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Goring about exchange of a prisoner. He tells of Christian Religion, translated by Sir Philip me the King's forces were drawn out the last | Sidney and Arthur Golding, enumerates several night to come to release Sir Rich. Vaughan, and Egyptians who were preceptors to Greek philoLeg commanded them : they were about 700 horse sophers, “ all which master-teachers issued out and 500 foote, but I believe they are gone back; of the schoole of the great Trismegistus aforehe saith many of the horse were Volunteer Gent", named”: for I believe I have left him few others here. “ Pythagoras visited the Ægyptians, Arabians, and
"I looked upon his letters, found them directed Chaldæans, yea, and went into Jewry also, and dwelt a to Marlborough. He tells me Goring is about the
long time at Mount Carmel (as Strabo saith ?), insomuch Devises. I asked him what further orders he
that the Priests of that countrey shewed Strabo still the
iourneis and walks of him there.... To be short, had to him. He tells me he was onely to bid Plato confesseth in many places that knowledge came to him follow former Orders. I pressed him to know the Greekes by those whom they commonly called the what they were, and all that I could get was that barbarous people. As touching Zoroastre and Trisme. it was to hasten with all he had up to the King | gistus, the one was a Hebrew and the other an Ægyptian.
And at the same time the Hebrews were conuersant with at Oxford. He sayth he has about 3000 horse
the Ægyptians, as is to bee seen euen in the Heathen and 1000 foote; that he is discontented that Authors.* Wherby it appeareth that the original founPrince Rupert commanded away his foote. taine of this doctrine of the Trinity) was to be found
"I am now quartered up to Faringdon. I among them, which is the thing that we have to proue shall have an eye towards him. I have that
as now.” which was my Regiment and a part of Col.
“The books bearing the mighty name of Hermes Tris
megistus treated exactly as had been surmised, of the Sydney's 5 Troupes were recreated, and a part of
Soul, of God, of Nature, of Transmigration, of ImmorCol. Vermuden's, and 5 Troupes of Col. Fiennes's, tality, and other theological and metaphysical questions. 3 whereof and Sir John. i . ., and Captń . These fragments, such as they are now before us, Hamonds I sent with the first garrisons to Ayles- |
are composed of the most widely divergent elements under bury. Its great pitty wee want Dragoons. I be
the sun, but withal cunningly woven into one harmonious
whole. Most curious, however, is the theology broached · lieve most of their petty Guarrisons might have
in them, which is Jewish, Christian, and Platonic, or been taken in and other Services done, for the rather Alexandrian, and vet a thing of itself. MonoEnemy is in high feare. God does terrifie them. theism, Polytheism, Pantheism, are all equally repreIts good to take the season, and surely God de
sented, but none can call the work its own. In the middle
of the Egyptian Pantheon, with interlocutors such as Isis, lights that you have endeavoured to reforme your
Orus, and Tat, we find the Logos side by side with the armyes, and I begg it may be done more and
archaic myths of the Phænician Cosmogony. The Gnostic more. bad men and discontented say its faction. Demiurgus is plainly foreshadowed, and the arguments I wish to be of the faction that desires to avoyd for immortality are borrowed from the early materialistic the oppression of the poore people of this miser- | schools of Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes.” — able nation, upon whom who can looke without a
Saturday Review, ut suprà. bleeding heart; truely it grieves my soule our I shall now leave "thrice great Hermes” to men should still be upon free Quarters as they speak for himself, agreeably to the extracts in are. I beseech You help it what and as soone as Mornay:— you can. My Lords, pardon me this boldnesse : P. 2.-“ In this great vniversal masse there is a soueit is because I finde in these things wherein I serve raigne Spirit which maketh, moueth, and gouerneth al you, that Hee does all. I professe his very band that we see there; by whom we liue, moue, and be ; who has led me. I preconsulted none of these things.
in our bodies hath framed a Counterfet of the whole world,
and in our Soules hath ingrauen an image of himselfe. “ My Lords & Gent., I waite
This is it that caused one ancient Philosopher to say, that your further pleasure, whereas our eyes cannot pierce unto God, he suffereth
subscribing myselfe, himselfe to be felt with our hands. Poemander, c. v. OLIVER CROMWELL.
