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International Phonetic Teachers' Association, to which L. V. Shcherba conforms in his study of the quantity and quality of the Russian vowels (1912).

As to grammars, I need only mention a recent one by V. A. Bogoroditsky, whose lectures on philology and on the Russian language usefully supplement his grammar. Ya. K. Grot's rules for Russian spelling give much valuable information on that point and on pronunciation, but are also useful on the question of accent. He is the more worthy of study as he played a great part in the Sub-Committee on Spelling appointed by the National Academy of St. Petersburg.


I should have mentioned on the previous occasion the great Encyclopædia of Slavonic Philology under the editorship of V. Jagić, which has been published at St. Petersburg since 1908. Then V. Hrubý has published a study of Slavonic prepositions which deserves notice, though short, and N. K. Grunsky has done a useful survey of the history of the study of the syntax of those languages. The new periodical Staroslovan (Kremsier) also deserves notice.

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Tacitus, Annals, xv, 44 (Halm, 1866): " sed non ope humana, non largitionibus principis aut deum placamentis decedebat infamia, quin iussum incendium crederetur. ergo abolendo rumori Nero subdidit reos et quaesitissimis poenis adfecit, quos per flagitia invisos vulgus Christianos appellabat. auctor nominis eius Christus Tiberio imperitante per procuratorem Pontium Pilatum supplicio adfectus erat; repressaque in praesens exitiabilis superstitio rursum erumpebat, non modo per ludaeam, originem eius mali, sed per urbem etiam, quo cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque

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Before parting from Tacitus, our authority for the Latin form Christus, let me add that besides what Mr. Furneaux mentions (the accusation of immoral sexual practices) I think I see the immemorial accusation of the use of human blood in the secret rites here. Both are standing accusations on the part of the enemies of exclusive sects from time immemorial. Pudenda seems to cover the immorality and atrocia the blood accusation, though one must admit phrases like atrox Thyestes.

One other point: Farrar (Life of Christ, ii, p. 360) unaccountably misses a point which should be well known to him, namely, that Pilatus might be for Pileatus, and this would imply (probably) descent from the great and noble Caius Pontius, leader of the Samnites in the Social War, as betokening the receipt of the cap of liberty in some special way. Pontius Pilate's association with Seianus and his own record well illustrate the saying that "a man loses half his manhood when he is enslaved", and this appears to repeat itself in vicious perpetuity.

The other authority is Suetonius (Divus Claudius, 25, 4) with Chrestus, which one may take to be from xphotos, which would be hard to distinguish from Xplorós at this time. Even the Latins were not certain whether Brutidius was for Bruttedius. The passage in Suetonius is in a very annalistic portion and seems to be quite easily assumed to be an intrusion, no part of the context relating directly to it; it runs-"ludaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantis Roma expulit . . . Druidarum religionem apud Gallos dirae immanitatis . . . penitus abolevit," etc. penitus abolevit," etc. The editor, M. Ihm (1908), gives a note: "Christo Oros, vii, 6, 15.1 This may be a false Messiah or a mere misunderstanding on the part of Suetonius."

The pedigree of our words will run then as shown below, without making use of the well-known Servian and SouthWestern tendency to ь as opposed to the Bulgarian and NorthEastern tendency to ы.

Xplorós (-xpiw, Masih = Messiah).

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Xpŋoros (good, mild, meek).

Kрьсть, Servian.

+ Chrestus, Suetonius.
+ Христити, христивый,

O. Slav.

Християнинъ, Russ. dialect of


Hrisjanin, Bulgarian.

I take it the presence of a Bulgarian and a Russian form on the right-hand side with the very letter derived from Greek 7 may justify one in thinking that the two forms were used side by side as equivalent, the former being the more theological, the latter the

1 Orosius points out the ambiguity of Suetonius and reads Christo in his


more descriptive. Both would leave representatives-and Suetonius is a fairly early evidence for the ē form. и in modern Russian is sometimes spoken of as the hard i as distinguished from the pure ; but this difference does not bear on the present question. In point of alphabetical place and evolution of form the u of to-day is a legitimate descendant of the old and the two sounds, must have been but very slightly distinguished in quality if in nothing else in the first century of our era. The modern confusion of 7, , and v is in no uncertain sense later in date than our period.


