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320 CUNG.....2p Sess.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPS. He will be able, I hope, to take his departure in Congress might hereafter think fit to authorize. have waited with anxiety for the occasion to add a few weeks, and will sail directly to the Pacific, I have accordingly directed a preliminary investi- this new resource to the industry of our people; doubling Cape Horn and proceeding by the Sand- gation to be made by an officer of the navy, and I am sure it will gratify the commercial pride wich Islands to Behring's Straits, where he may whom I have attached to the African squadron, and please the emulous ambition of the nation, not be expected to arrive at the opening of the season with orders to devote the months of the coming less than it will secure great and permanent advanfor operations in that quarter. It is designed to em- winter to an examination of necessary conditions tages to ils trade, to have the American flag and a ploy the expedition during each year in the recon- which this undertaking may require.
national vessel the first to receive the greetings of noissance of these high latitudes from June until In Commander Lyoch, to whom the country is the population who, ay the foot of the Andes, and October, this being the only season in which the already indebted for important service in another | along the navigable waters of inland Brazil, Bosurveys may be prosecuted in those regions. The field, I have found a prompt and ardent volunteer | livia, and Paraguay, are ready to welcome the first remaining portions of each year will be devoted to for this employment. He is now on his way to messenger of commerce and ihrow their treasures the prosecution of survey and exploration in the the African coast. He will land at Liberia, Cape into his hand. lower latitudes, along the coast of Japan, the China | Palmas, and other points, and will pursue his in- Anticipating the near approach of this opporseas, and the routes of navigation between our quiries as far as the river Gaboon, with a view to tunity, with your approval I admonished Lieuports on the Pacific and the East Indies. Particu- the ascertainment of such localities on the margin tenant Page, before it arrived, to hold himself in lar attention will be given to the survey of the seas of the African continent as may present the great- readiness for an exploration of these rivers, and and coasts through and along which our whaling est facilities, whether by the river courses or by directed the steamer Water Witch to be put in ships pursue their perilous trade, looking carefully inland routes, for penetrating, with least hazard, to condition for the service. She is now nearly to the coast of Japan, the Kurile Islands, the sea the interior. He will collect information touch- l equipped, and Lieutenant Page will be ready to of Okhotsk, and ihe unexplored shores of North. l ing the geographical character of the country, its take his departure at the first moment that the ern Asia.
means of affording the necessary supplies of men steamer may be fit to receive him. He is proThe commander of the expedition is made fully and provisions, the temper of the inhabitants, vided with an able crew, well adapted to the nature aware of the necessity and value of an accurate whether hostile or friendly, the proper precautions of his expedition, and seconded by officers chosen survey of the various lines of navigation between to be observed to secure the health of the party for their efficiency both in the sphere of seamanCalifornia and China, and will bestow upon this employed, and all other items of knowledge upon i ship and scientific labor. A few boats are proundertaking an attention commensurate with its which it may be proper hereafter to prepare and vided, adapted to the navigation of the upper importance. He is directed to make frequent re- combine the forces essential to the success of a streams above their falls; and the equipment, ports of his work, in order that no time may be complete and useful exploration of the interior. I though of simple and unexpensive kind, will be, lost in communicating to the country the results, | In the performance of this duty, under the most in all respects, such as may enable Lieutenant together with descriptive charts, of his survey, for favorable circumstances, he will encounter the
Page to accomplish the duty assigned to him. the benefit of commerce and navigation. These perils of a climate famed for its unwholesome influ
These four expeditions, each of them of a highly will be duly published as often as they are received ence upon the white man, and may hardly hope interesting character, and likely to be productive by the Department.
