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116

SILK CULTURE IN UTAH.

This pro

is the reeling room, in which two ladies America. The samples were tested, and one little girl are emplayed reeling and the firm sent letters, from which the silk from the cocoons.

the following is quoted: “We found ceeding is very interesting, and a visit the silk of good quality and strength to the factory would repay any person and fairly reeled; much better than any for his trouble. In the main building, samples of American silk we have ever belonging to the Association, is a com tested.” plete set of throwing machinery, consist These encouraging words stimulate the ing of two reels for reeling the threads silk raisers in Utah with fresh hopes, from the cocoons, one hard silk winder and greatly encouraged them in producfor preparing thread for doubling, one ing it in large quantities. The enterprise doubling machine, one spinning mill for is not confined to Salt Lake County putting the twist in the thread, one soft alone, by a great deal; the whole Terrisilk winder for winding the silk from tory is more or less engaged in it. The skeins after dyeing, one spooler, and people of Utah County have done much other subordinate machinery, all used in in the silk line, and have reason to feel the manufacture of the thread alone. proud of their efforts. They are still Four persons are constantly engaged in pushing it ahead and feel certain of this room, at their different machines, making it pay well. making sewing silk and twist. The ag It is now clearly proved, that the gregate cost of buildings and machinery, climate of Utah Territory is well adapwhich are all on a small scale, is about ted to the cultivation of silk worms; that three thousand dollars. This shows that they have been and can be raised with the company now existing means busi success, if managed properly; that the ness and intend to carry it on success Utah Silk Association will purchase all fully, if possible.

the silk raised in the Territory, and pay Great difficulties have been met with, good prices in cash for the same; that to obtain persons understanding, and we have the persons in Utah who can competent to run the machinery now at reel, double, twist and prepare it for the factory—which is the latest improved; market, and having the machinery and mebut the persons there are endeavoring, chanics, there is no reason why it should with all their might, to produce market not be done; that when it is fairly estabable silk.

lished and in good running order, it will Samples of raw silk, raised in this be one of the most important branches of Territory, have been sent to Italy, New Utah's industry, and will add greatly to York, and many other places, and the our character as an enterprising and selfmost encouraging replies received from sustaining people. Geo. D. Pyper. silk dealers, in regard to the superior quality of our silk. Mr. P. A. Schettler, who has done much toward advancing

To put a bent pin in a chair is a mean the interests of silk industry, took sam joke, and one that ought to be sat down ples raised by himself to France and Italy, which were pronounced by com There is nothing-absolutely nothing petent men, equal in many respects to -in a name, if only the sentiment be the the Italian silk. When he returned he correct one. What difference did it received many testimonials to the same make to the patriot whose overwrought effect. Rinalds, Knutzel & Co., silk feelings compelled him to pay a visit to manufacturers of Florence, Italy, had the tomb of Washington that he mistook only one fault to find, viz: It was too the granite ice house for the said tomb, coarse—having twelve or thirteen threads, and wept profusely and pondered proin the sample sent them. 2. C. M. I. | foundly as he knelt at the door? He sent samples to the Nonotuck Silk Co., never learned his mistake, and his paof Florence, Mass., one of the largest triotic ardor has been at fever heat ever and most reliable firms in the silk line in since.

on.

Windsor." Horsemen were now robed

with gold and silver and pearls. in France, until the ninth century, when brought workmen from Flanders, paid manufactory established in the Abbey of gold and silver thread. His son, Henry seclusion, portrayed with the needle on of the deeds of their fathers, as well as The walls of the palaces were high, and hangings hid as well as ornamented TAPESTRY.

117 TAPESTRY. The earliest account of tapestry and horses caparisoned in this costly wrought with the needle, for hangings work at tournaments, and on the occaand garments, is in Exodus, where the sion of great triumphal entries and other curtains of the Tabernacle which divided public celebrations. the Holy place from the Most Holy are The tapestries of Flanders were early described as of "fine twined linen, with famed for their beauty, and the Bayeaux blue, purple and scarlet; with cherubim tapestry, which is still preserved, is of of cunning work”_"wrought with the priceless value as the work of fair needle," etc.

