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320 CONG....2n Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy.

Senate & Ho. OF REPs.

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when the duties of ordinary midshipmen are re- || graphical corps may require, shall be appropriated reduce it. It is proper for me to say, also, that, quired of it. This class now perform the duty of to that service; and, upon being so appropriated, in assigning five captains to this corps, I may musters, and I think it but proper that the duty they shall be returned to the Academy for an ad- have exceeded the number which may be approand the rank should be associated by law. The ditional course of study of two years, during priate to the organization. But as no captain, change would require no increase of pay, and which they shall be employed in obtaining a thor- according to this plan, could be appointed before would, I have no doubt, be productive of good ough knowledge of the higher branches of civil the lapse of five years, the experience which may effects.

engineering, hydrography, astronomy, mechan- be gained in the interval may enable Congress, The grade of masters might be established at ism, and gunnery, in conformity with the best before that period has gone by, to adjust this one hundred, and might at once be filled by ap- system of instruction which the Academy may be grade to its proper number, and assign' to it its pointing to it that number of passed midshipmen. able to furnish. At the end of this probation of appropriate duties. It may be hereafter looked The ultimate result of this plan would give, when two years they shall be subjected to a final examin- to for the supply of the head of the engineer deall the present passed midshipmen shall have been | ation, and, upon a recommendation to that effect, partment, the superintendents of naval architecabsorbed in the regular course of promotion, two shall be admitted to the rank of masters in the hy- iure and construction, the general supervision of hundred and fifty midshipmen and one hundred drographical corps. Five years' service in this hydrographical surveys, and the management of masters to occupy the space now filled by the corps grade should entitle them to be promoted to lieu- the Naval Academy. If these functions may be of four hundred and sixty-four officers—a reduce tenants, as vacancies may happen, and the pro- efficiently discharged by it, the number I have tion of one hundred and fourteen. This reduction motions thenceforward should await the ordinary assigned will not be too large. of course would increase the ratio of promotion incidents of the corps which may supply the proper These are the general views and considerations to the corps of lieutenants, and would leave a occasion.

which have induced me to submit this plan to your sufficient complement for all the demands of the If the Department should be able to contribute approval and to the consideration of Congress. service, estimated by the present size of the Navy. any members to the corps from the present officers It will afford the annual appointment of sixtyA future increase of the Navy would suggest a pro- of the service, I think such appointments should two candidates for the Navy. portionate increase of officers of every grade. not exceed twenty to each grade of masters and It will give greater permanency and efficiency

The promotions incident to this organization of lieutenants and ten commanders, and, that no cap- to the school. the corps—that is to say, of two hundred and fifty tain be appointed until after five years' service in It will quicken promotion in the Navy, and give midshipmen and one hundred masters—would the corps, there may be found the proper officers to the younger officers hope of useful command supply about twenty-five vacancies a year. The to occupy the vacancies in this grade. It should also whilst they yet possess the vigor and ambition of present number of higher officers furnish some- be well understood that the Secretary of the Navy, youth. thing near this yearly average, and there is no in assigning present officers to the corps, should It will establish a valuable corps of scientific reason to suppose that it will be reduced in future; he governed alone in his selection by high qualifi- officers, who will bring to the service equal devothe more active service of the Navy, even on the cation and accomplishment in the science required, tion to the prosperity of the Navy and the highest present establishment, may rather increase it. The and not by seniority in the service; and that no attainments to promote it. school, therefore, may be regarded as subject to an appointments should be made, unless there be And it may occasionally give to the country annual demand for this number of its graduates to found officers of approved reputation for their ac- men carefully educated in useful knowledge, and be advanced into the regular line of service. Esti- quirements in reference to this service who may be bound by the strongest obligation of gratitude and mating the number of graduates at twenty-five, willing to enter the corps.

honor to requite this public bounty by laudable the whole of them would thus find position and The yearly graduates of the Academy will, ac- service in the employments of civil life. employment; an increase to thirty would of course cording to this system, be assigned to the two I think it proper, in presenting this new organgive a remainder of five, which may also be dis- | branches of service I have described; that is to ization of the school and of the officers which it posed of.

say, to the regular naval service and to the hydro-i is intended to supply, to ask of Congress that the I propose, in further organization of this system, graphical corps. The graduates required for these grade of master in the service shall be entitled to to construct a scientific corps in the Navy, to be two branches should be selected from those who a commission and recognized in that character by established as the hydrographical crops; this corps are adjudged by the board of examination to stand | law. The masters are ward-room officers, and to be designed, in its first formation, upon a basis | highest on the roll of the class; and if at any time should be placed amongst the commissioned offiwhich shall provide for thirty masters, thirty lieu- it should happen that the requisitions should not cers of the Navy. No change of pay is necestenants, fifteen commanders, and five captains, embrace the whole number of graduates in each sary, and in that respect they may be left upon making eighty in all. It should be specially edu- year, then those whose services are not required, their present footing. cated for that scientific professional service in being the lowest on the roll, should receive an It must be observed that some years will elapse which some portion of the Navy is constantly em- honorable discharge from the school. These would if this organization be now authorized by law ployed. Its chief duties should be connected with return to the occupations of private life well edu- before it can be rendered complete; and the sooner, hydrographical surveys, astronomical observa- | cated by the bounty of the Government, and qual- | therefore, that it is adopted the better. tions, construction of charts, preparation and im- | ified for useful employment in the many important The present class of passed midshipmen numprovement of ordnance, the supervision of naval vocations connected with commerce and naviga- || bers two hundred and sixteen. These are to be architecture and machinery, and the direction of i tion, and especially in the various service of steam- disposed of. One hundred of them may be comcivil engineering in the construction of docks and ships which create so large a demand for expert missioned as masters, and the grade may be at other structures requiring scientific knowledge and and accomplished officers. In whatever situation once established at that number by law. The reskill.