to escape the exhibition of hostility from the na- of results which will be beneficially felt and acBeing persuaded that this Department cannot tives. The spirit which has prompted him to court knowledged long after the men who may procure better contribute to the fulfillment of the high ex- this perilous adventure, so honorable to his cour- them shall have passed away, constitute, in great pectations which the country has ever entertained || age and philanthropy, I trust will enable him to
part, the chief and most important topics which as to the value of the Navy, nor perform a more brave every hazard with success, to overcome have engrossed the care of the Navy Department acceptable duty to the Navy itself
, than by.im- every obstacle in his progress, and to reserve him- during the past year. parting to this arm of the national power the high- self for the accomplishment of the great object to
It gives me pleasure to report, in connection est spirit of enterprise, as well as the greatest which these preparations are directed. In the with these, the return of Lieutenant Herndon, to efficiency of action, I have sought every opportu- mean time, I most earnestly, commend the subject whom was consigned, in conjunction with Passed nity to put in requisition for useful service the of the exploration to the early and favorable atien- || Midshipman (now Lieutenant) Gibbon, an explorvarious talent, skill, and ambition of honorable | tion of Congress, with the expression of my own ation of the valley of the river Amazon and its adventure, which equally distinguish and embellish conviction that there is no enterprise of the present tributaries. These officers were directed to cross the professional character of the officers under the day that deserves a higher degree of favor, or that the Cordilleras in Peru and Bolivia, and by a secontrol of the Department. Constant employment will more honorably signalize the enlightened pol- | lection of the most judicious routes of travel, with of ships and men in the promotion of valuable icy of this Government in the estimation of the
a small company of men, for the employment of public interests, whether in the defense of the present or of future generations. It will require whom means were furnished by this Department, honor of our flag, or in the exploration of the field à liberal appropriation of money, and an enlarged to explore the valley of the Amazon, and to deof discovery and the opening of new channels of discretion to be confided to the Navy Department scend that river to the sea. More than a year has trade, or in the enlarging of the boundaries of sci- | for the organization and arrangement of a plan of been spent in the active prosecution of this duty. ence, I am convinced will be recognized both by | operations which must embrace the employment | Lieutenant Herndon reached the United States in the Government and the people as the true and of a number of men, the supply of boats, arma- July last, bringing with him a large amount of inproper vocation of the Navy, and as the means best ments and tools, and the enlistment of such scien- teresting and useful facts, industriously collected calculated to nurse and strengthen that prompt and tificaid as a long and laborious inland exploration, by him in the course of his long and hazardous gallant devotion to duty which is so essential to beset with many dangers and difficulties, will sug- journey, embracing many valuable statistics of the character of accomplished officers, and so ingest.
the country, and adding most important contribudispensable to the effectiveness of the naval organ- With a view to the preparatory operations of tions to the hitherto unknown geographical charization.
Commander Lynch, and also in consideration of | acter of the country. He is now engaged in preActing in conformity with this opinion, I have the need which the African squadron has at all paring a full report of the incidents and discoveries availed myself of events that favored the object to times for such an auxiliary, I have directed the of his travel, which will be communicated to you set on foot two other expeditions, which may be small steamer Vixen to be prepared without delay as soon as it is placed in possession of this Declassed with those which I have just presented to and sent to that coast, to constitute a part of the partment. I beg to commend Lieutenant Herndon your notice, and from which I have every reason force under the command of Commodore Mayo,
to your special approbation and thanks for the to hope much good is to be derived hereafter. who is about to take charge of the squadron. He intelligence and ability, and yet more for the high My attention has been invited by the Colonization will be instructed to furnish Commander Lynch || professional zeal he has exhibited in the performSociety of Pennsylvania to the necessity of pros- with every facility which his position may allow. ance of his difficult and honorable duty. ecuting some researches into the character of the A small sum of money has also been placed at the Lieutenant Gibbon, having taken a different Continent of Africa, and especially that portion disposal of Commander Lynch for the contingen- route from that of Lieutenant Herndon, has not of it lying eastward of the settlements of Liberia. cies of his present service.
yet arrived, but may be expected in the course of It is supposed that an exploration of this region The second expedition to which I have referred ihe winter. When he returns to this city, the would lead to the discovery of a broad tract of fer- | has grown out of the recent decree of the Provis- result of his work will be submitted to your notice. tile and healthy country, well adapted to the ex- ional Director of the Argentine Confederation, The brig Dolphin, which was employed during tension of thai system of colonization which for which has very lately reached this country, and the last year, under the command of Lieutenant some years past has greatly interested the public which now throws open to navigation that long-Lee, in a survey of portions of the Atlantic, for attention, and more recently attracted the favorable sealed and excluded country lying upon the tribu- the purpose of ascertaining the position of some consideration of Congress.