[Cf. Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom, v. 3.)" is Aprill 28th, 1645."
P. 18.—“ Hermes saith that the Sunne-beams of God are his Actions, the Sun-beames of the world are the Natures of things, and the Sunne-beames of Man, are
Arts and Sciences [cap. 10.] Cf. Essuys written during A GENERAL LITERARY INDEX: INDEX OF
the Intervals of Business, Lond. 1853, p. 2." AUTHORS: HERMES TRISMEGISTUS.*
P. 26.—“ Plato (in his Timaus) Plotin (in En, i. lib. 8),
and other great philosophers of all sects (Trismegist. in Joseph Scaliger, who assisted Candalla in the
Asclepio), Simplicius (upon Epictetus) are of opinion that translation of the Pymander, doubts not that the Euil is not a thing of itselfe, nor can be imagined but in original was Egyptian, though within the last the absence of all goodnesse, is a depriuation of the good two hundred years it h been supposed to be a which ought to be naturally in every thing: that euill is translation from Arabic. St. Augustine (de Civit. |
iť a kind of nothing, and hath no abiding but in the good,
whereof it is a default or diminishing. That the cause Dei, lib. viii.) believed it to be the work of an
thereof is in the very matter whereof God created things, Egyptian. Mornay, in his work, Of the Treunesse which matter they termed the very vnbeing, that is to * Continued from 4th S. i. 504.
* Cf. “N. & Q.” isi S. x, 12.
say, in very troth, no being at all, whereof the creatures thought good to set out at length, because many Philoretain still a certaine inclination, whereby they may fall sophers have drawn their skill and knowledge out of his away from their goodnesse."
fountaine." Ibid. “ It shall suffice for this present, to shew the P. 46.-" Therefore it behoueth us to conceiue a most universality of consent in this point, and that euen those single singlenesse, which neuerthelesse in one perfection which through custome did celebrate the plurality of comprehendeth all perfections, as the root of them, which gods, did yet notwithstanding beleeve that there is but seemeth a thing contrary to mans vnderstanding : that onely one true God: which thing I will first maintaine by is to wit, that his Prouidence is no more Prouidence than the wise men which lived from age to age. Mercurius Justice, nor his Justice more Justice than Mercie, nor his Trismegistus who (if the bookes that are fathered upon Knowledge more Knowledge than life, nor his life more him be his in deed, as in truth they be very ancient) is life than single beeing. To be short, that his being is the founder of them al, teacheth every where, that there such a being as is wholly and alonely all, I meane altois but one God: that one is the roote of all things, and gether deed, altogether forme, altogether perfection and that without that one, nothing hath beene of all things / so forth. Poemander, c. 2 and 6." that are: That the same one is called the only God, and
P. 47. — “Trismegistus saith very well that he is the goodnesse itself, which hath universall power of mightier than any name can expresse.” Cf. Hermes, creating all things : That it is impossible that there citante Stobæo, tit. 78. Oxon. 1822, vol. iii. p. 135. should be many makers : That in heauen he hath planted P. 56.-“ Also we cal him Logos, which some transimmortalitie, in earth interchange, and universally, life late word or Speech, and othersome Reason. Either of and mouing: That unto him alone belongeth the name of those significations is ordinary to the word Logos, and of Father and of God: and that without blasphemy those agreeable to that which is intended to be signified thereby, titles cannot be attributed either to Angels, to Feends, or so farre forth as diuine things can be expressed by the to Men, or to any of all those whom men do call gods, as speech of man. When we call him Speech or Word, it is in respect of honour and not of nature. He calleth him according to the doctrine of the Philosophers, who have Father of the world, the Creator, the beginning, the marked that there is in man a double speech, the one in glory, the nature, the end, the necessity, the renewer of the mind, which they call the inward speech, which we all things, the worker of all powers, and the power of all | conceiue afore we utter it, and the other the sounding workes, the only holy, the only unbegotten, the onely image thereof, which is uttered by our mouth and is euerlasting, the Lord of euerlastingnesse, and the euer termed the Speech of the Voyce, either of both the which lastingnesse itselfe: the onely one, and by whom there is we perceiue at every word that wee intend to pronounce. but onely one world ; alone and himselfe al only all, -Poemander, c. xii." namelesse, and more excellent then all names. Unto
P. 69.—“Mercurius Trismegistus (as we haue seene in him alone will he haue us to offer up our prayers, our
the third chapter) acknowledged but only one God, who praises, and our sacrifices, and never to call upon any cannot well be named but by two names, to wit, Good other than him.