they may be placed, they will find abundant oc- maining hundred and sixteen would be gradually The corps should be entirely separate from and casion to rejoice in the advantages they shall have absorbed by the grade of masters in a few years, independent of the regular naval service. Its line obtained at the school, and, by the proper use of after which the system will work according to its of promotion should be confined to its own organ- these advantages, indemnify ihe country for the permanent regulation. ization, and its government should be under its care and expense it may have bestowed upon their The present number of acting midshipmen is own proper officers. In addition to the duties as- culture. These conditions and incidents of an ad- two hundred and six, of which the school contains, signed to it on shore and in hydrographical sur- mission to the Academy being understood in ad- by the last report, eighty-one. Five appointments veys, some portion of it might be appropriated to vance, both by the cadei and his friends, it is pre- || have been made for the next term, and there are service at sea, and one or more officers of the corps sumed, will prepare them to regard the discharge yet thirty-seven vacancies. To the nominations might be introduced into the complements of squad- l in its true point of view, as the necessary contin- | already made for the new class of beginners to the rons on foreign or home service. An experienced gency of a most important good conferred, and next term of October, 1853, may be added at once, officer of this corps would find useful and active not as a disappointment which should occasion | with the thirty-seven vacancies, as many as may duty upon every cruise. It should be left to the regret. If, on the other hand, it should turn out be necessary to make sixty-two. The classes Navy Department to regulate the character and that the annual number of graduates should not should then advance regularly to the end of their contingencies of this service, and to make all the be adequate to the demands of these two branches respective terms, without additions, and the law necessary rules and orders for its application. of service, the basis of sixty-two in the class of may provide for the annual supply henceforth of

This corps should be built up under the direc- beginners may be increased to the number at which sixty-two, in the manner I have indicated. The tion of the Secretary of the Navy from the material experience may show that the desired result may grade of midshipmen might be at once declared to afforded by the Academy, with such additions to be obtained. It will be easy, after the experiment be limited to two hundred and fifty, and the filling it, in its commencement, from the regular line of of a few years, to ascertain this number with suf- of that complement should await the supply it naval service, as in his judgment the qualifications ficient precision; and, as in the mean time the hy- | may hereafter obtain from the graduates. of the present officers might enable him to make drographic corps is to be filled, the extra supply If any of the present grade of passed midshipwith advantage.

of the classes for the next three years, by the ad- | men and masters should be found qualified for With a view to the supply of this corps from mission of the midshipmen of daies prior to 1851, admission to the hydrographic corps, the vacanthe Academy, I propose that, upon the yearly ex- will very opportunely enlarge the classes to a num- cies which may be made by their appointment to amination of the graduates, the Board of Examin- | ber which will satisfy that requisition.

it may be filled by promotion, and so hasten the ation shall be directed to bestow a close attention In arranging the complement of officers to the period at which the new organization may be upon the class submitted to them, in order to as- hydrographic corps, I have proceeded upon a con- brought into full operation. certain the particular adaptation of any of the jectural estimate of what I suppose may be found The school has yet to receive some classes of graduates to this species of service, and that they necessary to the service required of it.' I submit midshipmen of the date previous to 1851. When shall report to the Department the names of such this to the judgment of Congress for such altera- admitted, they will constitute an extra portion beas they may find qualified by study, talent, and tions in the grades and numbers as their investi- | yond the quota allowed to the Academy, and I acquirement for admission to the corps; and if, gation of the subject may suggest. I have thought would suggest in regard to them that they should upon this report, the students so designated shall it safest to propose a number rather below what | be permitted, as heretofore, to constitute a part of consent to enter the corps, they, or so many of I think the service may ultimately demand, as any class for which they may bequalified, and upon them as the established complement of the hydro-li it is easier to increase this complement than to l their graduation to be entitled to their advance

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320 CONG.....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of the Navy.

SENATE & Ho. OF REPs. ment to the proper grade; it being mainly import- | it is due to Commander Stribling, who has charge dom indulged without leading to cruelties that ant to provide at present that each yearly class of of the institution, and to the officers, professors, must disgrace those who practice them; and, what new admissions should be constituted of the ap- || and assistants under his command, to say that the is more to be feared, raise a sentiment in the public pointed number of sixty-two, and in no event to assiduity and intelligence with which they have mind hostile to the Navy itself. The seaman, beexceed that number. The future organization of performed the laborious and complicated duties lieving himself exempt from the speedy penalty of the school will necessarily follow upon the ob- assigned to them, merit the highest approbation; disobedience or neglect of duty, and looking with servance of this provision.

and that the prosperous condition of the school, indifference to the remote and uncertain proceedIn proper connection with this subject of the and admirable arrangement of its details, particu- ling of a court-martial upon his delinquency, grows Academy, it is my duty to apprise you that I have | larly manifested in the deportment and proficiency habitually contumacious to his superiors, and inrecently adopted regulations for the government of the young men confided to their care, eminently | fuses the same sentiment into his comrades; and of apprentices to be admitted at the several navy- entitle it to the favorable opinion and encourage in the very fact of the diffusion of this spirit of yards and workshops under the control of this ment of the Government.

insubordination finds ground to hope for immunity Department. The propriety of these regulations I particularly commend to the notice of Congress from punishment-naturally enough believing that has been suggested by the Bureau of Yards and the consideration of the appropriations asked for what has grown to be common and frequent will Docks, and I am indebted to the intelligent labors by the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, also come to be more lighty considered when he of three distinguished officers of the department, for the improvements necessary to purchase the is summoned to a trial at the end of his cruise. It Commodores Morris, Shubrick, and Smith, to grounds and complete the buildings required by may excite.some surprise in the statement of what whom I referred the subject for a report, which I ihe Academy.

