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cunningly suppressed their words, and hath only made a muster of their names, but would suffer them to say nothing.

Clemens. And that thou, good reader, mayest have a taste hereof, and see the faith- Clement. fulness of these men's dealing, let us first consider Clemens, who, as it is reported here, was the apostles' fellow. The title of the book seemeth to be De apostolicis traditionibus: that is, "Of orders taken and devised by the apostles of Christ for the better government of the church." A worthy book, no doubt, and in all ages to be had in great price, if men had been persuaded it had been written indeed by Clement. But St Hierome by the report of Eusebius maketh mention Hier. de Feonly of one epistle of Clement's that he thought worthy to be received; which Scriptorib. epistle, notwithstanding, is not now to be found. One other epistle of Clement's

clesiast.

he speaketh of, but he saith it was never allowed by the church. And further St Hierome saith: "Certain other books there are reported to be abroad in the name of Clement, as the disputation of Peter and Appion; which books were Books counnever in use amongst our fathers, neither contain they pure and apostolical doc- St Clement's trine." Thus much St Hierome.

Now, whence then cometh M. Harding's Clement? It was found very lately in the Isle of Candy, by one Carolus Capellius, a Venetian, written in Greek, and in these countries never heard of nor seen before".

te:feited in

name.

Petrus Crab,

Concil.

Here the reader, be he never so simple, yet must he think thus much with 1 Tom. himself: Clemens was bishop of Rome, as it is thought, next after St Peter; and were the bishop of Rome's books, and such books, so strange, so holy, and of such weight, kept in Candy, so far off from Italy, in an island in the sea, and not in Rome? written in Greek, and not in Latin? And could such a worthy work devised by all the apostles, and set forth by the apostles' fellow, be laid up in secrecy for the space of a thousand five hundred years and more, and no man miss it? Thus much the reader may soon consider with himself, be he never so simple.

Leon. i.

But what if this book were never written by St Clement? What if it were written by no honest man? What if it were written by an heretic? Verily, it was a common practice in old times, to set wicked books abroad under the names and titles of the apostles, and other godly fathers. Leo, sometime bishop of Rome, writeth thus: Apocrypha... scripturæ, quæ sub nominibus apostolorum mul- Decretal. tarum habent seminarium falsitatum, non solum interdicendæ, sed etiam penitus Can. xv. auferendæ atque ignibus tradendæ sunt: "Secret scriptures, which, bearing the names of the apostles, contain a nursery and occasion of much falsehood, are not only to be forbidden, but also utterly to be taken away and to be committed to the fire." By this we see, that the apostles' names were borrowed sometimes to avouch heresies and wicked doctrine.

Saneta Ro

mana.

As touching Clemens, Gelasius writeth thus, and, for that he was bishop of the same see, it is the more likely he should know the truth: Pauca quæ ad me- Dist. 15. moriam venerunt, et catholicis vitanda sunt, decrevimus esse subdenda. In primis, Ariminensem synodum a Constantino Cæsare Constantini filio congregatam mediante Tauro præfecto ex tunc...et... in æternum, confitemur esse damnatum 1o. Item itinerarium nomine Petri apostoli, quod appellatur sancti Clementis, libri octo apocryphi11: “We

[4 It was not printed until 1633, being found in the Codex Alexandrinus, brought to England in 1628.]

...

[s Scripsit. ad ecclesiam Corinthiorum valde utilem epistolam. Fertur et secunda ejus nomine epistola, quæ a veteribus reprobatur.-Hieron. Op. Catal. Script. Eccles. xv. Tom. IV. Pars. 11. col. 107.] [* *Ηδη δὲ καὶ ἕτερα πολυεπῆ καὶ μακρὰ συγγράμμετα ὡς τοῦ αὐτοῦ χθὲς καὶ πρώην τινὲς προήγαγον, Πέτρου δὴ καὶ ̓Απίωνος διαλόγους περιέχοντα, ὧν οὐδ ̓ ὅλως μνήμη τις παρὰ τοῖς παλαιοῖς φέρεται. οὐδε γὰρ καθαρὸν τῆς ἀποστολικῆς ὀρθοδοξίας ἀποZEL TOV Xаpaктпра.-Euseb. Eccles. Hist. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 1695-1700. Lib. 111. cap. xxxviii. pp. 88,9.]

[Epitome apostolicarum constitutionum, quas

octo libris constare aiunt, nuper in Creta insula re-
pertis, inventore et interprete Carolo Capellio Veneto.
-Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. I. p. 27.
See, for the works imputed to Clement, Patr. Apo-
stol. a Coteler. Amst. 1724. Tom. I.]