taries of the river La Plaia. The Uraguay and dangerous rocks and shoals which were known to The proposition submitted to my view by the the Parana are at last opened by this decree to the exist in the routes of navigation between the Unisociety, and referred to your approval, I regard access of all nations who may choose to seek the ted States and Europe, has performed useful seras one which may be rendered productive of great new associations which they offer to the spirit of vice, of which the results will be communicated public advantage, and in regard to which you adventure. A vast territory of boundless resource, to Congress. This work being yet incomplete, might confidently bespeak and anticipate the ap- proverbial for its treasures of vegetable and min- the Dolphin has again been dispatched on a secprobation of the country. I have, therefore, not eral wealth, extending, like the Mississippi, from ond cruise of the same character, under the comhesitated, with your concurrence, to give it the aid south to north, and reaching through twenty-four | mand of Lieutenant Berryman, and may be exwhich it was in the power of the Department to parallels of latitude, with every climate bei ween
pected to accomplish a work which will tend, in bestow. As I could not, however, without some ihe temperate and torrid zones, and with every no small degree, io lessen the hazards which have special appropriation to the object, organize a full variety of product which may be gathered from heretofore embarrassed the voyages of our mere and effective expedition for the prosecution of this the alluvial plains of the ocean border to the heights chant marine. enterprise, I have thought that, by the employ- .of the Avdes-this is the field into which the lib.
Lady Franklin, whose devotion to the cause of ment of such means as have been provided for the eral decree of President Urguiza has invited the en- her unfortunate husband has excited so large a
ordinary exigencies of the service, I might profit- 11 terprise of our country, as well as of other nations, sympathy in the United States, has been encourably prepare the way for such an expedition as li who will be equally prompt to pursue it. We l aged to make another effort to determine the fate of
320 CONG.....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of the Navy.
SENATE & Ho, or Reps.
the gallant navigator of the Arctic sea, and is now been regulated and limited by several laws, of nominated for the school may be established by intent upon the organization of a new expedition which the combined import now is to give to each law. For the present, I suggest that this number under the auspices of our countryman, Mr. Henry Suate and Territory its relative proportion of ap may be fixed at two hundred and forty-eight. It Grinnell, and Mr. George Peabody, of London. || pointments, determined by the ratio of representa may be altered as future experience may require. Their endeavor will be directed to an exploration | tion in Congress and its relation the whole Of ihis number of iwo hundred and forty-eight of the upper coasts of Greenland, by land as well number of acting and passed midshipmen allowed who are to be furnished to the Academy every four as sea, and will furnish occasion for valuable sci to the Navy. To this determination of the quota years, one fourth, or sixty-two, should be nominentific observation tending to the ascertainment of of appointments appropriated to each State and ated for admission at the commencement of each the magnetic poles and the intensity and dip of the Territory there has been added an allotment of a yearly term, lo constitute the first or lowest class of needle, and interesting also to geological questions fractional share to each Congressional district, ihe school. Of this whole number of two hundred connected with the supposed existence of an open and the nomination for each district has been and forty-eight, two hundred and twenty-eight polar sea, and other subjects of much importance conferred upon the member representing it. might be allotted to the nomination of members of in the natural history of our globe. Apart, there The whole number of midshipmen, including Congress, apportioning them to each State accordfore, from its main object, there is much in the passed midshipmen, allowed to the Navy is four ing to the ratio of representation and requiring the projected expedition to excite a high degree of in- | hundred and sixty-four. The number of Repre- | nomination to the vacancies to be made, not by terest in its results, both in Europe and America. sentatives and Delegates, according to the last the representatives singły, but by the united coun
The distinguished lady whose sorrows have in census, is two hundred and thirty-nine. Each sel and action of the whole representation of each spired this zeal of adventure, and whose energy Representative, therefore, is entitled by the existing State, including Senators and Representatives. has given it an intelligent and hopeful direction, law to the nomination of one candidaie and a frac The remaining twenty of the two hundred and has done no more than justice to a meritorious tion equal to 225-239.
forty-eight may be given with advantage to the young officer of our Navy, Passed Assistant Sur No provision has been made for the disposition President. geon Kane, in asking his coöperation in this haz of these fractions, and I have therefore ihought By this arrangement Congress would be called ardous exploit. Dr. Kane has already won a myself bound, in the absence of any other regu on to nominate fifty-seven cadets every year, and high praise from his countrymen by his intrepid lation, to consult the wishes of at least a majority the President five. perseverance in facing the extraordinary dangers of the Represeniatives entitled to the fractional The classes would thus commence their career of the last expedition on the same errand to the part in receiving a nomination to supply the i with sixty-two members, and this number, or so Arctic sea, and still more by the diligence which, vacancy.