I learn to be true, that the most frequent comhave received, and which will be found amongst

plaints against the abolition of corporal punishthe documents accompanying this communication. ORGANIZATION AND DISCIPLINE OF SEAMEN.

ment are made, in great part, by the seamen themThe report presents the regulations which I have There is no subject connected with the pros- selves. The difficulties arising out of its abrogaapproved. The number of apprentices as estab- perity of the Navy that, in my estimate, better tion, and the absence of any substitute for it, now lished, for the present, by this system, is eighty- deserves the attention of Congress than that re- constitute the most prominent obstacles to the three. They are required to undergo an examin- | lating to the condition of the corps of mariners, ready supply of our squadrons with seamen. This ation twice in each year, and, after the first year, which constitutes the great working force in the Department is familiar with complaints from the those most distinguished in the previous trials navigation and management of the public vessels. recruiting stations of the difficulty of enlisting the are to be subjected to another of a still more In obedience to a sentiment which is prevalent better class of seamen. Of that large number of extensive and rigorous character, upon which throughout the country, and which is naturally men who have heretofore constituted the pride of such as shall be reported as worthy of the highest | suggested by, those impulses that distinctively our Navy, by their good seamanship and highly approbation and reward, and as demonstrating characterize the opinions and habits of our people, respectable personal deportment, comprising, I retalent adapted to eminence in the public service, Congress has been recently led to the considera- | joice to say, the great body of the mariners who are to be commended to the Secretary of the Navy tion of the ordinary mode of punishment, which have sustained the honor and glory of our Aag in for such further advantages of instruction as he it had heretofore been supposed was necessary to its most perilous, as well as in its most useful camay have it in his power to confer.

the preservation of the discipline of the Navy. || reer-of these men, it is a fact which invites the I regard it as a most salutary power to be in- The result of this consideration has been the pas. | deepest concern of Congress, weare daily deprived, vested in the Secretary of the Navy, for the bene- sage of a law for the entire abolition of corporal by their refusal to enter again into the service until, ficial performance of the duty thus assigned to him, punishment on board of our ships, both public and as they ask, they shall have some assurance that that he should have authority to admit into the private. This punishment which, for a long a better system of discipline may be restored. Naval Academy those apprentices whose good con- time, has been practised in the Navy and com- They reasonably complain, that whilst the worst duct and capabilities shall have earned this dis-mercial marine, not only without question as to portions of the crew are placed under arrest, and tinction; and to provide that they should there be its efficacy in maintaining the proper observance are exempt, in consequence, from the severe duconducted through a course of study appropriate of duty on ship-board, but which, indeed, had ties of the deck, they find their toil increased by to their intended future vocations, and calculated to become so incorporated in the sober conviction of the constantly-recurring exigencies which compel advance them in mathematical and mechanical sci- both officers and men, as an indispensable neces- them, for weeks and months, during a cruise, to ence, under such regulations in regard to the term sity of the service, that it had grown to be the perform the extra work which the reduction of the of their application, their duties and deportment, as most unquestioned usage and generally received force of the ship inevitably throws upon them. So the Navy Department might think it expedient to | incident of naval discipline-many judicious per- | oppressively is this evil felt, that I have reason to adopt. Having completed this course of study, sons believed might be dispensed with, not only believe, if the best seamen, who have heretofore they should be returned to the yards from which most acceptably to the feelings of the nation, but been accustomed to man our ships, could find an they may have been received, or allotted to suitable also without disadvantage to the service. The occasion to express their wishes to Congress, a employments in the service.

adoption of this opinion by Congress, in the pas-majority of the whole number would be seen to It would be a useful provision in this scheme to sage of the act of September, 1850, which for- | prefer a restoration of that form of punishment give to the young men so educated a preference in | bade the accustomed penalty, without providing which has been forbidden, rather than be subject the admissions to the corps of engineers for steam- a substitute for it, has afforded the Navy the to the severities imposed upon them by the present ships, for which appointments their education | opportunity to make the experiment. I very condition of disorder in the naval discipline. would particularly qualify them; their admission sincerely regret to say that the records of this De- Looking at this state of things in the Navy, I into that corps, nevertheless, to be dependent upon )partment, as well as the almost entire concurrence think the occasion propitious to the adoption of a successful examination and a favorable certificate of facts and opinions, brought to my notice from new system for the organization and government to moral and intellectual character.

authentic sources, and vouched by intelligent and of the whole material constituting the crews of In the operation of this scheme the Navy would experienced observers, all tend to indicate a most our ships; and I take advantage of the present derive the benefit of the best talents and acquire- | unsatisfactory result. The omission of Congress time to submit to your consideration the outline of ment for the supply of engineers, naval architects, to provide for the punishment of what may be a plan, which I trust will engage your attention, and constructors and superintendents in the vari- || called minor offenses against discipline and good and receive the approbation of Congress. ous departments of mechanical employment con- order on ship-board may, perhaps, account in part The supply of our Navy with seamen has herenected with the service.

for the failure; but the fact of the most serious tofore been obtained by a system of enlistment, I take great pleasure in presenting this subject to detriment to the efficiency of our service is so un- modeled, in its principal elements, upon the plan your approval and to the attention of Congress. happily forced upon my attention, as the effect of adopted in Great Britain, from which nation we

In view of this reorganization of the Academy, the recent change, that it becomes the gravest of have derived, by old habit and national descent, I submit, also, as a question worthy of considera- my duties at this time to lay the subject once more the general features of our marine. Like Enga tion, whether it would not be a salutary provision before Congress, and to ask its attention to the land, we have looked to our commercial navigato require that the officers of the Marine Corps | consideration of such a corrective to the present || tion for the reinforcement of the men of the Navy. should be prepared for that service by an educa- condition of the service as I ant confident it must We enlist the mercantile seamen for the national tion at the school? My own opinion is, that it | find to be indispensable to the proper government cruise, discharging and paying them off when it is would be attended by manifest advantage, both as of the Navy. We have evidence furnished to this finished, and returning them to the merchant serrespects the necessary accomplishment for naval Department, in the history of almost every cruise, vice. The Navy, in general, has been sufficiently service in that corps, and the personal character of acts of insubordination that not only impair | attractive to the sailor to be able to secure his serand deportment of the officers belonging to it. It the usefulness of our ships, but which tend also vice when needed; and this mode of enlistment is amongst the incidents of their employment that to the gradual development of habits amongst the || being an easy and accessible resource, but little they are sometimes required to perform important seamen that threaten to lead to extensive and un- consideration has heretofore been bestowed upon military duties on shore in which a necessity is controllable mutinies. The multiplication ofcourts. | its effect either on the Navy itself or upon the found for that species of knowledge only to be martial, and all the consequences of an increase of seamen. To the Navy it has given a large and gained in the military or naval school; and in every || disorder and crime, are amongst the least of the meritorious class of mariners, not unmixed, howservice to which they are called it is quite apparent || apparent and growing evils of the new system. ever, with many of a different character, and from that this knowledge, and the spirit to appreciate | The demoralization of both men and officers is a that mixture itself requiring a prompt and effective the duties of command that is inseparable from it, yet more observable consequence. The absence system of punishment adapted to secure a ready must increase the efficiency of the officer and ele. or prohibition of the usual punishments known to discharge of duty in every emergency. The effect vate the character of the corps to which he is at- seamen has led to the invention of new penalties of the system upon the men of the Navy has been tached. If these considerations should influence of the most revolting kind, in the application of overlooked, or, if regarded at all, it has not atthe opinion of Congress as they do my own, they | which full scope has been given, and the strongest tracted the attention of the public authorities. The will suggest the expediency of making the pro- | provocations administered, to that exhibition of sailor is, in general, upon shore a helpless being vision to which I have invited their attention. temper and passion which, however natural it may Between himself and all around him there is a pal

