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IRISH CURRENCY: IRISH PLANTATION ACRE. – et w aperto." But he made other changes, some of Will some reader in the “sister isle" kindly in which drew apon him much ridicule, though others form me what the difference (if any) was between of them have survived. His revised alphabet as English and Irish currency in the first years of this set forth in the 'Dubbii Grammaticali' is as follows century ? Also what was the area of an "Irish (I cannot give the reference, for the work has no plantation acre," a term used in a work published pagination): a b c d e f g che gh kiljmoop in Ireland circa 1750.

J. R. R. qrw st / u zvçxy th ph h. I italicize the most Tork's ISLAND.-The most south-eastern island

important letters.

Tbe distinction between the opened and closed in the Bahama group is named Turk’s. Wby and e's and o's was violently attacked by Liburnio in wben was the name given ?


his “Dialogue on the letters of Trissino lately Madison, Wis.

invented for use in the Italian tongue,” which is Mount ALVERNUS.—Macaulay has the lines in appended to his 'Le Tre Fontane '(Venice, 1526), • Horatius,' stanza 46 :

one of the works on grammar not mentioned by As falls on Mount Alvernus

MR. KREBS. The differentiation from the pure u A thunder-smitten oak.

and i of the consonantal v and j has been preWhere is Mount Alvernus ? Was there such a served ; but the c with the cedilla for one sound place ; or is it a mere fancy name? It is not in of z, and the division of s into the ordinary and the Smith’s ‘Dict. Geog.' or other common books of long s, have failed to hold their ground. One of reference.


the most ridiculed of all the changes was the introduction of k for certain hard sounds of c; this,

amongst other alterations, fell under the lash of Beplies.

Firenzuola in his ‘Discacciamento delle Nuove

Lettere,' and was also mocked at by that lively “ TRISSINO TYPE.”

abbot in his scarcely quotable verses beginning (8th S. iii. 29.)

“Kandidi ingegni.” În one of the earliest editions There are several points that require correction of his tragedy the . Sophonisba '(perhaps the first or amplification in this query. To begin with, this Italian tragedy) Trissino did not use the new letters, Trissino type is only part and parcel of the modi. and in the fifth and sixth parts of his 'Poetica,' fied alphabet invented and used by Giovan-Giorgio which were published posthumously in 1562-3, Trissino. Again, it was not used in every one of they are again absent. "MR. KREBS might have his writings, nor even in all the various editions. mentioned that the work which stirred Italian Further, the matter led to considerable controversy, scholars to grammar-making, Dante's 'De Vulgari and other scholars tried their hands at alphabet Eloquentia,' was first given to the world by Trissino revision. Lastly, Mr. Krebs is not altogether in an Italian translation. This (one of Janiculo's accurate in his incidental references to early publications in 1529) was issued by Trissino under Italian grammar-making. As I bappen to possess the assumed name of Giovan-Battista Doria ; but most of Trissino's works, I have paid some little controversy raged for many years as to whether attention to this epic poet, lyricist, dramatist, the work really was Dante's or a fabrication of critic, grammarian, and philologer.

Trissino's. The publication of the Latin text by In 1524 Lodovico degli Arrighi, a Vicentine Corbinelli at Paris, in 1577, did not silence the well versed in penmanship and a writer of Papal dispute. MR. KREBS has also neglected Bembo’s briefs, published at Rome for his fellow-townsman Prose,' whicb, though not published till 1525 Trissino several works printed in the new cha- (Venice, Tacuino), was already completed and racters; but these are even rarer than the first passed round to that great man's friends in 1512, editions and revised editions that in 1529 first before the appearance of Fortunio's book. I may began to issue from the press at Vicenza of Tolo- observe that other modifications of the alpbabet meo Janiculo, of Brescia. Nearly all of my copies were made by Claudio Tolomei, of Siena, one of bear the above date and imprint, and in the reprint Triseino's assailants, and afterwards Bishop of of his 'Letter to Clement VII.' and in the first Corsola. The entire discussion was involved in edition of the 'Dabbii Grammaticali' Trissino the interminable war as to the correct appellation explains bis method, and replies to the arguments of what we now call “ Italian,” viz., Florentine, or brought against him by Agnolo Firenzuola, Nicolò Tuscan, or Aulic, or Cortigiano, &c. A subject Liburnio, Claudio Tolomei, and othe

that filled at least a score of books cannot be The use of the Greek omega is certainly one dis adequately treated in this brief notice. tinction of the type, but surely MR. KREBS must have