many of them as are not dropped in the progress guided by scientific accomplishment, has enabled As the school does not contain more than a of the four years, would represent the annual numhim to contribute a valuable fund towards the illus. fourth of the midshipmen belonging to the Navy, | ber of graduates. Provision, of course, should be tration of a subject that now engrosses an unusual and as the vacancies in the number of students made for the gradual absorption of all those acting share of learned investigation.
are dependent altogether upon the promotions to midshipmen who, under the present system, are The request of Lady Franklin to enlist Dr. -|| the grade of lieutenants and upon the resignations, not yet disposed of. In a few years they must Kane in the new expedition has been communi- | dismissals, and deaths in each year in the corps disappear, after which the organization of the cated to me, and I have not delayed to give him of midshipmen, the annual nominations to the cadets would be undisturbed. the necessary permission, and to confer upon him school must, when the entire complement of mid In addition to this number of sixty-two nomall the benefit he may derive from his position in shipmen is regularly filled, be comparatively but || inations to be made in each year, Congress and the Navy, by an order which puts him upon spe few in number. The present condition of the the President would also have the appointment to cial service. If it should become requisite in the service supplies but a small ratio of promotions; || such vacancies in the new class as might arise out field of operations to which he is destined to pro and if it were not for the operation of the resigna- ll of the failure of the first candidates to pass the vide him with means for the prosecution of scien- | tions, dismissals, and deaths, it is manifest that preliminary examinations required at their admistific discovery, beyond those which may be afford the yearly recruits to be added to the school sion. The vacancies occasioned by subsequent ed by the Department and the liberality of the would be so inconsiderable in numbers as examinations, and by the other causes operating distinguished gentlemen who have assumed the forbid any hope of extensive usefulness; whilst during the progress of the classes through the charge of this expedition, I would commend it to the fluctuating character of these causes which term of the four years, I propose should not be the enlightened regard of Congress, with the most produce the vacancies tends to a result scarcely filled; but the classes, after their commencement, confident hope that that body will respond to the less injurious.
should advance to the end of the term of study, suggestions of this necessity with a prompt appre It is, indeed, the most obvious defect in the pres. | subject to all the incidents of their career which ciation and generous support of an undertaking ent organization of the Academy that its supply of may reduce their numbers. The propriety of this so honorable to humanity and so useful to the students is liable to these contingencies; for while || provision will be recognized when it is observed enlargement of liberal science.
the classes are advancing by regular steps, through that a vacancy occurring in any class after it has
the course of four years' study, to the term at become advanced in its studies could not be supTHE NAVAL ACADEMY.
which they must leave the school and enter into plied, at that advanced stage, by a new appointThe Naval Academy at Annapolis presents to the field of active service, the vacancies which ment to the school. The class would still go on the regard of Congress an institution worthy of they create are dependent upon such a limited in ils reduced state, whilst the supply of a vacancy the highest encouragement.
fund of supply as must ultimately reduce the num- | occurring in it could only operate to the undue Under a judicious and energetic administration, ber of pupils below the quota which is essential to increase of the lowest class of beginners, and it has now reached a stage in its progress which the administration of the system.
would thus produce a periodical and inconvenient may enable the Govern
to form a satisfactory That this defect has not already been visible in increase of graduates for whom no allotment could estimate of its influence in promoting and sustain the career of the Academy is to be ascribed only to be made in the Navy. ing the future efficiency of the Navy.