Flemish fingers which have been, for The Israelites doubtless borrowed this long centuries, in the dust. beautiful art from the Egyptians, while In very early times, tapestry was conin bondage to them; for the latter were fined mainly to altar-cloths and other skilled with both needle and loom, and church decorations, but the growing dealso in dyeing and painting. The Baby- mand for it as wall hangings, and furniture lonians illustrated the mysteries of their coverings, and carpets, resulted in the religion, and recorded important histori-establishment of looms at Antwerp, cal events, in pictorial embroidery. To Bruges, and other cities; that made in such perfection was this work carried by Arras being the most famous. the ancient Greeks that they attributed

A piece representing the battles of the invention to Minerva. Such value Alexander the Great was among the gifts was set upon it that the poets sang its sent by the king of Flanders to the praise; kings vied with each other in en- Sultan in 1379, for the ransom of captives couraging the art, and in possessing the taken in battle. It portrayed, also, richest specimens. In the early days of scenes in history and romance; the feats the French monarchy we read of women

of fabulous heroes; and grotesque working tapestry with the needle.

In figures of men and animals. the sixth century, when Clovis embraced pieces of this work were almost national Christianity, even the streets were deco- | annals, and were styled historical tapesrated with this costly fabric during the tries. festivities in honor of the event. At the

In the sixteenth century, Francis I dedication of the church of St. Dennis

, established manufactories of this fabric where generations of kings lie buried, at fountainbleau. Hitherto it had been the decorations were of tapestry, wrought made in pieces and joined neatly into

great hangings; but now it began to be was wrought with the needle woven in

one large web. Francis the demand for it had become so great them well for their skill, and supplied

was introduced, and a them with the richest materials, including St. Florian, in 985. Monks then wove II, established manufactories in Paris, in their cloisters; while ladies, in their but after his death the art declined, and

little was done until Paris was decorated canvas, the stories that poets had sung for Louis XIV.

Now came in the present style known those of their living lords and lovers,

as “Gobelin tapestry,” from the name of the dyers on whose premises it was manfor the palaces, but we must not judge of

as hiding behind the carras (tapestry made tapestry carpeting," the word itself simat Arras), in "The Merry Wives of ply meaning coverings or hangings; tap

isserie is the French word, which our man

Some

Tapestry

that weaving

them.

118

ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS.

events.

ufacturers have as good a right to use as These ancient tapestries are now of those who weave for royalty-even if great value, not only for their antiquity, they cannot carry "high art” into their but also as historical records of great work. In the reign of the last named

The banquet, the chase and the king, Raphael and other Italian masters tournament are as truthfully described were copied, and weaving became one as are the seige and the battle, forming of the fine arts.

pictorial story-books of mammoth dimenIn 1802, ninety men were employed in sions. weaving, mainly for the palace of St. You may imagine the labor of making Cloud. Occasionally the supply exceeds carpets and drapery by the slow stitch of the demand of royalty. Now a piece the needle on canvas, and will not wonder may be purchased by an ordinary mortal, that the haute lisse, or high loom (the provided he has money enough to pay one mostly in use now), has taken its for it. The art was patronized by Henry place. In this loom, the frame and the VIII, in England, and Windsor Palace, wrap are perpendicular. There are two Hampton Court, and other homes of rollers; one at the top, around which the royalty were decorated with copies of threads are wound; and one below, over the best English painters, in tapestry. which is rolled the finished fabric. The

These hangings were not fixtures, but outlines of the design are drawn on the were raised on frames, and were often threads on front, but the pattern is hung taken down and forwarded to decorate at the back, and the workman, standing the chambers of kings and queens when between that and his work, has to turn on royal “progresses," as their journeys around continually to look at it, and were then called.