EDWARD PERCY JACOBSEN. noticed another Greek letter, epsilon. As Trissido

18, Gordon Street, W.C. himself says in the above-mentioned letter to Clement VII., “Lo' lettere aduoque', che' io pri- “THE TRIPLE PLEA” (gib S. ii. 527). – I have mieramente aggiunsi al alphabeto, furono e aperto two engravings—"Sold by John Bowles Print

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Seller at the Black Horse in Corpbill ” and “Sold man......His aversion, however, softened as their poliby C. Sheppard, Lambert Hill, Doctors Commons," tical views approxmiated, and was at length converted respectively-which are variations of this subject,

into approbation and eulogy." with explanatory verses to each as follows: If Poplicola's letters, it may be added, are by 1. The Triple Plea.

the band of Junius, as is generally conceded, their Law, Pbysick, and Divinity,

date and matter render Chatham's claims absolutely Being in dispute, cou'd not agree

untenable. To settle, which among them three

Should Gibbon's claims be further pressed (I Shou'd have the Superiority.

note with what caution MR. EDGCUMBE makes his Law pleads he does preserve men's lands, And all their goods from rav'pous hands :

suggestion), I should wish to set against them Therefore of right challenges He,

certain remarks of his biographer: That “ he had no To have the Superiority.

taste or capacity whatever” (shade of Junius !) Physick prescribes receipts for health,

“ for politics"; that “he voted steadily with Lord Which men preferr before their wealth :

North (the minister“ every part of whose Therefore of right challenges He,

person,” according to Junius," set natural proTo have the Superiority.

portion at defiance"); that "he never approaches Then strait steps up the Priest demure,

to a broad survey of politics, or expresses serious Who of men's Souls takes care and cure :

or settled convictions on home or foreign affairs”; Therefore of right challenges He, To bave the Superiority.

that bis tone “often amounts to levity, and he

chronicles the most serious measures with an unIf Judges end this Triple Plea, The Lawyers shall bear all the sway.

concern really surprisiog.” So much more evidence Jf Emperics their verdict give,

might be adduced against Gibbon's claims to share, Physicians best of all will thrive.

even in the slightest degree, in the Junius honours, If Bishops arbitrate the case,

that I might safely bazard the conjecture that, if The Priests must have the highest place, If Honest, Sober, Wise Men judge,

the names of a bundred tolerably well-known med Then All the Three away may trudge.

who frequented London at that period were tossed For let men live in peace and love,

into a hat and one of them drawn out, bis The Lawyers tricks they need not prove.

claims would override those of Gibbon. I will Let them forbear excess and riot,

only add that Gibbon met Pitt in 1780, and was so They need not feed on Doctor's diet.

discomfited in argument by his young opponent Let them attend wbat God does teacb, Tbey need not care what Parsons preach.

that he took up his hat and left the house in high But if men Fools and Knaves will be,

dudgeon. They'll be Agg-ridden by All Three.

While I am far from asserting that Sir Philip 2. The Triumvirate.

Francis has not solid claims to be recognized as If mankind would but act sincere,

Junius, I confess it appears to me incredible that
The Lawyers tricks they need not fear,

MR. FITZPATRICK's friend should allow the evidence
Nor need they fear the Doctors Bill,
Would they forbear to gorge und swill.

which could settle a question that had been burnThat Parson mind not, tho' your Brother,

ing for a century to pass from his hands into That says one thing and does another

oblivion without giving any one else the chance But if Men Rogues

and Fools
will be,

of sharing his convictions.
They 'll be Abs-ridden by all Three.

