they who teach from the pulpit and from the ment, beauty, blended into one by the harmoni- altar-side have full cause to feel the need of the ous power of the imagination. As a study of gracious presence of Love, Hope and Patience. poetical art, it requires, as all poetry of a high This poem may be new to many of the readers order, thoughtful and imaginative reading; of Coleridge's poetry ; the date of its composition and the power and beauty of it will reveal we are not informed of ; it appeared for the first themselves on repeated perusal. It is, too, by time, we believe, in the edition of his poems previrtue of its excellence as poetry, a moral as well pared for the press by his daughter, the lamented as poetic study. Never by hand of heathen Mrs. Henry Nelson Coleridge, and edited in artist - sculptor or poet - never in marble or in 1852, by her and her brother the Rev. Derwent pictured words, were Aglaia, Euphrosyne and Coleridge. — The Register. Thalia shown in group more graceful, or attitude 80 august as these three Christian Graces. They The historian of the literature of the nineteenth are in.aged, not like Atlas stooping with bent century will not have occasion to lament the neck beneath the "starry globe," but erect, smallness, either in value, or perhaps in extent, “ The straightened arms upraised, the palms of his materials. Already we have had Lives of aslope," upbearing their burden. They stand, Byron, Scott, Southey, Wordsworth, Campbell, not like the nude pagan divinities, but draped Cary, Jeffrey, &c. Lord John Russell is giving with Christian modesty, the robes blending like us the Memoir and Diaries of Moore ; and one "s snow embossed in snow.” This stationary of the publications of the present year, though beauty of sculpture changes to other imagery, to as yet not publicly announced, will be a Life symbolize the course of the moral sentiments (though a brief one) of William Lisle Bowles which are attendant on education. Hope is the containing his early correspondence with Colefirst to faint, and the life of Love is so linked ridge. Both Southey and Coleridge, it will be with hers that if Hope fail, “ Love too will sink remembered, were constant in the acknowledge and die.” There is a fine philosophy of the ment of the debt of obligation which their early affections shown in the lines which tell of the verge was under to the muse of Bowles. The subtle process by which Love finds in her own Life of the Vicar of Brembill, though not a stirlife the proof that Hope is not dead ; and then ring one, was far from devoid of interest, and in the peculiar power of the imagination creates good hands will doubtless form a pleasing picture that second exquisite group -- Love," with soul- of pastoral and poetic life. - Atheneum.
From the Edinburgh Review. ceed to the consideration of the works men 1. The Life and Epistles of St. Paul: com- tioned at the head of this article.
prising a completo Biography of the Apostle, We assume, that it was the Divine intenand a Translation of his Letters, inserted irr tion to reveal a religion, which should suffice Chronological Order. By the Rev. W.J. for the moral and intellectual elevation of all CONYBEARE, M. A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and the Rev. J. S. MANKIND ; which, laying its foundations in Howson, M. A., Principal of the Collegiate individual convictions, should clear and exalt Institution, Liverpool. With Illustrations the conscience, purify the affections, ennoble by W. H. BARTLETT. 2 vols. 4to. London: the intellect; while, at the same time, it dis1850-1852.
closed a hope common to all men, and capa2. The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. By ble of sustaining under every possible trial of
Tuomas Lewin, N. A., of Trinity College, humanity. We assume, further, that this
Oxford. 2 vols. post 8vo. London : 1851. 3. Der Apostel Paulus. Von KARI. SCHRADER. led to the contemplation of definite historical
religion was Christianity. And we are thus 6 vols. 8vo. Leipzig : 1830-1836. 4. Pflanzung u. Leilung der Christlichen facts. Christianity was introduced into the
Kirche durch die Apostel. Dritter Abschnitt: world at a certain time, and under certain die Ausbreitung des Christenthums und circumstances. Can we, by examination of Grundung der Christlichen Kirche durch the state of mankind at the time, perceive any die Wirksamkeit des Apostels Paulus. (Planting and Training of the Christian which Christianity had to accomplish? Periods
remarkable preparations for the assumed work Church by the Apostles. Third Part: The Propagation of Christianity and Founda- of this world's history may be conceived, tion of the Christian Church by the Agency singularly un fitted for the promulgation of a of the Apostle Paul.] Von Dr. AUGUST religion which was to take goneral hold on NEANDER. 4th edition. Pp. 134–152. mankind. Does the period of the promulgaHamburg : 1847.
tion of Christianity present any remarkable 5. The Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul, &c. contrast to these ?