[8 Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. Ad Turrib. Epist.
xciii. cap. xv. col. 489; where we find auferendæ
sunt atque ignibus concremanda.]

[ Falsehead, 1565.]

[10 Damnatam, 1565, 1609.]

[ Gelas. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Prim. Pars, Dist. xv. can. 3. cols. 56, 7; where we find a catholicis, credimus, Constantio, for Constantini, damnatam, and apocryphum.]

Abdias.

have thought good (saith Gelasius) to note certain books which are come to knowledge, and ought to be avoided of catholic people. First, the council holden at Ariminum, gathered by Constantinus the emperor, the son of Constantinus, by mean of Taurus the lieutenant, from thenceforth and for ever we judge worthy to be condemned. Likewise the journal of Peter the apostle, bearing the name of Clement, eight books are secret (unlawful) writings." Thus we see divers books of Clement condemned by name, and but one epistle only allowed for good; and this volume, here alleged by M. Harding, containing eight books, as it is Petrus Crab, noted by Peter Crab, fully agreeing in number of books with the other condemned by Gelasius. To be short, cardinal Bessarion, alleging a1 parcel of the same book of Clement, that hath been hidden so long, writeth thus of it: Licet Eucharistia....hæc Clementis verba inter apocryphas scripturas commemorari soleant, placet tamen eis inpræsentiarum tanquam veris assentiamus: "Albeit the words of Clement be accounted amongst secret (unlawful) writings, yet for once we are content to receive them, as if they were true." Thus M. Harding's Clement is disallowed by Eusebius, and by St Hierome, mistrusted by Bessarion, condemned by Gelasius, kept forth-coming in close prison for the space of a thousand and five hundred years: yet must we now, without refusal, stoop unto him, and take him as the apostles' fellow.

1. Tom.

Concil.
Bessar. de
Sacrament.

Abdias.

Mark xvi.

Abdias in vita
Matthæi.

Gaguinus.

Paul. Emil.

One other of these witnesses is Abdias, and he is brought in with all his titles: the bishop of Babylon, planted there by the apostles; one that was conversant with Christ, and heard him preach, and saw him in the flesh, and was present at the martyrdom of St Andrew; with all other circumstances that may gather credit among the simple. Of this Abdias somewhat must be spoken, and so much the more, for that his name is so glorious. He was sought out, and found, and set abroad of very late years, under the name of Abdias, by one Wolphgangus Zazius, a man that taketh great pains to force men to believe it is the very self-same Abdias that he maketh himself to be; and therefore he saith, he was one of the lxxii. disciples, ordered bishop by the apostles, and that St Luke the evangelist, writing the Acts of the Apostles, borrowed many whole stories, word by word, out of him3. Then was St Luke very unthankful, that never once made mention of his author.

But whosoever or whatsoever this Abdias were, his own words do so bewray him, that a blind man may see it was not he. He maketh many shameless lies, that he was present with Christ, and at the most part of the apostles' doings; and yet were the apostles then, according to Christ's commandment, gone into the whole world, some into Italy, some into Asia Minor, some into Scythia, some into India, some into Ethiopia, and were many thousand miles asunder. In his fable of Iphigenia he saith, that the people took her brother Beor, being then christened by St Matthew, and made him king, and that he reigned afterward in Ethiopia the space of lxiii. years; and further maketh mention of Egesippus, that lived above one hundred and threescore years after Christ. If Abdias were alive all this while, he might be likened to Johannes de temporibus, who, as the French story recordeth, lived in France above three hundred years. A liar must be circumspect, and mindful what he say. If he saw Christ in the flesh, it is not likely he ever saw Egesippus, that was so long after Christ if he saw Egesippus, it is not likely he ever saw Christ. Thus if he report truth in the one, he lieth in the other; and so, whether he lie, or say truth, he cannot be Abdias.

Touching the substance of his book, it is nothing else, for the more part of it, but a vain peevish tale, laid out with falsehood", wicked doctrine, and curious conference and talk with devils; things far unmeet for that gravity and majesty of the apostles of Christ, as it may soon appear unto the reader.