HOLCOMBE INGLEBY. These lines explain the subject of the painting In a pamphlet entitled “Reminiscences of the of the thres disputants referred to by your corre- Vaughan' Family, and more particularly of Benspondent, but I cannot assist bim in connecting it jamin Vaughan, LL.D., read before the Now with the ion sign be mentions, unless it be that England Historic Genealogical Society, August 2, the ion-bolder bad a gradge against a local member 1865. By John Hannibal Sheppard, A.M., Libraof one or more of the professions, and so adopted rian of the Society. David Clapp & Co., Printers, the subject on bis sign, and a selection of the 334, Washington Street, Boston,” the following verses on bis drinking vessels-most likely the two notewortby passage occurs :latter opes.


“Much has been said, and written, touching the author Chatbam.

of the celebrated Letters of Junius. The following THE LETTERS OF JUNIUS (gib S. ii. 481; iii. 49). I at-law in the office of the Hon. Samuel 8. Wilde, he

anecdote may throw some light upon it. While a student-In considering Lord Chatham's claims to the invited me to dine at bis house, where General Cobb, his anthorship of Junius, the following editorial foot- father-in-law, was making a virit. There was a large note to the first of Poplicola's letters in the fine party at dinner, among whom was Dr. Vaughan. After 1812 edition may well be reprinted :

the dessert, some one started the oft-mooted question,

Who wrote Junius ? Various opinions were expressed. "This severe invective is aimed against the late Lord Now it must be recollected that this great assassin of Chatham......

The reader, by a perusal of the preceding character-who had attacked the Dukes of Grafton and letters [i. e., those signed" Junius"] is already acquainted Bedford, and also Judge Blackstone and Lord Mansfield, with the utter aversion which Junius felt for this noble with the keepest Batire-was also exceedingly harsh on

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Dr. Vaughan's father. At last Dr. Vaughan seemed a but Junius is still unknown. The process of in. little vexed, and evidently wishing to put

an end to the vestigation has been by exhaustion; one by one conversation, said, 'I know that William Gerard Hamilton was the author of the Letters of Junius. A dead the claimants are found disqualified by some fatal silence followed and the conversation changed." objection ; so at present one only holds the field. The Dr. Vaughan referred to was possessed


2. Lord Chatham was a public man, much considerable talents and general knowledge. He watched; sometimes in office," often "out of was private secretary to Lord Shelburne, sat for town," and frequently invalided. These drawbacks some time in Parliament as a zealous Whig, and amount to a disqualification; for, when in office, he was intimate with Sir Joseph Banks, Mr. Caven- could not violently attack any of his coadjutors dish, Dr. Price, Dr. Franklin, Sir Charles Blagden, and remain unknown; his policy was frequently Dr. Priestley, Lord Henry Petty (afterward Marquis denounced by Junius. Such a public character, of Lansdowne), the Marquis De la Fayette, H.-G. in or out of town, could not confer daily with any Riquetti, Comte de Mirabeau, and many other one outside his immediate circle without detection ; distinguished men of the time. He was confiden- and all within his circle have been dismissed tially employed in promoting the negotiations for already, except one who communicated through the peace with America, and his opinion in the matter intermediary of a third, well-known map, also a

A. HALL. of the authorship of Junius is certainly worthy of public character. some respect. Macaulay gives five reasons for his MR. EDGCUMBE'S communication foresbadows opinion that Sir Philip Francis was the author of a possible "spirited revival of the Junius question” Junius ; similar reasons

may be brought forward, as shortly to be expected, and gives the names of as the writer of the 'Reminiscences' urges, on twelve persons once suspected of the authorship bebalf of William Gerard Hamilton, a man of con- of the famous, letters, but “one after another summate intrigue and great abilities, and much acquitted, leaving Şir Philip Francis alone in the like Francis in temperament. Sir W. Draper and field.” A reopening the case will, no doubt, Dr. Benjamin Vaughan were contemporaries of make room and place for other and new claimants Junius, and believed Hamilton was the author. to the mysterious inheritance, and therefore I Hamilton was chief secretary in the same office desire to draw attention to a work entitled 'Junius with Cumberland, when Lord Halifax was Lord Discovered,' by Frederick Griffin, of the City of Lieutenant of Ireland in 1760 (see "Memoirs of Montreal, advocate. The object of the work, an Richard Cumberland '). Dr. Benjamin Vaughan's octavo volume of some 300 pages, was to link the father, Samuel Vaughan, had been charged with identity of Junius with that of Thomas Pownall, bribing, or attempting to bribe, with 5,0001. the Governor of Massachusetts circa 1760, and from Duke of Grafton in order to obtain for a son the 1767 to 1780 a distinguished member of the lease of an office (Clerk of the Crown) in Jamaica. House of Commons. The author (Mr. Griffin, This charge Samuel Vaughan met with "An