By James Suitu, Esq., of Jordan Hill, F.
Again : if it was the intention of the All
wise to bring the whole of mankind under We see every reason to hail the kind of one bond of union, we might imagine that attention which is now being bestowed on the there would be visible in history some traces study and illustration of the New Testament of previous preparation ; that amidst the wars Scriptures. Those fruits of collateral inquiry of states, and the conflict of opinions, we which the last age erroneously denominated should find some advance made towards the the evidences of Christianity, while they are possibility and efficacy of such a blending of now gathered in tenfold abundance, are called both, as was destined hereafter to take place. by their right names, and ranged in their Nay, we may go farther than this. Excludproper places. The more accurate philo- ing mere chance from any part in the arrangelogical study of the Greek language, the ment of man's world, wo may fairly say a bight which the researches of Niebuhr and priori, that we might expect to find some others have let in upon the contemporary and adaptations in local circumstances themselves, earlier history, — the multiplied facilities for to the end which was to be answered. Situtravel, and the advanced intelligence of trav-ations might be conceived, which should be ellers, — have contributed to increase our most adverse to the accomplishment of the means of confirming and illustrating the evan-end assumed. Was Christianity introduced gelic record. On the other hand, we cannot in those situations, or in others of a very but think that a deeper insight into the char- different character ? acter of Christianity itself has led us to give Again, if Christianity is to be founded in all such accessories their true importance, and individual convictions, the weapon of its war
The stranger may gaze with won- fare, above all others, must be persuasion ; der at the far-stretching outworks and bastions and in order to persuasion, there must be of the fortress; but he who dwells within, one able to persuade.
Do we find any proknows that its strength is not only, nor vision made for such a persuader? The work chiefly, in these.
will be no ordinary nor easy one. The reader who feels the force of our last Alicting elements of the ancient social system remark, will have no difficulty in joining us could never be amalgamated, but by ono in the assumption, with which we shall pro- specially and unusually prepared for the task.
The hierarchical prejudice of the Jew, the banded into states, and states into confederintellectual pride of the Greek, the political acies, piracy became war, and war brought preëminence of the Roman, would present national glory. Thus the first undying song insuperable obstacles to any man who was not celebrates the expedition of the confederate capable of entering into and dealing with Greeks to Troy in reprisal for the rape of each, not as extraneous to himself, but as a Helen. Nor should the commercial element part of his own character and personality, in this early intercourse be forgotten; nor And more than this. The religion of Christ the important fact, that one article of comwas, from each of these elements, itself in merce was the persons of men. The principal danger. It might become hierarchical and trading cities were Tyre and Sidon: and we Judaistic, or philosophic and Grecian, or have in the prophecy of Joel (whose most might lose its great characteristics in the probable date is as far back as the ninth political liberalism of Rome. It would need century, B. c.*) a distinct charge against the one singularly fitted by education and tem- Tyrians and Sidonians, that they had "sold perament, to mark boldly and keenly the out the children of Judah and Jerusalem to the lines of the faith to be preached; who, while sons of the Grecianst, that they might remove he recognized the legitimacy of the Judaistic them far from their border.” Thus we have and Grecian elements in Christianity, and the Jew at a very early period carried into laid down the canons of civil and political Greece, and introduced into Grecian families; conformity, might yet be under exclusive sub- and the first nucleus formed of that vast disjection to none of these, but able to wield and persion, which we witness in subsequent attemper them all.