never sees the beautiful design he is A good story is told of a blunder oc- carrying out unless he goes round in casioned by this practice. Henry IV, front to do so. wishing to do great honor to the Pope's Some of the Gobelin tapestry have all legate, ordered his most costly tapestry the delicacy of a picture. But the work to be hung at St. Germain, where he was is very slow, and so can never become then on a visit. By a terrible mistake common nor cheap. One who can afford one was sent which satirized the Pope to order a small piece of it now must and his court at Rome–a much more wait two or three years for it.— Youths' dreadful thing in that day than it would Companion. be in ours. You may be sure it came down quicker than it went up!

Sleep is the fallow of the mind.

ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS. ONE of the oldest sacred records that the stones or interpreters, also by comhas outlived the ravages of time is the mandment, till after Christ was crucified. Bible. Ancient manuscripts containing Ether, a descendant of Jared, many genparts of the New Testament are still erations after, wrote the record from found in various places. A part of the which Moroni took his account; so Ether Book of Mormon gives the history of must have copied from the writings of familes that emigrated to this continent Jared to have given an account of the from the Tower of Babel, viz: Jared, his latter speaking with Jesus Christ; that brother, and their friends. The brother part of the original writing must thereof Jared talked with the Lord at the fore have been written soon after leaving time of the confusion of languages, and the tower, but whether they and Ether's some years after in the wilderness, and record were kept with the records containwas commanded by Jesus Christ to write | ing the Book of Mormon, and were seen a record of it, but it was sealed up with | by Joseph Smith is, I suppose, unknown.

ecclesiastical writers, have been found in Constantinople, and last March two German scholars traveling in Southern Italy, in the palace of the Archbishop of Rossano, found a very valuable manuscript of the whole of the gospel of St. Matthew, and that of St. Mark down to the middle of the fourteenth verse of the sixteenth chapter; it consists of one hundred and eighty-eight leaves; the leaves are made of purple parchment; it is written with silver, except the first three It is supposed to have been written in the end of the fifth or the beginning of of painted miniatures illustrating the life the heads of forty prophets and one or two other subjects. Last year there died nine years of age; among other things, after his decease, was found a manuscript on papyrus supposed to have been written Bible Society of London pronounced in ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS.

119 The Book of Mormon, though not favor of its authenticity. We are all ancient in itself, is valuable as contain- acquainted with the Book of Abraham, ing the only account and abridgement of a translation of some ancient records those records, as well as a history of the found in the catacombs of Egypt, and Nephites, and of the Lamanites, taken now forming a part of the Pearl of Great from the records of Nephi, whieh were

Price. commenced nearly two thousand four As a people, we expect that before hundred years ago, and were hid up, 420 long other records will be revealed, when A. D. It differs from the Bible in this the proper time has arrived. Sometime respect, that it was written and then hid we are to have the record of the lost Ten in the earth, and, after lying there un- Tribes, and we very often read of the disturbed for centuries, was correctly engravings on stone found in Mexico, translated by Joseph Smith, through the

which, no doubt, will be extremely interaid of the Urim and Thummim; while the esting when deciphered. Is not the Bible has been circulated among men

Doctrine and Covenants given in our own ever since it was written, many manu

day as worthy of a place among sacred scripts destroyed, and those that remain Scriptures as the reprints of those for not correctly translated. Among other which are paid fabulous prices, and which sacred manuscripts that have been found are prized so highly by lovers of religion is one containing a description of Jesus and

and of the curious? It is wonderful how Christ sent by Lentullus, President of the manuscripts have been preserved so Judea, to the Senate of Rome; also the long, and from their instruciion and age Death Warrant of Jesus Christ; it was

are deserving of all the value attached engraved on a copper plate, and found in

to them, but as regards instruction it is an antique vase of white marble, in the strange how highly the reprints are prized, city of Abuilla, in the

kingdom of Naples, while the Book of Mormon, equal in in the year 1826. Recently a manuscript worth, is passed coolly by, and in the esof Clemen Romanus, and of other early timation of the majority, does not even

enjoy a reputation as high as a common novel. In future years may not the manuscript of the Book of Mormon, now in the possession of Mr. Whitmer, occupy the place to which it is entitled, side by side with sacred manuscripts, and rank with them in the estimation of the people as the most important translation into the English language, in correctness, if not in extreme old

Ann Fellows. lines of each gospel, which are golden.