and Father. And because the same God is indued with “I would faine know whether it be possible for us to vnderstanding, sometimes he calleth him Novy, howbeit say any thing, either more, or better, for the setting forth that most commonly he makes a difference between the of the sayd vnity ? Indeed in some places he speaketh of Father and the Vnderstanding, which he calleth Minde gods in the plurall number as when he calleth the world likewise. Which thing appeareth in this saying of his : a god, and the Heauen with the Planets that rule the I am Poemander the Feeder of Men, and the VnderHeauen gods : but that is after the same maner which he standing of the Beeër which is of himself. But behold sometimes calleth himself a god, notwithstanding that no here records as cleare as can be. God (saith he) who is man can doubt of his birth and death, which are things also Minde, and Life and Light, and Male-female, begat cleane contrary to the true Godhead. The starres (sayth or bred Logon, the Speech or word, which is another he, speaking of the creation) were numbered according to Minde, and the work-master of all things, and with that the gods that dwell in them. And in another place he speech another which is the fiery god, and the spirit of sayth (Poemander, chap. 8, 10, 11, 12, and in Ascle- the God-head. Lo here a Minde begotten pius, ch. 2, 6, 8, 9), there are two sorts of gods, the one Vnderstanding of Vnderstanding, and Light of Light, wandring, and the other fixed; but in the times going and besides that more ouer a Spirit. And againe, This before, he had sayd that God is the beginner of them, that Speech that proceedeth from God, being altogether perbe made them, that he is the Father and only God, unto fect and fruitfull, and work-mistresse of all things, whom nothing is to be compared, either of the things lighteth upon the water, and maketh it fruitfull. It is beneath, or things aboue. Also he sayth further, that the same thing that is spoken of in Moses, where God the world is a second god, and a sensible god; and that saith, And the waters immediately brought forth. To be man is a third god by reason of the immortal Soule which short, vnto this holy speech (as he termeth it) hee attriis in him; but yet be calleth the children Impes and buteth the begetting, ingendring, and spreading forth of Creatures of the only one God, and most commonly all things from off-spring to off-spring, as it is to be seene. Shadows and Images of him : neither is it his meaning to But here is yet more: I thy God (saith God) am Light attribute so much unto them, as only one sparke of good and Minde, of more antiquity than the nature of moisture ness, or power, to make the least thing that is. To bee that is issued from the shadow. And this lightsome short, hee setteth down some gods as principall, some as speech which proceedeth from the Minde, is the Sonne of meane, and othersome as vndergovernors: But the con: God. That which heareth and seeth in thee, is the word clusion of this matter is, that the soueraigne dominion of the Lord, and the Minde is God the Father, these differ belongeth to God, the soueraigne Lord of them all, upon not the one from another; and as for their vnion, it is whom alonely they depend, and from whom they pro- | the vnion of life, &c. And againe: This Speech being ceede, who alonely is called Father and Lord, and what the Workeman of God, the Lord of the whole world, hath
ever holier name can be given, who made both men and chiefe power next him, and is vncreated, infinite, progods; yea, and men (sayth he) much better and more ceeding from him, the commander of all things which he excellent than all the gods. And as at the beginning of made, the perfect and naturall first borne Sonne of the his worke he had prayed unto him alone, so thanketh most perfect. To be short he calleth him the mindly and prayseth he him alone in the end : which thing I | speech, euerlasting, vncorruptible, vnincreasing, vndecreasing, alonely like him, and first beknowne after God; | lieved that Neo-Platonic modes, both of thought and moreover his onely Sonne, his wel beloued Sonne, and expression, are reflected in St. John's Gospel. the Sonne of the Most Holy, whose name cannot be
(Leckie's Hist. of Rationalism in Europe, vol. i. named by mouth of man; and is not this as much as to call him Coessential, Coeternall, and the Creator of all
I p. 23). The Poemander begins, as Menard obthings? And what more can we say thereof.- Poeman serves, in the same manner as St. John's Gospel ; der, c. 1; Cyril against Julian, c. 1, ad finem."