the fact, that up to the present time the members of Assuming sixty-two às the number which shall The school has grown up to its present stage in the institution have been recruited from the grade always be supplied to the lowest class or beginthe progressive expansion and improvement of a of midshipmen who have been employed at sea ners of the school, we have reason to believe, from design which, in its origin, forbade the adoption previous to the new arrangements, adopted and the data afforded by the experience of West Point, of a comprehensive and permanent system of naval commenced with the class of 1851. The classes that the annual number of graduates would not education. It was at 'first contrived to supply heretofore have been furnished out of this corps, exceed some twenty-five or thirty, it being found, nothing more than the opportunity of prosecuting in addition to the annual nominations. When this in the general operation of the system, that the a few useful studies to a class of occasional stu resource is exhausted and the school is dependent | graduates do not bear a greater average proportion dents, who were subject to all the interruptions of on the yearly nominations alone, the defect to to the admissions than forty per cent. Upon this details for service at sea, and who were therefore which I have referred will be fully seen and felt. | basis it may be estimated that these twenty-five or not in a condition to conform to the requirements It will then be manifest that the whole number at thirty may be looked to as the ordinary yearly necessary to a regular course of professional in the school cannot exceed, at any time, the num resource for the sup of young officers to the struction. The obvious insufficiency of this mode ber of promotions added to the occasional vacan Navy. of study soon suggested the necessity for a more cies occurring in the corps of midshipmen and I propose, in the next place, that the law should methodical arrangement. A plan was accordingly passed midshipmen in four years.
establish the corps of midshipmen for the service devised in 1850, to take effect at the commence It is to remedy this defect, and to give the school at two hundred and fifty. These should be recog. ment of the next term of October, 1851, by which an inherent power necessary to its own perpetua. nized as midshipmen only, and be subject to all all the acting midshipmen of the date of ihat and Lion, and to make it what I am sure the country the understood and appropriate duties of that class subsequent years should be inducted into the school desires to see it, a vigorous and healthful institu of officers. They should then be consigned to in its lowest class, and proceed in due order tion, completely adapted to the useful ends for service on board of ships-of-war, and, after six through a prescribed course of naval education, which it was ordained, that I propose, with your months' employment at sea, should, upon exainwhich is specifically adapted to a term of four approbation, to submit to Congress the following ination and approval by a competent board, be years. The series of studies appropriate to each change in its fundamental structure.
entitled to the midshipman's warrant, bearing the year was defined, the practice of gunnery and sea The Academy should be composed exclusively date of the graduation of the school; and after manship established, and the whole organization, of cadets, or young men who are received as can three years' service at sea and another examinaas it now exists, completed. The classes were so didates for admission to the Navy, Its design tion, they should be noted for promotion 10 a contrived also as to receive, according to an ap- should be that of a preparatory school to qualify higher grade, which I propose should be created pointed succession, the acting midshipmen of date these candidates for appointments, and they should by law and denominated masters. The grade of prior to 1851, who by this provision will, in the only be in condition to be selected for midshipmen | passed midshipman should be abolished as soon space of the next three years, have had the op- when they had successfully passed through this as the gradual promotion of the corps may allow. portunity of graduating in the school. probation.
It is an anomaly in the naval service, presenting a The admissions of acting midshipmen to the If this principle be adopted as the ground-work class of officers to whom no duty is specifically Navy, and consequently to the Academy, have of the plan, then the whole number of cadets to be l assigned, and constantly engendering discontent
320 CONG....2n Sess.
Report of the Secretary of the Navy.
Senate & Ho. OF REPs.
when the duties of ordinary midshipmen are re- || graphical corps may require, shall be appropriated reduce it. It is proper for me to say, also, that, quired of it. This class now perform the duty of to that service; and, upon being so appropriated, in assigning five captains to this corps, I may musters, and I think it but proper that the duty they shall be returned to the Academy for an ad have exceeded the number which may be approand the rank should be associated by law. The ditional course of study of two years, during priate to the organization. But as no captain, change would require no increase of pay, and which they shall be employed in obtaining a thor according to this plan, could be appointed before would, I have no doubt, be productive of good ough knowledge of the higher branches of civil the lapse of five years, the experience which may effects.