In concluding this notice of the Naval Academy, ll be to men of hasty and excitable natures, is sel- | pable incongruity. He has come off a long cruise

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320 Cong.....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of the Navy.

SENATE & Ho. OF Reps. and has earned some three or four hundred dol- commanding officer of a squadron, or of a single 3. No registered seaman of the Navy to he sub. lars. He has no home; often no friends but his ship when not with a squadron, shall, on his re- ject to any corporal or other punishment of a de. comrades. He knows no thrift, no saving econ- turn from a regular cruise, report to the Navy De- grading character, and to such only as may be omy: has no adviser. His only outlook is for partment, in the muster-roll of the men under his ordered by a court-martial on charges duly presome pastime, and his idea of that is confined to command, a statement of the good or bad general ferred and tried. This prohibition not to prevent sensual enjoyment. Every one is familiar with i deportment of each man, with a special designa- the punishment without a court-martial of such his history in his brief sojourn on shore. He is tion of those whose conduct has merited that de- minor delinquencies in conduct and discipline as a victim to that class of persons who pander to his gree of approbation which shail entitle them to be may be corrected by withholding the usual indula appetites and who plunder him of his earnings. I admitted into the Navy.

gences of the service, stopping portions of the raNecessity and inclination very soon drive him That this report be submitted by the Depart- iion, or increasing ordinary duty. back to ihe sea, where he finds bis natural home ment to the President, who shall thereupon issue 4. Every registered seaman to be entitled after and the only friends who can understand his char- a general order to admit into the Navy the seamen any term of three years' service to a furlough of acter and sympathize with it. It is very apparent who have been distinguished in the report for good such reasonable length as may enable him to make that a man so organized and circumstanced stands conduct. And the President shall transmit with one or more voyages in the merchant marine, not very much in need of better culture than this course this order to the commanding officer of the squad- extending, without special permission, to more of life affords. A discreet attention to his condi- ron or ship a certificate to each seaman, written on than six months; such furlough to be granted by tion by the Government, with a few satutary regu- || parchment and stamped with the signature of the the commanding officer of the squadron, or the lations that may teach him more thrift and furnish President himself, expressing his approbation of commandant of the navy-yard nearest to the port him guidance and encouragement, will make him his conduct and his permission to admit the sub- at which his cruise may terminate, and only to be more useful as a citizen, or at least more self-de- l ject of it into the Navy; which certificates shall be granted in any case with an expressed reservation pendent and respectable in his individual charac- delivered by the commanding officer of the squad- and notice that the seaman to whom it is given ter, and render him at the same time certainly not ron or ship to the men entitled to them before they shall report for duty in the Navy when any publess useful in his profession. are discharged from the ship. This delivery to be lic

emergency shall render it necessary so to order I propose, for the consideration of Congress, a made in the presence of the crews and with suit- him, the order for his return to duty to be issued plan for the reorganization of this portion of the able formality to attract public notice.

by the Navy Department or by such officer as Navy, which, if matured by such experience as That each seaman to whom this certificate shall may be authorized by the Department to do so. the future practice of it may afford, will, I am con- be awarded shall, if he accept it, register his name A failure to report in accordance with this provisfident, enhance the respectability and value of our in a book to be provided for that purpose and kept ion to render him liable to be struck off the regisseamen, and secure to the country a most efficient on board of the ship, by which registry he shall try by the Secretary of the Navy. Every regiscorps of men permanently devoted to the public become a registered seaman of the Navy of the tered seaman reporting for duty within three service.

United States, and be entitled to all the privileges months of his last cruise, and being thereupon I think it cannot be doubted that the successful and be bound to all the obligations of that charac- ordered to duty, to be entitled to pay from the application of the Navy to the purposes for which ter. This registry book shall be transmitted to date of termination of his last cruise. it is designed would be better assured by the ser- the Navy Department, where it shall be preserved; All furloughs to be regularly reported and noted vices of a well-disciplined and carefully.main-and the entries made in it copied into a general at the Navy Department. tained body of seamen permanently attached to | registry, alphabetically arranged, and kept in the 5. Every registered seaman to be entitled to the public naval establishment and incorporated Depariment.