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It may be gathered by St Augustine in sundry places, that some part of this Abdias. book was written by certain heretics, named the Manichees, and avouched by Martialis. them as the very true story of the apostles. For he reporteth the fables of St Thomas, of St Matthew, of St Andrew, of the lion that slew the man that had August. contra Faustum, stricken St Thomas, of the dog that brought the same man's hand unto the table, Lili. cap. 10. Lib.xi.et Lib. of Maximilla, wife unto Egis, and other like tales, even in such order as they be set forth by this Abdias 8.

tra Adiman

Fide, contra

Against one Adimantus he writeth thus: " They (that is, the Manichees) read August. consecret scriptures, which they themselves say are pure and perfect; in which tum, cap. 16. scriptures it is written that St Thomas cursed a man, and that afterward a lion slew him, &c.10 And in another place he saith: Attendite qualia sint quæ scri- Aug. de buntur de Maximilla, uxore Egetis: illam noluisse viro debitum reddere: donasse et Manicha supposuisse Eucliam ancillam, et alias similes fabulas 11: "Behold what things they cap. 30. be that be written of Maximilla, wife unto Egis; that she (being once christened) would no more yield duty unto her husband, but set Euclia her maid in her own place; and other like fables."

All these and such like tales, thus disallowed by St Augustine, are reported by M. Harding's Abdias in great sooth. I thought it not amiss to speak hereof the more at large, for that I saw a book so full of tales, so lately found out, without any good shew of credit, to be fathered upon the apostles' disciple, and sent into the world with such a countenance. St Augustine seemeth in divers places to have given his judgment of the same. Writing against the adversary of the law and prophets, he hath these words: "He hath brought forth witnesses out of August. consecret scriptures, under the names of the apostles John and Andrew; which tra Adversarium Legis et writings, if they had been theirs, they had been received of the church 12" The Prophetarum, Lib. i. like judgment hereof seemeth to be given by Gelasius, who also saith that cap. xx. Dist. 15. "such writings, according to an ancient custom, and by a singular provision, were Sancta Ronot read in the church of Rome, for that they were thought to be written by heretics 13"

Thus is this Abdias a book, as it is apparent, full of manifest lies, and, as it may be supposed by St Augustine and Gelasius, written and favoured by heretics, and refused of the church; upon such a one, good reader, M. Harding will have thee to stay thy faith.

As for the rest of these new witnesses, although I mind to take no great exception against them, yet M. Harding knoweth there is scarcely one of them but may be doubted of.

mana.

Martialis was lately found in France, in the city of Lemovica 14, in an arch of Martialis. stone under the ground, so corrupt and defaced that in many places it could not be read, and was never seen in the world at any time before 15.

Dionysius, although he be an ancient writer, as it may many ways well Dionysius. appear, yet it is judged by Erasmus, John Colet, and others many, grave and Erasm. con

tra Parisien

ses.

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[10 Ipsi autem legunt scripturas apocryphas, quas etiam incorruptissimas esse dicunt, ubi scriptum est apostolum Thomam maledixisse homini, &c.— Id. Cont. Adimant. Lib. cap. xvii. 2. Tom. VIII. col. 137.] ["Adtendite qualia sint quæ accipitis de Maximilla uxore Egetis: quæ cum nollet marito debitum reddere illa supposuerit marito suo aneillam suam Eucliam nomine, &c.-Id. De Fid. cont. Manich. Lib. cap. xxxviii. Tom. VIII. Append. col. 33. This is most probably not a genuine work of

[JEWEL.]

Augustine. It has been attributed to Evodius.]
[12 Sane de apocryphis iste posuit testimonia, quæ
sub nominibus apostolorum Andreæ Johannisque con-
scripta sunt. Quæ si illorum essent, recepta essent
ab ecclesia, &c.-Id. Contr. Advers. Leg. et Proph.
Lib. 1. cap. xx. 39. Tom. VIII. col. 570.]

[13 Sed ideo secundum antiquam consuetudinem
singulari cautela in sancta Romana ecclesia [gesta
sanctorum martyrum] non leguntur: quia et eorum,
qui conscripsere, nomina penitus ignorantur; et ab
infidelibus aut idiotis superflua aut minus apta, quam
rei ordo fuerit, scripta esse putantur: sicut cujusdam
Quirici, &c.-Gelas. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd.
1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Prima Pars, Dist. xv.
can. 3. col. 56.]

[14 Limoges.]

[15 Præfat. ad Hist. Marc. Episc. ad calc. Abd. Hist. Apost. fol. 153. 2. See also Not. adcalc. Mart. Epist. in Biblioth. Patr. per M. De la Bigne, Par. 1624. Tom. III. cols. 15, 6.]

8

Liturgia Ja

cobi.