now deceased) has shown much industry and appeal to the Public on behalf of Samuel Vaugban, research in the collating of his facts, marshals them Esq., in a full and impartial parration of his nego- ingeniously, succeeds in making out a fairly good tiation with the Duke of Grafton, &c., and an

case for his client, and his book should not be appendix relating to the Public Offices in the overlooked in the court of review," which MR. Island of Jamaica. London, 1770, 8vo.”; but EDGcombe leads us to look for, of the “ Junius this appeal did not, apparently, satisfy the exacting question,” interest in which will never flag while Junius, althougb, as stated therein,

îhe secrecy sbrouding the writer of the tencbant “it was well known that Commissions in the Army were letters remaine. The book referred to a very publicly sold and in the Navy also privately, a relation interesting one apart from whatever value it may of Samuel Vaughan's, although bred up in the army from infancy—a soldier of known worth-wounded also in the bave “in court," was published in 1854 (Little, service of his country, even this man was obliged to Brown & Co., Boston, Mass., and Trübner & Co., purcbased every commission from a pair of colors to London). It is needless to add that the name that of Lieutenant-Colonel.”

Powpall is not of those in MR. EDGCUMBE's list of That an offer of 5,0001. was made to the Duke of suspected persons."

W. SHANLY. Grafton by Samuel Vaughan does not seem to

Montreal. have been denied.

T. T. V.

A PREPOSITION FOLLOWED BY A CLAUSE (8th A correspondent, advocating the supposed claims S. ii. 488).—The passage quoted by Mr. BAYNE Lord Chatham, asks, “Why impossible ?" Well, from the Saturday Review is but one illustration for two main reasons.

of the perverse ideas about the relative pronoun 1. Junius declares himself utterly unknown, wbich are current among literary people. The stating that he worked single handed. Now, a objective is misused for the nominative and vice secret known to two or more dissociated people is versâ, not merely by newspaper reporters, but by no secret at all. If any such two persons are con- men of note, in phrases like the following: “Ā stantly in communication, something will ooze out; man whom his contemporaries considered was

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unsurpassed in his art”; “Consider who the king side by side with that dirty fellow ?" whereas your father sends" (Shakespeare, 'Love's Labour's “comes exterior" distinctly means giving the wall Lost,' II, i. 2). Since the publication of Mr. and walking outside. J. CARRICK MOORE. Bayne's note the solecism he protests against bas been repeated by the editor of the Nineteenth Cen

ANGELICA CATALANI (8th S. ii. 485).- On the tury (January, 1893) in his article on the late authority of 'Cbambers's Encyclopædia,' s.v., it is Laureate. We are told at p. 169 that on certain said of this celebrated singer occasions Tennyson spoke openly to whomsoever " that the throat from which these wondrous sounds promight be” in his company ; and there is a far ceeded was physically of such dimensions that a physician, worse bit of syntax at p. 179, where Tennyson is when called to look upon it, declared he could have

passed down it a penny roll." made by Mr. Knowles's ungrammatical pen to say of a wounded knight" he slowly crawled to whither

She possessed a magnificent commanding person his brother lay." What a pity the knight did not lani was born in 1780 or 1784, and died at Paris

and fine expressive countenance. Madame Cataperform the return journey, so that Mr. Knowles

in 1849.

John PICKFORD, M.A. might have penned "from Tennyson's lips” (!) that

" "he crawled back from whence his brother lay" !