wear on his dress some appropriate badge by with it, than it ever has been, or is ever likely to The obligations incurred by every seaman who which he may be distinguished and known in the be by the fluctuating and variable resource of fre- signs the register shall be those of faithful service Navy, which' badge will be designated and proquent enlistment and discharge. The constant and due performance of all seamanlike duty under vided by the Navy Department. changes which this corps undergoes is unfavorable the flag of the United States, good moral deport- .6. The petty officers of each ship to be selected, to the growth of that sentiment, so essential to the ment, and prompt obedience to all orders that may as far as convenient, from the class of registered service, which makes a sailor proud of his flag. i be issued by his lawful superiors so long as he seamen, and the appointment always to be regardIt is still more unfavorable to the acquirement of shall continue to be a member of the Navy. ed as dependent upon the merit and good characthat peculiar adaptation of habit and training to The privileges attached to this registry shall ter of the person selected, to be held on good bethe duties belonging to the employment of a man- be:

havior, during the term of a cruise. of-war, which all officers regard' as the test and 1. For every five years of actual duty on board 7. A record to be kept, under the direction of indispensable element of an efficient seaman in the a public vessel an increase of one dollar a month every commanding officer of a squadron or ship, Navy. In a large Navy, like that of England, over and above the established rates of ordinary of the actual amount of sea service performed by where all the seamen of the mercantile marine, in pay; that is to say, for the first five years of such each registered seaman whilst under his command. a certain sense, belong to the Government, the dif- service one dollar per month; for a second term of This record to be returned to the Department at ference between the man-of-war's man and the five years of such service an additional dollar per the end of every cruise, and to be transferred to seaman of civil employment is not so apparent or month; for a third term of five years another dol- the general registry of seamen. Upon the evidence significant as it is in our service, in which the sea- lar; and for a fourth terın of five years—making of this general registry the additional pay to be men bear so small a proportion to the whole body a total of twenty years service-another dollar;

granted. of mariners of the nation. Every English sailor amountirg in all for such twenty years service to 8. Every seaman to be admonished to give his has generally more or less service in the Navy, and four dollars a month; after which no further in- true name, age, and place of birth, upon signing the passes so frequently from the private to the public crease to be made. This additional monthly pay, registry, and to be required to engage not to ship employment as to give him to a great degree an so earned by service, to be paid to each man so in merchant or other vessels, whilst on furlough, actual incorporation in the national marine: the long as he may continue to be a registered seaman by any other name. His being convicted of vioone service is so connected with the other that the of the Navy; and, after twenty years of service, lating this engagement to render him liable to be seamen of both assimilate more in their training to be paid whether he continues a registered sea- struck from the list of registered seamen upon the and education than the correspondent classes in

order of the Secretary of the Navy. this country. Our Navy, for obvious reasons

to connected with these considerations, is much more forfeiture at any time within the twenty years as a registered seaman, the party so dismissed dependent upon a body of men nurtured by the actual service by the resignation of any seaman 10 receive whatever moneys may be due to him, Government and attached to the service than that on the registry, or by his being struck off the list unless the same shall have been forfeited by the of England. It is, therefore, a fundamental pur- of registered seamen; which may be done at any sentence of a court-martial imposed as a punishpose in the plan which I submit to Congress to time; and shall only be done by the order of the ment for an offense committed by him. A seaman provide for the ultimate establishment of a perma- Secretary of the Navy, or by the sentence of a dismissed from the registry not to be entitled to be nent and recognized body of seamen, connected naval court-martial, upon charges of misconduct; restored but upon the permission of the head of the with the Navy by the strongest and most durable in either of which events-resignation or discharge Navy Department, granted in consideration of the bonds of attachment and interest

by sentence of the Secretary of the Navy or of meritorious character of the applicant. Whilst providing for the gradual and eventual a court-martial-he shall cease to belong to the 10. Seamen, ordinary seamen, and landsmen in organization of such a body, my attention has Navy, and shall lose all the privileges of such a the service, not belonging to the registry, to be subbeen directed also to the procurement of men of character.

ject to such discipline, duty, and penalties as Con. the highest character in personal and professional 2. Every registered seaman to be entitled to re- gress may provide in a code of regulations adapted quality, in whose good' deportment and faithful sign his post in the Navy at any time after three to their government, under such restrictions or service will he found the most satisfactory reasons years' service, if not engaged on a cruise. When modifications as the Department may think proper for protecting by legal enactment their whole plass engaged on a cruise and absent from the ports of to make. against the form of punishment which has of late the United States, he shall not resign without the 11. A printed book or circular to be made hy so much excited the sensibility of the nation. The consent of the commanding officer of his ship. A the Department, containing all the regulations and successful accomplishment of such an object, I record of all resignations to be duly kept and re- conditions relating to the establishment of registrust, will commend the plan to the regard of all ported to the Department.

tered seamen, giving a full description of the obli. who desire to preserve that exemption, and who A registered seaman of more than twenty years' gations to be contracted by them, and of the privihave hoped to find it in practice not incompatible service continuing in the Navy, only to forfeit his leges to which they may be entitled. Copies of with the highest efficiency of service on shipboard. additional pay when such forfeiture shall be ad. this book or circulars to be furnished to every

The gen-ral online of the plan may be exhib- judged by a court-martial as a punishment for squadron or single vessel in commission, of which ited in the following regulations:

grossly immoral or insubordinate conduct. By copies, one shall be given to every senman, in With a view to the commencement of this sys- such sentence also for such offenses, his additional order that he may be fully informed of the nature tem, and to organize a body of efficient seamen of pay may be suspended by a court for such time of the engagements to be incurred by him on enthe most meritorious class, I propose that every as they may adjudge.

tering the service of the United States. These

man or not.

32D Cong..... 2d Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy.


regulations to be read and explained to the several tection of but two frigates and two sloops-of-war, ing the establishment of one or more factories for crews, and as far as may be necessary to every composing a squadron whose utmost activity can the construction of all the machinery necessary seaman before he signs the registry.

but half perform the duty assigned to it. Our to the complete equipment of the largest class of 12. The Department to be authorized to make, new relations with Asia and the intermediate steamers. The great importance of such estabalter, and modify all rules and regulations, so far islands, which are constantly multiplying the lishments to the Government is felt by this Deas it may be found expedient for the due establish- resources of trade, and with them the hazards of partment in the daily conviction that only by the ment and support of this purpose of creating a collision, and the consequent increase of numbers command of such a resource may the Navy be corps of registered seamen, in accordance with the drawn from the population of every country to promptly and surely supplied with the best mageneral objects intended io be promoted in the the competitions of this theater, all'indicate the chinery for the public vessels. The inspection above plan, and for the supplying of any defect commencement of an era of great political signifi- and control of the work whilst it is in progress, which experience may show to exist in it. cance, which will henceforth exact from the Gov- || the assurance of the best material, and the punc