Liturgia

Chrysostomi,

dio du

Sanctes.

Pope Joan.

learned men, that it cannot be Areopagita, St Paul's disciple, that is mentioned in the Acts1.

St James' liturgy hath a special prayer for them that live in monasteries; and yet it was very rathe2 to have monasteries built in all St James' time3.

Chrysostom's liturgy prayeth for pope Nicolas by these words: Nicolai sancedita a Clau- tissimi et universalis papæ longa sint tempora1: "We pray God send Nicolas, that most holy and universal pope, a long time to live." But pope Nicolas, the first of that name, was the second pope after pope Joan the woman, in the year of our Lord eight hundred fifty and seven, almost five hundred years after Chrysostom was dead. And likewise in the same liturgy there is a prayer for the empire and victory of the emperor Alexius1. And the first emperor of that name was in the year of our Lord a thousand and fourscore, after the decease of Chrysostom seven hundred years. Now it were very much for M. Harding to say Chrysostom prayed for men by name seven hundred years before they were born. I trow that were prophesying, and not praying.

M. Hard.

Thou seest, christian reader, what doctors here be brought, as M. Harding saith, to ground thy faith and salvation upon. If he could have brought any better, I trow he would have spared these. But such doctrine, such doctors. These doubtful authorities, I trust, will set men's consciences out of doubt.

Now, notwithstanding it be something troublesome, yet shall it not be from witnesses the purpose, for trial of these men's faithful dealing, to examine some of M. Haragainst ding's own witnesses, and to hear what they will depose. All these, as it is said, himself. avouch the sacrifice, otherwise called the mass; and not only these, but also all others, of all ages and times, and that in a manner in the self-same order and form that now is used.

Fol. 11, a. lin. 1.

Dumb wit

nesses.

Here M. Harding much abuseth both his own learning, and also the trust and credit that many have in him. For he knoweth well that the apostles had neither the form, nor the order, nor the name of mass.

Howbeit, if all these bear witness to the mass, why speak they not? Why M. Harding come they forth so dumb? What, have they nought to say in this behalf? Or is their word not worth the hearing? Or are they so old that they cannot speak? Or must we needs believe M. Harding without evidence?

allegeth witnesses against himself.

Liturgia
Jacobi.

Dishes and cups.

But what if neither Clement, the apostles' fellow, nor Abdias, nor St James, nor Basil, nor Chrysostom, nor any other of all these here alleged, speak one word of private mass? What if they have not so much as the name of mass? What if they testify plainly against M. Harding's mass? What if they testify fully and roundly with the holy communion? It were great shame for M. Harding to fly from his own witnesses, and very much for me to stand to be tried by them that are brought in such a throng to depose against me.

And to begin first with St James,-the order of his liturgy, which M. Harding calleth mass, standeth thus: Sacerdos [ait], Nullus eorum qui orare non possunt nobiscum ingrediatur....Diaconus [ait], Cum timore, et fide, et dilectione accedite : Populus [respondet], Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.... Deinde impertit clero : cum autem attollunt diaconi discos et calices ad impertiendum populo, diaconus ait,......... Domine, benedic5. Which words may be turned thus: "The priest saith, Let not one of them that may not pray enter in with us. The deacon saith, With reverence and faith and love approach ye near. The people answereth, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. After this he ministereth unto the clergy. But when the deacons take up the dishes and cups, to minister unto the people, the deacon saith, Lord, bless." Here, by the order of St James' mass, the people answereth the priest in their own tongue; provision is made for

[ Erasm. Op. Lugd. Bat. 1703-6. Declar. ad Cens. Facult. Theol. Paris. Tit. xxii. 91. Tom. IX. cols. 916, 7.]

[2 Rathe: soon, early.]

[3 Pro iis qui in virginitate et castitate, in monasteriis, ac in venerando connubio degunt.-S. Jacob. Miss. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560. fol. 3. The Greek text is, Ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐν παρθενία καὶ ἁγνείᾳ καὶ ἀσκήσει καὶ ἐν σεμνῷ γάμῳ διαγόντων. p. 14.]

...

[Chrysost. Miss. in eod. fol. 20.-Et pro imperio in victoria Alexii magni imperatoris et porphyrogeniti. Ibid. These passages are not in the Greek text.]

[ S. Jacob. Miss. in eod. foll. 2. 2, 7; where the first address is ascribed to the deacon, and the words are transposed nobiscum non possunt; where also we find timore Dei et fide ac, &c.]

the whole congregation in dishes and cups; they be called to receive the communion; and they do receive all together. Now let M. Harding be judge, whether St James bear record to the private mass or to the communion.