engineering, hydrography, astronomy, mechan be gained in the interval may enable Congress, The grade of masters might be established at ism, and gunnery, in conformity with the best before that period has gone by, to adjust this one hundred, and might at once be filled by ap- system of instruction which the Academy may be grade to its proper number, and assign' to it its pointing to it that number of passed midshipmen. able to furnish. At the end of this probation of appropriate duties. It may be hereafter looked The ultimate result of this plan would give, when two years they shall be subjected to a final examin to for the supply of the head of the engineer deall the present passed midshipmen shall have been | ation, and, upon a recommendation to that effect, partment, the superintendents of naval architecabsorbed in the regular course of promotion, two shall be admitted to the rank of masters in the hy iure and construction, the general supervision of hundred and fifty midshipmen and one hundred drographical corps. Five years' service in this hydrographical surveys, and the management of masters to occupy the space now filled by the corps grade should entitle them to be promoted to lieu the Naval Academy. If these functions may be of four hundred and sixty-four officers—a reduce tenants, as vacancies may happen, and the pro efficiently discharged by it, the number I have tion of one hundred and fourteen. This reduction motions thenceforward should await the ordinary assigned will not be too large. of course would increase the ratio of promotion incidents of the corps which may supply the proper These are the general views and considerations to the corps of lieutenants, and would leave a occasion.
which have induced me to submit this plan to your sufficient complement for all the demands of the If the Department should be able to contribute approval and to the consideration of Congress. service, estimated by the present size of the Navy. any members to the corps from the present officers It will afford the annual appointment of sixtyA future increase of the Navy would suggest a pro of the service, I think such appointments should two candidates for the Navy. portionate increase of officers of every grade. not exceed twenty to each grade of masters and It will give greater permanency and efficiency
The promotions incident to this organization of lieutenants and ten commanders, and, that no cap to the school. the corps—that is to say, of two hundred and fifty tain be appointed until after five years' service in It will quicken promotion in the Navy, and give midshipmen and one hundred masters—would the corps, there may be found the proper officers to the younger officers hope of useful command supply about twenty-five vacancies a year. The to occupy the vacancies in this grade. It should also whilst they yet possess the vigor and ambition of present number of higher officers furnish some be well understood that the Secretary of the Navy, youth. thing near this yearly average, and there is no in assigning present officers to the corps, should It will establish a valuable corps of scientific reason to suppose that it will be reduced in future; he governed alone in his selection by high qualifi officers, who will bring to the service equal devothe more active service of the Navy, even on the cation and accomplishment in the science required, tion to the prosperity of the Navy and the highest present establishment, may rather increase it. The and not by seniority in the service; and that no attainments to promote it. school, therefore, may be regarded as subject to an appointments should be made, unless there be And it may occasionally give to the country annual demand for this number of its graduates to found officers of approved reputation for their ac men carefully educated in useful knowledge, and be advanced into the regular line of service. Esti- quirements in reference to this service who may be bound by the strongest obligation of gratitude and mating the number of graduates at twenty-five, willing to enter the corps.
honor to requite this public bounty by laudable the whole of them would thus find position and The yearly graduates of the Academy will, ac service in the employments of civil life. employment; an increase to thirty would of course cording to this system, be assigned to the two I think it proper, in presenting this new organgive a remainder of five, which may also be dis- | branches of service I have described; that is to ization of the school and of the officers which it posed of.
say, to the regular naval service and to the hydro-i is intended to supply, to ask of Congress that the I propose, in further organization of this system, graphical corps. The graduates required for these grade of master in the service shall be entitled to to construct a scientific corps in the Navy, to be two branches should be selected from those who a commission and recognized in that character by established as the hydrographical crops; this corps are adjudged by the board of examination to stand | law. The masters are ward-room officers, and to be designed, in its first formation, upon a basis | highest on the roll of the class; and if at any time should be placed amongst the commissioned offiwhich shall provide for thirty masters, thirty lieu it should happen that the requisitions should not cers of the Navy. No change of pay is necestenants, fifteen commanders, and five captains, embrace the whole number of graduates in each sary, and in that respect they may be left upon making eighty in all. It should be specially edu year, then those whose services are not required, their present footing. cated for that scientific professional service in being the lowest on the roll, should receive an It must be observed that some years will elapse which some portion of the Navy is constantly em- honorable discharge from the school. These would if this organization be now authorized by law ployed. Its chief duties should be connected with return to the occupations of private life well edu- before it can be rendered complete; and the sooner, hydrographical surveys, astronomical observa- | cated by the bounty of the Government, and qual- | therefore, that it is adopted the better. tions, construction of charts, preparation and im- | ified for useful employment in the many important The present class of passed midshipmen numprovement of ordnance, the supervision of naval vocations connected with commerce and naviga- || bers two hundred and sixteen. These are to be architecture and machinery, and the direction of i tion, and especially in the various service of steam- disposed of. One hundred of them may be comcivil engineering in the construction of docks and ships which create so large a demand for expert missioned as masters, and the grade may be at other structures requiring scientific knowledge and and accomplished officers. In whatever situation once established at that number by law. The reskill.