The term seamer, as used throughout this plan, ernment more than its accustomed vigilance in tual compliance with the demands of the service, is to be understood to embrace every class of mar- noting the progress of events, and more than its are advantages that may only be efficiently secured iners on board a public vessel, whether denomin- usual energy in the duty of guarding our citizens by having the workshop under the command of ated seamen, ordinary seamen, or landsmen. who may be connected with them. It is, there- the Government. The experience of the past will

13. A limited number of boys to be received into fore, more necessary than ever that we should also fully demonstrate that this mode of supplying the Navy upon obligations contracted according have a respectable force always accessible to our the machinery of our public vessels must be, in its to law, io serve until they arrive at the age of countrymen in this field of action, and capable of general resulé, more economical than any other, twenty-one years. Their number, the quota to be giving them protection against the perils of war and will certainly secure much the most reliable allowed to each vessel, and all needful and proper and popular outbreak and revolutionary commo- kind of work. The plans would be more uniform, rules for their government and duties to be regu- tion, which in future, even more than in the past, | failure of machinery less frequent, and the imlated by the orders of the Navy Department. may be expected to characterize many of the provement of the models of construction more

This system of providing for a more effective States and communities to which their business certain. marine I respectfully submit to your consideration. invites them. A steamer of a large class, adapted The mail contract law of 1847 contains a proThere already exists power in the Executive to to the general duties of a cruise, and a smaller one vision which authorizes the Government to approadopt nearly the whole of its details. It may be to be kept at hand at San Francisco, for use in priate any of the vessels built under it to the naval proper, however, to submit it to the approval of California and Oregon, I regard as almost indis- service. I would recommend that one of these, of Congress, woh a view to obtain for it a legislative | pensable additions to the squadron assigned to that the first class, be selected and equipped with the recognition, and especially to procure such enact- service.

proper armament. I make this suggestion from a ments as may be necessary to give the sanction of Looking to the Atlantic, we find motives equally persuasion that it is a matter of importance to the law to the establishment of the registry, which strong for the increase of our naval armaments, Government practically to determine, by expericonstitutes the ground-work of the plan.

and particularly for the enlargement of the num- ment, a question upon which much doubí is enterber of our steamships.

tained, and which it is necessary to solve, whether INCREASE OF THE NAVY.

Whilst I am fully aware that the power of the these steamers are really adequate to the demands In the activity and diversity of enterprise which || United States happily consists more in their ability of the naval service, and may be usefully convertthe busy spirit of this time has exacted from the to provide for the contingencies of invasion than ed into ships of war. The determination of this Navy, it has now become manifest that the in- in the actual exhibition of an equipped force, and question may settle a point of great moment touchcrease of the naval establishment of the country that we may dispense with much that is deemed | ing the reliance to be placed upon these ships in is not only recommended by the most urgent pub- | requisite in the relations of European Powers, | any sudden emergency-a poini much more safely lic considerations, but is also forced upon the at- || still we cannot fail to recognize the fact, that the to be settled in a time of peace than in moments of tention of Congress as an absolute necessity. The respect due to the interests of our people requires | excitement and pressure, when no other resource honor as well as the successful venture of the na- the habitual and familiar presence of our flag in may be at hand to meet the consequences of a tion, and I might even say the indispensable obli- | every region of commerce, sustained by such an failure. gation of national defense, and the constant'y-re- amount of force, and of such a quality, as may It is further necessary to make provision for an curring need for the exhibition of the national give some significant token of the resources we increase of seamen. The present limit of seven power, all combine to present this question to command at home. A salutary conviction on this thousand five hundred men is insufficient even for Congress as one of the first magnitude. During point is, to a great extent, inspired by the excel- the necessities of the service in its existing condithe past year this Department has been impelled, lence of our armaments when brought into com- tion. If the full complement of men appropriated by a due regard for the great public interests com- | parison with those of other nations. We cannot by the regulations of the Navy were now on board mitted to its charge, to put in requisition nearly afford to lose or impair our reputation for produ- of the vessels in commission, more than the whole the whole disposable force of the Navy: The de- || cing the best ships and the best disciplined crews number allowed would be required. I think it tails of this report will show that constant and that navigate the ocean, however we may afford therefore indispensable to the proper efficiency of various employment has been demanded of offi- to exhibit them in smaller numbers.

the service that an addition of not less than fifieen cers, ships, and crews. I trust that Congress will The principal maritime nations are now dili. hundred be authorized to be made to the establishsee in these requisitions how much the demands gently intent upon the effort to build up powerful ment, and that a correspondent addition be made of necessary service engross the means provided steam navies. Most of them are already far ahead to the yearly estimates of naval pay. It is equally to accomplish it, and will deduce from this fact of us in this species of force; and it is very obvi- necessary that provision be made for an increase of an argument in favor of enlarging the naval re- ous, from the urgency with which the new marine wages, either in monthly pay or in the shape of a sources for still larger naval operations.

of Europe is pressed to assume this character, bounty, lo be given after enlistment. The amount Whilstother great maritime Powers are strength- | that there is a deep and earnest conviction of an of this increase should be regulated by some refer. ening and extending their capabilities for aggres- impending necessity in which the improved force ence to the wages given in the merchant service, sion and defense, and are bestowing a sedulous will be mainly relied on as the efficient element of which are now so much higher than the naval pay labor upon the creation of steam navies of singu- war. Are we so far removed from the occasion as to increase the difficulty, to which I have herelar efficiency, they have imposed upon us a new or the scene of apprehended conflict as to warrant tofore alluded, in the procurement of the best men. obligation, if not to track their progress with equal any indifference on our part to the possible issues A reserence to the report of the Bureau of Medisteps, in an effort to bring ourselves abreast with of a collision? Are our affairs so little exposed cine will inform Congress of the condition of the them in their advance, at least to maintain that | abroad, or so concentrated at home, as to exempt medical service of the Navy and the pressing position of relative strength which it has been our us from all necessity to corsider the effects which | necessity that exists for an increase of officers in policy heretofore to assume.

may follow the recent changes in the naval organi- l that department. Great relief would be afforded The actual exigencies of our own service, so zation of Europe?