P.S.-In ordinary Russian a mere transcription of the Greek is used in such phrases as Xристось воскресь, the Easter greeting.




[Read at the Meeting of the Philological Society on April 12, 1913.] THERE are in the British Museum 200 MSS. and four Charters in the Irish language. When the Museum was first instituted in 1753 the united Sloane, Cotton, and Harley Collections contained only seventeen Irish MSS. In 1831, by the incorporation of the Arundel MSS., two more were added. But it was in the next year that the most important addition (in quantity, if not in quality) was made. In 1832, among the first MSS. acquired under the terms of the will of Francis Henry Egerton, 8th Earl of Bridgewater, was a large and miscellaneous collection of MSS., 119 in number, gathered by James Hardiman, author of the History of Galway and editor of Irish Minstrelsy from various sources. Το these have been added at various times since a number of MSS. in the additional and Egerton collections acquired in the ordinary course by purchase or gift, bringing the total up to 200 MSS. and four Charters.

All these MSS. are summarily described and indexed in the various catalogues of the Manuscript Department. But it was early felt that a collection of so special a character merited a separate catalogue. In 1849 Eugene O'Curry, the famous Irish scholar, compiled a manuscript catalogue of all the MSS. then in the Museum, which still stands in the Department. Later on Dr. Standish Hayes O'Grady commenced a more elaborate and detailed description. Full descriptions of eighty MSS. and of part of the eighty-first as also of the four Charters were printed, but not published. The sheets are on sale at the Museum. This catalogue is being carried to completion, and the whole will be published in due course.

The MSS. described by Dr. O'Grady fall in the main under the headings of History, Law, Lexicography and Grammar, Medicine and Poetry (this last section being left incomplete). For the first four sections a general reference to Dr. O'Grady's catalogue will be

sufficient; it may be added that a great deal of interest in relation to Gaelic médical MSS. is to be found under that heading in Professor Mackinnon's Catalogue of Gaelic MSS. in Scotland, Edinburgh, 1912.

The remaining MSS. in the Museum may be classed under the headings Tales (including epic, romantic, and semi-historical tales), Theology (including Hagiology), and Poetry. Of course, particular MSS. can rarely be classed strictly under any one of these headings, so that much that falls under the last three categories has been described by Mr. O'Grady in his catalogue. It is natural (though not altogether scientific) to divide Irish MSS. into two classes, those written on vellum and those written on paper, or, to put it in terms of chronology, those written before or after 1600. Of course the older texts went on being copied into paper MSS. almost into our own day; but the seventeenth century which saw the break-up of the old Irish schools as of much else in Ireland, marks a very real distinction in the MSS. The O'Clerys, Colgan, and Keating, who attempted, in those disastrous times, to gather up the wreckage of Irish literature and tradition, must have felt that an old era was coming to an end and a new one beginning. And to us studying the MSS. the gradual degradation of the scribal tradition makes this tragically clear. During the seventeenth century itself the representatives of the older scribal families, an O'Duigenan here, a Mac Firbis there, valiantly struggle to preserve the old tradition, but by the beginning of the eighteenth century the MSS. have entered on a course of rapid degeneration, and old tales accidentally preserved are extremely corrupt. The scope of this report does not admit of more than a very general notice of the paper MSS. But the vellums must have a more extended description.

Of these the most important are certainly the two MSS. Eg. 1782 and Harley 5280. They have been frequently described and are well-known to Celtic scholars. Written respectively circ. 1419 and in the sixteenth century, they contain epic, romantic, and historic tales (notable in Eg. 1782 is the great series of the Tain Bo Cuailgne with its foretales and the older Bruiden Da Derga cycle, and in Harley 5280 the Mailduin story, so interesting in connexion with the St. Brendan legend and its developments in European literature) and much miscellaneous matter. There are, for instance, in Eg. 1782, a fully glossed copy of the Amra of St. Columcille, a considerable amount of interesting Ossianic

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