and the doctrine of regeneration, in the Hermetic P. 70.“Of the third person he speaketh (Asclepius, sermon on the mount, is compared by the same c. 3 and 7) more darkly. All kinde of things in this .
writer to that in the third chapter of St. John. world (saith he) are quickned by a Spirit. One Spirit filleth all things, the World noursheth the Bodies, and
On the Triplicity of the Deity, which at the the Spirit the Soules, and this Spirit, as a toole or instru- same time is a Monad, maintained by the Egypment, is subject to the will of God. But here is yet tians, according to Jamblichus, and the Mediatorsomewhat more. All things (saith he) have need of this ship of the second Hypostasis, see also Ramsay, Spirit, it beareth them vp, it nourisheth them, it quick- l of the Theology and of the Mythology of the Anneth them, according to euery of their capacities; it proceedeth from a holy fountaine, and is the maintainer of
i cients, his Philosophical Principles of Religion, and all liuing things, and of all Spirits. Here we see the reason Cory's Mythological Inquiry in the Recondite Theowhy we call him the Holy Ghost, namely because he logy of the Heathens. proceedeth from the fountaine which is the very holinesse
BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETIAM. itself. And lest we should thinke him to be a Creature, There was (saith he, Poemander, c. 13) an infinite shadow in the Deepe, whereon was the water, and a fine vnderstanding Spirit was in that confused masse, through the
SIR WILLIAM BLACKSTONE'S WORKS.I power of God.
ABRIDGMENTS OF THE “COMMENTARIES." “ From thence there flourished a certaine holy brightnesse, which out of the sand, and the moyst nature,
I. A Summary of the Constitutional Law of brought forth the Elements, and all things else. Also England: being an Abridgment of Blackstone's the gods themselues which dwell in the starres, tooke Commentaries. By the Rev. Dr. J. Trusler, 2 their place by the direction and appoyntment of this | 1788, 12mo ; 228 and index. Spirit of God. Thus then he was present at the creation :
“Everything in Blackstone necessary for the general and it is the same spirit whereof it is said in the Bible, that the Spirit of the Lord houered upon the outside of
| reader is here comprised .... and nothing omitted but the deepe. But in some places he matcheth all three
what is peculiarly adapted to the profession of a lawyer." persons together. O life (saith he) save that life which
Advertisement. is in me. O light, and God the Spirit, enlighten mee
II. The Commentaries of Sir W. Blackstone, wholly. O Worker which bearest thy Spirit about, let | Knight, on the Law and Constitution of England, thy word gouerne me. Lord thou art the onely one God. carefully abridged in a new manner, and continued Again, There was (saith he) a light of Vnderstanding, |
down to the present time ... By Wm. Curry ... and there was euer a mind of the lightfull Miud, and besides those there was not any thing else than the vnion
1796, 8vo; viii. contents, 566. 2nd edit. 1809. of them by one Spirit,* vpholding all things, without Consists of selections of the most essential parts in the which there is neither God nor Angell, nor other sub- | words of the author. stance: for he is Lord, Father and God of all, and in III. * Commentaries on the Law of England, him and ynder him are all things. And having said so
principally in the order, and comprising the whole (saith Suydas) he addeth his prayer, I adiure thee, O P Heauen, the wise worke of the great God, I adiure thee,
substance, of Commentaries of Sir W. Blackstone. O voyce, which God vttered first when he founded the