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. I suppose those who see nothing amiss in such SIEGE OF BUNRATTY (8th S. ii. 468).-Admiral sentences as "I love whomsoever loves you” and Penn's account is given in Granville Penn's “He spoke to whomsoever might be there are Memorials' of that officer. The affair was well not so silly as to defend "I love whom loves you," contested, and the victory a credit to the native “He spoke to whom might be there,” &c. The Irish army, under its general, Lord Muskerry. particle-soever, which blinds them to bad grammar,

P. S. P. CONNER. bas no more grammatical influence in an English Philadelphia. phrase than .cumque has in a Latin. An analogy with Byron's " Whom the gods love die young'

Roman BIS OPS' OATH OF SUBSERVIENCE (8th (Don Juan,' iv. 12) cannot be urged in defence. S. ii

. 528): -See the 'Pontificale Romanum," " De The analogy would be exact only if the sentence

Consecratione Electi ad Episcopum ": read The gods love whom die young:

If, how

“Forma Juramenti. over, we transpose it into the order “Die young fidelis et obediens ero Beato Petro Apostolo, Sanctæque

“ Ego N. Electus Ecclesiæ N. ab hac hora in antea whom the gods love," we see that there is an Romanæ Ecclesiæ, et Domino Nostro, Domino N. Papæ ellipsis of the antecedent, which is what always N. suisque successoribus canonice intrantibus," &c. happens in the absolute construction of the relative.

It was made imperative that such an oath The phrase of the Saturday Review, as well as of should be taken in Decretal.'Greg. ix. I. i. tit. vi. the Nineteenth Century, is an example of this “De Electione,"c. iv. There is a full examination construction, and must be corrected as MR. of the oath in all points in Archbishop Bramhall's BAYNE proposes.


Works' (passim), with A. W. Haddan's notes.
A. C. L.

ED. MARSHALL. WALNUTS (8th S. ii. 364).-In Thomas Wilsford's 'Nature's Secrets,' 1665, p. 144, it is stated If MR. HOOPER will turn to the account of the that " great store of walnuts and almonds presage consecration of Dr. Vaughan as Archbishop of a plentiful year of corn, especially filberds." Westminster in the papers of the period—the past

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. summer-he will find the text of this terrific oath. CATHERINE MACAULAY AND EDMUND BURKE

This I state from memory alone, but feel perfectly


Roman (86. S. ii. 527).-If G. F. R. B. will communicate confident that I myself so read it. And

Catholic with me I can show him a copy of the pamphlet to

paper-such as the Tablet, to wit-will which he refers. M. I. F. BRICKDALE.

certainly give the whole text. 8, New Square, Lincoln's Inn.


Barnes Common.
How will this do?-

GAELIC (861 S. iii. 47).- EZTAKIT seems to be

under a misapprehension as to the words to which But right faire was hir here, I wol not lie.

be refers. The words are perfectly correct, but Chaucor, ' The Reves Tale,'

they are in the subjunctive mood of the verbs. As E. H. M.

regards bhios, this word is a contraction for the TAKING TAE Wall (8th S. ii. 386, 536).—The longer but more correct form bhitheas, which form, passage immediately preceding that quoted by however, is more rarely used than the shorter one. MR. PICKFORD from Horace would, methinks, I may say that in both the copies of the Gaelic prove his case better :

version of the Scriptures in my possession the form ne tamen illi

bhios seems to be adopted for the future subjuncTu comes exterior, si postulot, ire recuses. tive, while the future indicative is, of course, “Utoe tegam,” &c., merely means “Shall I walk bithiah ; e. g., Leviticus xiii. 14, “ Ach an uair a

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bhios feoil dhearg r'a faicinn air, bithiah e neo-circumflex accent in English type. The accent is ghlan," i. e., “but when there shall be red flesh to rarely, if ever, given to the word by French writers be seen on bim, he shall be unclean," or, as the or printers.