Vita S.

Abdias, although he report many untrue tales, yet he reporteth not one word of private mass, but much to the contrary. Writing the life of St Thomas, and shewing in what sort he ministered the holy communion, he saith thus: Eucha- Abdias in ristiam divisit his quos supra memoravimus [id est, populo]: "He divided the Thom. A post. sacrament unto the people, of whom we spake before." And again, in the life of St Matthew, who, as M. Harding beareth us in hand, without all question said mass in Ethiopia, he writeth thus: Cumque respondissent Amen, et mysteria Abdias in Domini celebrata [essent], et missam suscepisset omnis ecclesia": "When they had A post. answered Amen, and the mysteries of the Lord had been celebrate, and the whole church had received the communion." Where the whole church answereth the priest, and receiveth the communion together, I reckon M. Harding will hardly call that a private mass.

Vita S. Matt.

in 2 Apologia.

Justinus Martyr, another of M. Harding's witnesses, in his second apology unto the emperor Antoninus, declaring the innocency of the christian people that then lived under great persecution, and shewing the manner of their assemblies, writeth thus: "Before the end of our prayers we kiss each of us one another. Justin Martyr Then is there brought unto him that is the chief of the brethren bread, and a cup of wine and water mingled together, which having received he praiseth God and giveth thanks a good space; and, that done, the whole people confirmeth his ἐπευφημεῖ. prayer, saying Amen. After that they that among us be called deacons give unto every of them that be present part of the bread, and likewise of the wine and water, that are consecrate with thanksgiving, and carry the same home unto them that happen to be absent." Here is a full communion, and no private

mass.

3.

Dionysius, another of the witnesses, and, as M. Harding saith, the apostles' scholar, openeth the whole order of the ministration in his time, writing namely and purposely of that matter. "The priest," saith he, "beginneth the holy Dionys. Eepsalmody; and the whole body of the church singeth' with him. Then followeth cap. Hierar. in order the reading of the holy scriptures, which is done by the ministers. After that, the catechumeni," that is, they that are newly come unto the religion of Christ and are not yet baptized, “and energumeni," that is, such as are molested with evil spirits, "and such others as are enjoined to penance, are commanded forth. And so there remain such as are meet to have the sight and communion of the holy things 10.” It followeth: “ And, shewing forth the gifts of the holy sacraments, he τὰς δωρεάς goeth to the communion himself, and likewise exhorteth others 11.” And a little τῶν θεουργιῶν ὑπο after that: “The priest, uncovering the bread that came covered and in one δείξας. cake or loaf, and dividing the same into many portions, and likewise dividing the unity of the cup unto all, mystically and by way of a sacrament he fulfilleth and συμβολιdivideth unity 12" It followeth again: " Then the minister, receiving himself and κως distributing the holy communion unto others, in the end concludeth with holy τῆς κοινώς

[ Abd. Apost. Hist. Par. 1571. Lib. ix. fol. 118.]

[* Id. Lib. vi. fol. 94. 2.]

[* Αλλήλους φιλήματι ἀσπαζόμεθα παυσάμενοι τῶν εὐχῶν· ἔπειτα προσφέρεται τῷ προεστῶτι τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἄρτος καὶ ποτήριον ὕδατος καὶ κράματος. καὶ οὗτος λαβών, αἶνον καὶ δόξαν ... ἀναπέμπει· καὶ εὐχαριστίαν ὑπὲρ τοῦ κατηξιῶσθαι τούτων παρ' αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ πολὺ ποιεῖται· οὗ συντελέσαντος πᾶς ὁ παρών λαὸς ἐπευφημεῖ λέγων, ἀμήν ... οἱ καλούμενοι παρ' ἡμῖν διάκονοι, διδόασιν ἑκάστῳ τῶν παρόντων μεταλαβεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ εὐχαριστηθέντος ἄρτου καὶ οἶνου καὶ ὕδατος, καὶ τοῖς οὐ παροῦσιν ἀποφέ ρουσι.-Just. Mart. Op. Par. 1742. Apol. i. pp. 82, 3.]

[ Signeth, 1611.]

[18 Ο μὲν ἱεράρχης ... ἀπάρχεται τῆς ἱερᾶς τῶν ψαλμῶν μελωδίας, συναδούσης αὐτῷ τὴν ψαλμικὴν

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τῆς θεαρχι

νίας μετα δούς.

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