by an authority to appoint a number, not exceedconspicuously multiplied by the rapid extension These considerations, and others which they ing twenty assistant surgeons, and to make a corof our domain and the settlement of new marts of suggest, induce me to ask the attention of Con- | respondent promotion of an equal number, or of trade, and the establishment of new lines of com- gress to the recommendations of the Bureau of

so many as by proper length of service may be merce on the Pacific, cannot but present to every Construction accompanying this report, and to qualified for it, into the upper grades. citizen of the United States an altogether irresistible invite them, with the most earnest solicitude, to I beg leave also to call the attention of Congress argument to persuade the nation to a much larger || provide for the building of three first-class screw to the report of the commanding officer of the provision of ships and men than we have hereto- | propeller frigates, and the same number of pro- Marine Corps, which will show how inadequate is fore kept in commission. The Pacific, during the peller sloops-of-war. To these might be added the present limitation of that corps to the ordinary next ten years, is likely to become the theater of with advantage a few smaller steamers adapted to demands of the service. The opinion of General the most interesting events of our time. A nation quick dispatch and coast navigation.

Henderson upon this point, of itself entitled to is growing up upon its shores, which will both Our pavy-yards are abundantly supplied with great weight, is reënforced by that of many of the attract and supply an amount of commercial en- | large quantities of the best timber, in the best con- most experienced officers of the Navy, as will be terprise in the rapid growth and activity of which dition, which could not be better appropriated than seen in the correspondence accompanying the rethe world has yet had no parallel. The discovery to this object. There are two frigates, the Santee port, to which I invite a careful atiention. In of America did not give such an impulse to this and the Sabine, which have been housed on the conformity with these opinions, I respectfully spirit as we now witness in the energy and occu- stocks in Portsmouth and New York for the last recommend to Congress the passage of a law 10 pations of these recent settlements.

ten years. These might be launched and fitted authorize the enlargement of the corps by the At this nioment we are without a public steam- ! for service, and their places might be occupied as addition of eighty sergeants, eighty corporals, ship in that ocean. Our various commerce scat- well as the sheds now vacant in other yards by thirty drummers and fifers, and one thousand pritered along the whole coast from Oregon to Chili, the new steamships proposed to be built.

vates, and that the four captains, four first and and our citizens who are found in every port In connection with this subject, I would call the four second lieutenants, conditionally allowed to throughout that extended line, are left to the pro- Il attention of Congress to the necessity of authoriz- | the service by the proviso to the naval appropria320 CONG.....20 Sess.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy.


in the corps.

tion bill of March 3, 1849, be retained permanently reaus of this Department will make Congress ac- His full report will be made to this Department,

quainted with the details of the naval service in and as soon as received will be transmitted to ConThe same necessity which has led to this rep- each branch of its administration. I respectfully gress. resentation of the embarrassments of the service ask their attention to the many valuable sugges- Professor Espy during the past year has been, in those branches to which I have just alluded, tions these reports contain for the better govern- as in the years before it, busy in the pursuit of compels me to ask for some addition to the corps ment of the Navy. Amongst these, I select for a his meteorological observations and his theory of of pursers. This important division of the naval more special notice the recommendations of the storms, prosecuting his researches without abateorganization is found to stand in need of more aid | Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, touching the ment of zeal or assiduity. He promises soon to than the present allowance affords. The corps mode of making contracts, in respect to which it give the world another volume of facts and deducscarcely furnishes that proper rotation in service is proposed that some discretion should be lodged tions, by which he hopes to bring the laws of the which ihe peculiar duties of the purser demands. in the bureau to authorize its rejection of a contract wind and the tempest into the category of an It is necessary after every cruise to allow this officer when offered by a bidder who has on any previous " exact science." His letter appended to this rea sufficient time on shore to settle his accountsma occasion failed to comply with his engagement. port will explain his progress, and commend his period which will not always place him at the dis- I particularly commend to the notice of Con- | industry to the friendly recognition of Congress. posal of the Department for an early return to sea, gress the representations of the Bureau of Yards By the enactment of the naval appropriation bill if it were even proper to compel these officers to a and Docks in reference to the several navy-yards of August 31, 1852, this Department was authorrepetition of duty without some time for such re- under its care. The yard at New York requires | ized and directed" to select a site for a navy-yard freshment on shore as every officer requires. early consideration. A large portion of the land and naval depôt in the bay of San Francisco, in

If Congress should think proper, in considera- || belonging to it has not yet been placed under the California, or neighboring waters. tion of this condition of the corps, to sanction an exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, and is The board of officers who were dispatched to increase of its members, I would earnestly recom- consequently subjected to onerous assessments for make the necessary examinations for the selection mend the establishment of a grade of assistant improvements by the city of Brooklyn, and ex- of this site have performed the task intrusted to pursers, to which only the new appointments | posed to the very inconvenient demands of that them, and have returned to this city. They have should be made; that these assistants should un- city in the opening of streets leading to the chan- not yet entirely completed their report. It will be dergo an examination as to their physical and nel of the Wallabout, which, if opened, would put in the possession of this Department in a few mental abilities previous to their appointment; that seriously affect the security of the yard, and greatly days, when I shall make it the subject of a special the age of admission should be regulated by the incommode its operations. So important is it to communication to Congress. Navy Department; and that no applicant should the Government that this difficulty should be re- I renew the recommendations heretofore made, be nominated for the corps without a satisfactory || moved, that I think it would even be advisable and now again referred to in the report of the Bu. conformity to the preliminary condition. Promo- to transfer the works of this yard to some other reau of Provisions and Clothing, in favor of such tion and pay should be regulated by law, and no convenient location, unless the jurisdiction over discretionary change in the Navy ration as recent promotion should be made but upon full evidence the land be fully conceded to the United States. scientific research has proved to be useful, through of the capability of the individual to comply with Efforts have been made, and are still making, to the process by which vegetables may be preserved all the demands of service; this evidence to be obtain this cession from the Legislature, and I for consumption at sea. And I also adopt, and reobtained by such course of examination as the trust will now be successful. If they should not,' || spectfully, beg leave to urge upon the attention of Departmeni may prescribe. With such condi- there is reason to believe a better site may be ob- the Legislature, the suggestions of the head of that tions, I would recommend that Congress should tained for the yard, free from the present inconve- bureau in reference to a prescribed limit on the at present authorize the appointment of twenty | niences; and that the expense of the new establish- commutation for stopped rations in money. assistant pursers to be attached to the corps. ment might be defrayed by the sale of the old. Congress having at its last session made a re