history. The captivities, first of Israel, then Have we any traces of the preparation of a of Judah, can hardly fail to have driven workman for such a work? Does any appear westward, through Asia Minor and the Greek on the stage of the early Christian period, colonies, some scattered portions of the main angwering to these unusual and difficult bodies of captives. And doubtless the breakrequirements ? Can we find any person able, up of the great remnant of Xerxes' army at that time of strange complication and under Mardonius added considerably to the difficulty, to carry out all men's religion among number of Jews in Greece. Mr. Howson has all men ?
remarked (vol. i. p. 18), that about the time Our readers will excuse us for entering of the battles of Salamis and Marathon, a somewhat into these questions, and endeavor- Jew was the minister, another Jew the cuping popularly to state the resolution of them bearer, and a Jewess the consort of the Perwith which Providence, in the course of his- sian monarch. Great indeed must have been tory, has furnished us. They will thus be the number of Jews settled throughout the better able to appreciate the nature of the East. I The small gleaning which returned service which has been rendered to the Chris- with Ezra and Nehemiah was as nothing comtian world by the authors whose works are pared with those who remained contented in mentioned at the head of the present article. the land of exile. Asia was full of Jews.
Mr. Howson strikingly remarks (p. 4), On the coast and in the islands of the Ægæan, “ The city of God was built at the confluence along the Asiatic, European and African sides, of three civilizations." The Jews, the Greeks, we find Jewsand their synagogues. By trade the Romans, had each borne their part in the for themselves, or by the policy of their preparation of the world for the Gospel. patrons and conquerors, they had been thickly * They were" (it is the saying of Dr. Arnold, planted in their chief rising seats of civilizaLife, ii. 413, 2nd edition) " the three peoples tion and commerce. In Antioch, Alexandria, of God's election : two for things temporal, Cyrene, Corinth, Athens, Thessalonica, and one for things eternal. Yet even in the many other well-known cities, we hear of things eternal they were allowed to minister : Hebrew settlements more or less considerable Greek cultivation, and Roman polity, pre- in number. pared men for Christianity.”
* See the various opinions given and discussed by The first pages of the father of history are Winer, Realwörterbuch, sub voce. devoted to tracing the original quarrels and † Joel iii. 6, (Heb. iv. 6.) The words are " posite coasts of Europe and Asia. And if
Mr. Blackburn refers to the residenco of Ezekiel ever two continents were designed for inter- in Assyrin, that the mighty minister to the captive course, these surely were. The Grecian or Jews settled by the river Chebar. He repeats, on Asiatic fisherman could hardly sail out from the authority of Layard (Nineveh and its Remains), the beach of his native creek without being that the description by Ezekiel of the interior of the tempted onward by the blue islands in the Assyrian palaces so completely corresponds with the
monuments of Nimroud and Khorsabad, that there distance, which, like so many stepping-stones can scarcely be a doubt that Ezekiel had seen the to another land, stud the waters of the objects which he describes, -- the figures sculptured Ægaan. Adventure in the early ages was upon the wall and painted. -- Blackburn's Ninevehe inseparable from piracy: and as villages its Rise and Ruin as illustrated by Ancient Scriptura
and Modern Discoveries.