HENRY ATTWELL. A.V. has it, “But when raw flesh appeareth in him, Barnes. he shall be uncleap." EZTAKIT will find the contractions, &c., used in the subjunctive of the verb “ ARBATEL” (866 S. ii. 429).—The word I allude bi referred to in Stewart's Gaelic Grammar, 1879, to is in origin identical with an astrological p. 69, although a complete list is not given. term, almuten, whicb, in the astrological sense,

E. R. will be found exhaustively explained in the 'New Glasgow

English Dictionary, but in the secondary sense

above referred to it has never been bracketed with PARGITER, DERING, AND Ferries (8th S. ii. almuten before, and therefore the following scheme, 448, 517).- I note the suggestion that Dering showing its primarily related and subsequently equates Dearling; if this is true of the Sir more and more divergent spellings, should prove as Edward Dering, Kot. or Bart., he can hardly interesting as I believe it to be original : bave belonged to the Kentish family of Surrenden 1. Almutel, in Agrippa and Barrett, who say: (A.-S. dearran, German dauern, Latin durus). “Holy tables and papers likewise serve to this Henry Dering, of Pevingtou, son of the first effect, being especially imposed and consecrated, baronet, born 1632, married Peke, and left a such as the almutel of Solomon," and so op. son named Edward. Sir Edward, the first baronet, 2. Almudel of Solomon, in a story called 'Mars had a brother named Henry, born 1615, so uncle being in the Eighth House,' in a Christmas pumto Henry of Pevington.


ber of the Graphic. SALISBURY MISSAL (8th S. ii. 528 ; iii. 56). –

3. Almadel, Key of Salomon the King, the When I replied it did not occur to me at tbe fourth book, transcribed from the original manumoment that Lord Bute's translation is of the pre- from his Library, now on sale

at the prices affixed

script by Mr. Hockley." See List of Books, chiefly sept Roman, not of the Sarum Breviary.

J. T. F.

by George Redway. Bishop atfield's Hall, Durbam.

4. "Les Vraies Clavicules du Roi Salomon,' par

Armadel, in Catalogue of the Lansdowne ManuLord Bate's translation is of the Romad, not the scripts in the British Museum. Sarum Breviary. It may be mentioned that por- 5. ' Arbatel of Magick,' translated into Eoglish tions of the Sarum Missal and Breviary are still by Robert Turper. Also Arbatel de Magia used by Catholic ecclesiastics in Mass and office in Veterum,' both translation and original, in British England on the feasts of certain English saints, Museum Catalogue.

J. Platt, Jun. and the York Missal in the same way.


I have been hoping to see some reply as to the St. Andrews, N.B.

usage of the word above alluded to; but nothing

having yet appeared, I venture to inform your CUSACK AND LUTTRELL EPIGRAMS (3rd S. xi. correspondent that, in addition to the German and 272). – In the above I find a note relating to Henry Latin versions mentioned by him, there is also an Luttrell, in which the statement of one Hardiman, English version in the British Museum Catalogue ; who reported on the Irish Records, and Lord West- but instead of being under the correct heading, it is meath's investigation of the charges made against only to be found under that of “H. C. Agrippa, Henry Luttrell are referred to. Where are these where it is described as translated into English by to be found ?

Q. Robert Turner.

W. BROOKS. “ TO THREEP” (gib S. ii. 325, 452, 491; iii. 53).

St. CUTHEERT (ged S. ii. 386, 449, 498, 535; -In Glossographia Anglicum Novo' .. find iii. 53). — Your correspondent J. T. F. bas written Threep. (north" word), to affirm positively, to me asking for a reference to any original anthoobstinately, to persist in." This seems more conbodant to the sense of the word in the phrase "Ye Cathedral to St. Cuthbert, or to SS. Mary and Cath

rity for the pre-Reformation dedication of Durbam won't threep that down my throat,” than its older bert. I have mislaid bis address; but perhaps yon meaning, to “convict, refute.”

will allow me to refer him in your columns to the C. A. WAITE.

list of Northumbrian churches compiled by Prior CHÂLET (8th S. iii. 68). - Littré, in citing Scheler's Wessington (1416–1446), and affixed above the chaslet (a fictitious diminutive of casa) as the choir door of the Cathedral of Durbam. Included origin of chalet, says he inclines to see in the word in this list is the following: “In Dudelmesi a contraction of castelletum. Brachet merely says comitatu, Ecclesia Catbedralis Dunelm. S. Mariæ of chalet that it is Swiss, from the patois of the et S. Cuthb. de Cestria similiter.". In his tract Grisons. The query suggests the remark that the De Orig. Ord. Monacb.,' fol. 30, the prior refers a of chalet is almost invariably furnished with a to tbis catalogue as that of " ecclesiæ et capellæ in

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