As a subject of great interest to the efficiency of The floating dry-dock in California, contracted trospective provision for an increase of pay to the the Navy, I beg leave to renew the recommenda- || for in obedience to the several acts of Congress officers, petty officers, seamen, and marines of the tions heretofore made by this Department for the heretofore passed, has been completed, and deliv- || Navy, and to the officers and men of the revenue gradual reduction of the number of officers who ered at San Francisco. Noappropriation was made service, who served in the Pacific ocean, on the åre incapable of useful service, by the adoption of for the basin and railway, without which the dock coast of California and Mexico, since the 28th of some suitable plan for retiring all of this character cannot be safely or usefully employed. I submit September, 1850, it would seem to be but an equifrom the sphere of ordinary duty. A well-organ- it to the decision of Congress whether these struc- table act, and strictly in accordance with the libized naval system requires that the officers charged tures should not be made without delay.

eral design of this provision, to extend its operawith its administration should, as far as possible, The Naval Asylum at Philadelphia is well con- tions so far back in point of time as to embrace be maintained in a condition for whatever employ- ducted, and is found a valuable refuge to the infirm the case of those who served on that coast from ment may be demanded of them, and should always and disabled seamen who have been admitted into the origin of the war. Indeed, every consideraexhibit the utmost alacrity in their obedience to it. I concur in the opinion expressed by the head tion which could recommend the policy of the aporders. There is no better test of the spirit of the of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, that its position propriation that was made will be found to apply corps, nor no more commendable sign of a good is not the best adapted to its effective usefulness in with increased cogency to those to whom I have officer, than his readiness to accept every call of the Navy; and as the property is believed to be alluded. Their service is more severe, their hazhis profession. This high character can only be very valuable, it may be worthy of consideration ards greater, and the expenses to which they were maintained in the Navy by exempting from com- whether it would not be good policy to dispose of subject in that quarter, wben the country was mand all who obstruct the path of duty. Those it, and reëstablish this institution either at Annap- more unprovided than in the subsequent period, whose disability has been the result of long and | olis or Norfolk, where its inmates would be re- were still more onerous. An appropriation in faithful toil in the national service should be pro- moved from the temptations to disorder which the their behalf of a similar character to that which vided with an honorable retreat, in which old age proximity to a large city throws in their way. was made in favor of their successors would be an and infirmity may find repose. They who, with- The Naval Observatory continues to pursue its acceptable and just tribute to a corps which has out service to plead for their incapacity, only stand appropriate labors, with its usual good results, and proved itself worthy of the high appreciation of in the way of more willing and more capable men, is found to contribute the most important facilities The Government. should be consigned to a retirement on smaller pay, to the improvement of navigation.' I cannot better The estimates for the support of the Navy and by the operation of a law which should render commend it to the regard of Congress than by a the Marine Corps for the year ending on the 30th their retirement compulsory.

reference to the letter of Lieutenant Maury, which day of June, 1854, and the statement of appropriIt may be worth the consideration of Congress accompanies this report.

ations required for all objects within the control of to make permanent provision for these two classes The first volume of the Nautical Almanac, in this Department, presentof officers. This might be advantageously accom- charge of Lieutenant Davis, is now in press, and An aggregate of...

.$11,501,593 67 plished, perhaps, by a law which should confer will be given to the public. His report will explain Deduct for special objects.. 4,031,921 98 upon the first class a rate of retired pay, graduated the progress and condition of his work. from half pay up to that allowed to leave of ab- Lieutenant Gilliss, who for ore than three years Leaves for the support of the Navy sence, according to the amount of sea service they | past has been employed, in pursuance of the

and Marine Corps

7,469,671 69 may have performed, and adding to this an hon- | directions of Congress, in conducting in Chili the orary promotion of one degree in rank, and which

observations recommended to be made by the It is proper to remark, that the large increase in should'dispose of the second class by retiring them American Philosophical Society and the Academy some of the estimates made for the coming year on half of leave of absence pay.

of Arts and Sciences, has recently returned to the over the actual amounts appropriated for the serThe details necessary to such a system may be United States, bringing with him a rich contribu- vice of the last two or three years, which it will easily regulated whenever Congress shall find oc- tion to science, in a series of observations amount- be found are required for the improvement of yards casion to take the subject into their deliberations. iing to nearly forty thousand, and embracing a and docks, construction, equipment, and repair of I repeat also my concurrence in the views pre

most extensive catalogue of stars. He deserves vessels, the expenses of ordnance, and the encoursented by my predecessor in his report of Novem- great praise for his assiduity in this labor, which, | agement and support of the mail service, has beber, 1850, on the propriety of recognizing by law in conjunction with similar observations in other come necessary by the reduction which Congress the office of Commodore, and the creation of at quarters of the globe, will supply important aid has hitherto thought proper to make from the estileast two officers of the rank of Rear Admiral.”

towards the determination of the solar parallax, a mates submitted for the expenditures which were I can add nothing to the satisfactory arguments problem of great interest to navigation and science. thought essential to the public service in most of with which that recommendation is enforced, and Upon the conclusion of his work at Santiago, he these branches of the naval administration. The therefore content myself with a reference to the was enabled to make a judicious sale of his observ- | appropriations now asked for may, therefore, be report, and an earnest invocation to Congress to

atory and its apparatus to the Chilian Govern- regarded as the necessary consequence of such a give it a favorable consideration.

ment, which has manifested a most friendly inter- subtraction from what was deemed but an ade. MISCELLANEOUS.

est in his service, and afforded him .much useful quate annual provision for the completion of works The reports from the chiefs of the several bu. Il assistance.

of indispensable use. And being viewed in the

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