Nor is it too much to say, that the influence | altogether. Their history, like that of the of these widely dispersed Jews must have body to whom we have compared them, is been everywhere felt. In the case of the Jew one of intrigue, turbulence, and bloodshed. alone was religion bound to a law of moral We find them in the courts of princes, and in purity. The Jew only had a conscience, in the houses of widows; praying apart in the the better and higher sense. * Everywhere a holy places at Jerusalem, and uningling with mystery to the surrounding heathen, despised the reat coucourse at Rome; the stirrers-up by the cultivated and learned, he yet found of the people to sedition and tumult, the his way into the bosom of households, and secret organizers of conspiracies, and sublaid hold on those feelings after purity und verters of thrones. truth, or even those weaknesses and prone From this compact and organized body it nesses to superstition, which are common to was to be expected that Christianity would the tender in age, or sex, or bodily constitu- meet with the most determined opposition. tion. We find, in some of the most renowned They had been the bitterest enemies of its cities of the East, that a large proportion of Divine Founder. His teaching was the nethe female inhabitants had embraced Juda- gation of all their views; its success would ism.t And allowing for every admixture of be death to their dearest hopes. Moral purity superstition and misunderstanding, there can was by Him upheld at the expense of cercmobe no doubt that better convictions, and a nial correctness ; all hierarchical system was yearning after something more solid than abolished by a religion whose foundations Paganism, must be conceded to have operated were laid in individual conviction ; the meswidely on the proselyte class. Where such sianic pomp of the expected kingdom was feelings existed, the way was being admirably apparently resolved into some spiritual renoprepared for a religion, which, founded on all vation, to them unintelligible, or, if underthat was true and permanent in Judaism, stood, unwelcome. should yet winnow off the effete and temporary, Such was one, and that the prevailing eloand embody in itself, with yet loftier sanc- ment in the Judaism of the time; prevailing, tions, all that was pure and good in it before. not because numerically the greatest, but be
But this was not always the character of cause in it was concentrated all the fire and the world-wide Judaism of the day. Regard- | zeal of the system ; because it had the only ing the conscientious“ God-fearing” proselyte organization, the only perfect unity of mutual as the mean, we have, for our two extremes, understanding and action. The other, the Pharisaism and Hellenism.
Hellenistic element, embraced all those Jews The Pharisaic society formed a bierarchico- who had become mingled with Grecians, used political combination only equalled in efficiency their language, and had learned their habits and influence by that of the Ulemas in Turkey of thought. "To them, for the most part, the or the Jesuits in modern times, and forming sacred tongue was unknown. They had their to this last, in some respects, a remarkable own version of the Scriptures, made in their parallel. Schraders has vividly depicted the great metropolis, Alexandria. They formed zeal, aims, and practices of the Pharisees. a widely-spread and motley combination of By their stern theocratic exclusiveness, their various grades of opinion and practice. For minute literal observances, their proselytizing the most part, Hellenism was a fruitless atzeal, they formed the inner stronghold of tempt to unite principles essentially discordJudaisın -- the conservative power which kept ant. Its philosophico-allegoric speculations inviolate the letter long after the spirit had on Scripture may have amused some ingenious departed. At the same time that the gross minds like that of Philo; while, on the other materialism of their expected messianic king- hand, the refuge which its purer creed offered dom attracted the lower and selfish multitude, / at small cost from the utter abandonment the apparent earnestness and perfection of and hopelesness of heathenisın, attracted their legal obedience acted as a lure for better many of the conscientious and upright; but and loftier spirits. In comparison with the we can hardly imagine in the Hellenist either importance of collections for the temple, the logical consistency, or very fervent zeal. first moral duties were set aside by them ; As regarded Christianity, Hellenistic Juweighed against the advancement of hierar- daism was a most important preparation. chical Judaism, justice and mercy were light By it the essential truths of the old Testa
ment had long ago been clothed in the lan.. * Treffend und schön bezeichnet De Wette als die guage of philosophic thought. At Alexanauszeichnende Eigenthumlichkeit des Hebräischen dria, at Antioch, at Ephesus, the weapons Volkes, dass in ihm von Anfang an das Gewissen had been prepared, with which the warfare
† Josephus, Bell. Jud. ii. 20, 2, says of the of persuasion was to be carried on. It was women of Damascus, that they were in unas raise the link between the schools of Athens and odiyor many virus in. 'Jovdu.xạ Jenoxsid. See the schools of the Rabbis ; the form in also Acts xiii. 50 ; xvii. 4. 12.
which, if at all, the truths of Christianity # Vol. ii. ch. 4.
must be presented to the Grecian mind. The