[By J. Addams), 1819, 8vo. world, and I adiure thee by the onely begotten speech, IV. An Abridgment of Blackstone's Commenand by the Father who containeth all things, &c. There taries. By John Gifford (pseud, i. e. Edward is no man but he would wonder to see in this author the Foss7. 1821. 8vo. See No. VI. very words of S. John: and yet notwithstanding his books were translated by the Platonists long time afore
A German translation of this work was published in the comming of our Lord Jesus Christ. And it is no
1823. Mr. Foss points this out in his Judges of England. maruaile though we finde sayings of his in diuers places
This name of “John Gifford” had been made celebrated which are not written in his Poemander, considering that
for twenty years previously to Mr. Foss having adopted he wrote six and thirtie thousand fiue hundred and fiue
it, and there can be little doubt that the translator was and twenty volumes, that is to say, Rols of Paper, as
under the impression that he was translating a work by Iamblichus reporteth."
the well-known J. G. I put a query as to these two
works (IV. and VI.), neither of which I have handled The Alexandrian, or Neo-Platonic school, probably owed a great part of its influence over early 1 Continued from 4th i. S. 528, and ii, 29. At No. vii. Christianity to its doctrine of a divine Trinity — | p. 528, for 1792 read 1762. I have two corrections to the Unity, the Logos, and the energising Spirit
make in the last article. After VI., as a note, read “The
Table of Precedence first occurs in it (see “N. & Q." which was thought by some to harmonise with
2u: S. viii. 454)"; and after VII. read “I have not seen the Christian doctrine. Many persons have be this edition, but I believe it is the first with the portrait
by Hall. after Gainsborough." Dele the note after VII * In the text as given by Cedrenus this is followed No. XL. p. 30. The first edition of Mr. Kerr's Blackstone by—“Ea mens cum semper in seseipsa sit, semper sua was reprinted about 1859, but there never were any copies ipsius mente, luce atque spiritu universa continet." See | with the words “ 2nd edition," I believe, Suidas, s, v. “Hermes,” “N. & Q.,” 4th S. i. 638.
2 All “ London " unless otherwise mentioned."
in the Law Journal some years ago, but it was never have been made. Where I have given no collaanswered. It is also commented on in the Handbook of tion, I have not seen the work. An asterisk (*) Fictitious Names, 1868.
prefixed to any title-page intimates that the work V. An Abridgment of Blackstone's Commen was published anonymously taries on the Laws of England, in a series of Letters
RALPH THOMAS. from a Father to his Daughter, chiefly intended for 1, Powis Place, W.C. the Use and Advancement of Female Education. By a Barrister at Law, F.R., F.A., and F.L.S. [Sir E. E. Wilmot], 1822, 12mo; viii. 304.
PIECES FROM MANUSCRIPTS. No. II. Same by Sir J. E. E. W.... A new edition [the 2nd] GOOD ADVICE, FROM MS. BIBL. REG. 18 c. II. corrected... by his son Sir J. E. E. W. 1853, 12mo; [The MS. is a fair one of Chaucer's Canterbury xi. 338. 3rd edit. 1855 ; xix. 380.
| Tales, which writes the tale of Gamelyn after VI. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of the Cook's without a break, and heads this tale England, abridged for the Use of Students, &c. the “Cook.” It puts (or misplaces) the Squire's By John Gifford, author of the Life of .... Pitt and Merchant's tales after the Man of Law's, and (pseud. John Richards Green, 1823, 8vo.
the Nun's and Canon's Yeoman's between the I cannot help thinking there must be some mistake Franklin's and Doctor's.] here, as J. R. Green died in 1818. See No. IV. above.