MODESTY.
MODESTY is a virtue. It cannot be as-

,

cannot be compared with the inferior as the last supper, etc., and of gifts of beauty and wealth; even wisdom

itself, the greatest of all gifts, fails to

elicit just appreciation when it is not arat Jerusalem,an old man one hundred and

rayed in the snowy robes of modesty. Modest people are beautiful, no matter what their features may be.

The ignorant may think the words modesty and bashfulness are of the same meaning, but this is a great mistake;

age?

of Christ,

120

GETTING MARRIED IN GERMANY.

man,

modesty may go hand in hand with dig Yet it is so. True principles of nity and learning, while bashfulness is modesty will not prevent young men from caused by ignorance, or is the effect of acquiring knowledge, wisdom, influence imperfect training.

and power, but, on the contrary, if they Many will agree that a maiden's beauty attain to all these, their modesty will con ists in her modesty, but they will command for them respect, which will pause to reflect, before acknowledging make them all the more appreciated.that it is quite as admirable in a young Y. L. Companion, 16th Ward.

GETTING MARRIED IN GERMANY. This time I was bound to make sure “I wish to get married in the very work, and so, with the best information I simplest and quickest way,” I said, precould procure, started off for the civil senting my passport. “Will you please bureau (Standes Amt) to ascertain pre tell me how to do it?” cisely what was required.

"It is extremely simple,” said the offi"Upon what business do you come?" cer. “We must have a certificate of your demanded the pompous servant at the birth (Guertssohein) signed by the burdoor.

gomaster of the town in which you were “I am an American citizen, and want born, and with its seal, and witnessed in to know how to get married in Germany,” due form. Your certificate of baptism I faltered.

(Taufschien) should also be sent, to He opened the door of the main office guard against all error, sealed and witand shouted, “Ein Herr Amerikanner nessed by the present pastor or the prowishes to marry himself!” and then per church officers. These must be preshowed me into a large and well filled sented here by each of the contracting waiting room to take my turn, every parties, with their passports, as the first occupant of which gazed fixedly at step." I carefully noted this, and be me, without winking, for some min- | proceeded. utes. One thin, dark, wiry man, in "The parents, if living, should certify soiled linen and bright yellow kid to their knowledge and approval of the gloves, had dropped in to announce the marriage. We must also be satisfied death of his third wife. A trembling that there is no obstacle, legal, moral young mother was sharply reprimanded or otherwise, to it; whether either of you for letting the legal third day pass before have been married before, and if so, announcing the death of her child. A whether there are children, and if so, somewhat seedy clerk had come, with a their names and ages. The parents' radiant face, to announce the birth of a names should be in full; also their resiboy fourteen hours old, and to be called dence, occupation, age and place of Johannes Conrade Hermann Degener- | birth should of course be given for recmeister. A servant girl and her lover ord here." were waiting in one corner-she red I begged for another scrap of paper and giggling, he erect, dignified, and as and made further notes. taciturn as a head waiter-to be made “When we have these here in this man and wife. I had plenty of time to desk,” he continued, patting fondly that observe, for nearly an hour passed be- piece of furniture, “then either we can fore my turn came. At length I was publish the banns (Aufgebot) by posting a shown into a long room, with half a notice of your intention in the Rathhaus dozen clerks at one end, who twisted for fourteen days, or else you can have it their necks, adjusted their glasses, and printed in the journal of the place where gazed and listened with open-mouthed you reside in America, and bring us a wonder.

copy here as evidence that it has actually

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