(First Fly-leaf). VII. The British Constitution; or, an Epitome
He that stondeth suere, enhast hym not to meeve, of Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of ffor zif he doo, hit shalle hym after greve; England, for the Use of Schools. By Vincent And he that walketh suerly a-pon the playn, Wanostrocht, LL.D., Alfred House Academy,
ffor to stumble it is but in vayn; Camberwell, 1823, 12mo; xi. 845.
But zif so be he liste of his foly
By necligence to put hym selfe willefully VIII. An American Abridgment, 1832.
In aventure, & of hym selfe nat recche IX. Select Extracts from Blackstone's Com To eschewe perelle /y holde hym but a wrecche. mentaries, carefully adapted to the Use of Schools
Second Fly-leaf (buck). and Young Persons; with a Glossary, Questions,
Man,' be auised or bou be-gynne, and Notes, and a General Introduction. By Samuel That thow haue no nede for to pleyne ; Warren, 1837, 12mo; xxvi. 428 (no index).
And loke what a state bou standyst in, X. Commentaries on the Laws of England, in the ffore pouerte is a ful priuy peyne. Order and Compiled from the Text of Blackstone, ffore what thynge ys to a man more greuous, and embracing the New Statutes and Alterations Then sodeynly from man-hod to falle? to the present time. By J. Bethune Bayly, of the
In pride ys sympylle gouernans,..
There as pouerte ys steward of halle, Middle Temple, 1840, roy. 8vo; li. 700.
F. J. F. XI. * A Synopsis of Blackstone's Commentaries. Lond. 51847). A large single sheet in folio. XII. The Law Student's First Book, being
WILLIAM BREWSTER OF THE PLYMOUTH chiefly an Abridgment of Blackstone's Commen
PLANTATION. taries; incorporating the Alterations in the Law A few facts relative to William Brewster, one down to the present time. By the Editors of the of the principal men of the May Flower, who Law Student's Magazine (who were they?], 1848, landed at Plymouth, New England, in 1620, not 12mo; xxiv. 508, xvi.
mentioned by Mr. Hunter of London in his valuXIII. Blackstone's Commentaries systemati- | able little book, the Founders of New Plymouth, cally arranged and adapted to the existing State are submitted to the readers of " N. & Q." of the Law and Constitution, with great Addi Bradford, in his History of the Plymouth Plantations. By S. Warren, ... 1855, 8vo; liv. 834. tions, states that Brewster, after leaving Cambridge 2nd edition, 1856. See IX.
University, was in the service of Davison, SecreThe original portions of Blackstone are indicated. tary of State under Queen Elizabeth, but says
XIV. The Student's Blackstone ; Selections from nothing relative to his parentage. From a letter the Commentaries on the Laws of England. By written by John Stanhope, Postmaster-General of Sir W. B.; being those portions of the work which England, on August 22, 1590, to Secretary Davirelate to the British Constitution and the Rivhts / son, we learn that his father's name was William, of Persons. By R. M. Kerr, 1858, 12mo; xix. 575.
and that he had been postmaster at Scrooby.
Stanhope wrote that “Old Bruster" was dead, The Student's Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, in four books, by Sir W. Blackstone, &c., abridged
that Samuel Bevercotes was his successor, and ... By R. M. Kerr. 2nd edit. 1865, 12mo; xx. 612.
not “Young Bruster,” who had been the deputy I have been obliged to give more title-page in
of his father. formation in this list than in the last, in order to
Davison in reply gave some reasons why the show the objects with which the abridgments
1 MS. May.
son should be the successor, and the place was queathed to them a silver bowl weighing seventeen ultimately secured for and held by him until ounces. His son followed in his footsteps, as we 1607, at which time Bradford says he had a large learn from the eccentric John Dunton in family.
and Errors. He says : In the first ships that arrived at Jamestown, “Mr. Edward Brewster was Master of the Company of Virginia, were some Puritans, but Archbishop Ban Stationers when I was made a livery man. He has a croft learning that large numbers wished to follow, considerable estate, is very humble, and his usual appel. caused an order to be issued forbidding their de
lation is Brother. He is a man of great piety and modera
tion. parture. Among the first passengers to Virginia
He printed the Practice of Piety and other useful
books.” was William Bruster, gentleman, who died on
E. D. N. August 10, 1608, and it is probable that he may
Washington, D. C., U. S. A.
“LENE” AND “LEUE."
I wish to draw attention to the two words lene In the fleet of Gates and Somers that a few days and leue as occurring in Chaucer, Piers Plowman, later sailed for Virginia were several Puritans, and other poems, which have, as I think, been one of whom was Stephen Hopkins, “a person utterly confused by most editors; probably bewho had much knowledge in the Scriptures, and cause they can hardly be distinguished in the could reason well therein." In the year 1610 | MSS. Edward Brewster arrived at Jamestown, and was In Halliwell's Dictionary I find — “LENE, to captain of Lord Delaware's guard. After the give. Hence our word lend. The editor of Havedeath of this nobleman he superintended his lok absurdly prints leue.” affairs in Virginia, and incurred the hatred of the In Morris's Specimens of Early English, at crafty Governor Argall, and was obliged to return p. 395, we read — “ Lene, grant. Many editors to London, and there found his father, who had of Old English works print leue (leve, give leave come from Leyden, negotiating with the Virginia to), for lene, as if from A.-S. lefan, to permit; Company relative to a settlement of Puritans in lene is from lanan, to give, lend." America.
Here, I submit, there is the most dire confuOn June 17, 1619, a patent for the Leyden peo sion. The editor of Havelok did not act absurdly ple was issued in the name of Mr. John Wyncop, in printing leue, because he had to deal with and was taken to Holland for the Puritans to another word, quite different from lene; and view and consider, but it was not used. Brew- | secondly, Mr. Morris, after making the right disster's absence from England during this summer tinction between the words, proceeds to confound was misconstrued by Naunton, one of the king's them. But it is proper to add that he now writes secretaries, who, on August 1, wrote “Brewster to tell me that he has discovered the mistake, and is frightened back into the Low Countries ;” and now holds the view which I proceed to state. two days after, in another note, he says, “ Brew
This is, that Sir F. Madden and Dr. Stratmann, ster's son has conformed and comes to church.”
who do put a difference between the words, are On February 2, 1619-20, the Virginia Company right; and what I wish to do now, is to show the gave a grant of land to John Peirce and asso- | exact difference between them, and to offer some ciates; and about this time Thomas Weston, a | arguments in place of assertions. merchant of London, visited Leyden, and told the In the first place, all scholars agree in accepting Puritans not to depend too much on the Virginia that the old spelling of lend is lene or len, just as Company, and that he and his fellow-merchants the old spelling of sound is soun. This shows, would provide ships and necessaries for a voyage too, why the past tense and past participle are to America. Weston and Peirce were disposed alike; for lent (as the past tense) is contracted to co-operate with Gorges in settling New Eng- | from the old past tense lende, and lent (as the past land, and finally obtained a patent from him; and participle) from the old past participle lened; both thus Brewster and associates were landed at Ply- of which are formed from len or lene. Now the mouth in December, 1620. Here, in the absence old meaning of lene is to give, deliver, hand over, of a pastor, Brewster acted as elder of the church
impart, and it answers to the German leihen. until 1643, when, at the age of fourscore years. | None would deny that the following are correct he was gathered to his fathers.
examples of it:Captain Edward Brewster seems to have chosen
“ To yeue and lene him of his owne good." the calling of his father at Leyden, and became a
Chaucer, Prol. 611. bookseller, whose store was near the north door of
" That hote cultre in the chyinney heere St. Paul's Church. He was treasurer of the Sta
As lene it me, I have therwith to doone." tioners' Company from 1639 until 1647, and be
Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 589.