they may be placed, they will find abundant oc maining hundred and sixteen would be gradually The corps should be entirely separate from and casion to rejoice in the advantages they shall have absorbed by the grade of masters in a few years, independent of the regular naval service. Its line obtained at the school, and, by the proper use of after which the system will work according to its of promotion should be confined to its own organ- these advantages, indemnify ihe country for the permanent regulation. ization, and its government should be under its care and expense it may have bestowed upon their The present number of acting midshipmen is own proper officers. In addition to the duties as culture. These conditions and incidents of an ad two hundred and six, of which the school contains, signed to it on shore and in hydrographical sur mission to the Academy being understood in ad- by the last report, eighty-one. Five appointments veys, some portion of it might be appropriated to vance, both by the cadei and his friends, it is pre- || have been made for the next term, and there are service at sea, and one or more officers of the corps sumed, will prepare them to regard the discharge yet thirty-seven vacancies. To the nominations might be introduced into the complements of squad- l in its true point of view, as the necessary contin- | already made for the new class of beginners to the rons on foreign or home service. An experienced gency of a most important good conferred, and next term of October, 1853, may be added at once, officer of this corps would find useful and active not as a disappointment which should occasion | with the thirty-seven vacancies, as many as may duty upon every cruise. It should be left to the regret. If, on the other hand, it should turn out be necessary to make sixty-two. The classes Navy Department to regulate the character and that the annual number of graduates should not should then advance regularly to the end of their contingencies of this service, and to make all the be adequate to the demands of these two branches respective terms, without additions, and the law necessary rules and orders for its application. of service, the basis of sixty-two in the class of may provide for the annual supply henceforth of
This corps should be built up under the direc- beginners may be increased to the number at which sixty-two, in the manner I have indicated. The tion of the Secretary of the Navy from the material experience may show that the desired result may grade of midshipmen might be at once declared to afforded by the Academy, with such additions to be obtained. It will be easy, after the experiment be limited to two hundred and fifty, and the filling it, in its commencement, from the regular line of of a few years, to ascertain this number with suf of that complement should await the supply it naval service, as in his judgment the qualifications ficient precision; and, as in the mean time the hy- | may hereafter obtain from the graduates. of the present officers might enable him to make drographic corps is to be filled, the extra supply If any of the present grade of passed midshipwith advantage.
of the classes for the next three years, by the ad- | men and masters should be found qualified for With a view to the supply of this corps from mission of the midshipmen of daies prior to 1851, admission to the hydrographic corps, the vacanthe Academy, I propose that, upon the yearly ex will very opportunely enlarge the classes to a num cies which may be made by their appointment to amination of the graduates, the Board of Examin- | ber which will satisfy that requisition.
it may be filled by promotion, and so hasten the ation shall be directed to bestow a close attention In arranging the complement of officers to the period at which the new organization may be upon the class submitted to them, in order to as hydrographic corps, I have proceeded upon a con brought into full operation. certain the particular adaptation of any of the jectural estimate of what I suppose may be found The school has yet to receive some classes of graduates to this species of service, and that they necessary to the service required of it.' I submit midshipmen of the date previous to 1851. When shall report to the Department the names of such this to the judgment of Congress for such altera- admitted, they will constitute an extra portion beas they may find qualified by study, talent, and tions in the grades and numbers as their investi- | yond the quota allowed to the Academy, and I acquirement for admission to the corps; and if, gation of the subject may suggest. I have thought would suggest in regard to them that they should upon this report, the students so designated shall it safest to propose a number rather below what | be permitted, as heretofore, to constitute a part of consent to enter the corps, they, or so many of I think the service may ultimately demand, as any class for which they may bequalified, and upon them as the established complement of the hydro-li it is easier to increase this complement than to l their graduation to be entitled to their advance
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SENATE & Ho. OF REPs. ment to the proper grade; it being mainly import- | it is due to Commander Stribling, who has charge dom indulged without leading to cruelties that ant to provide at present that each yearly class of of the institution, and to the officers, professors, must disgrace those who practice them; and, what new admissions should be constituted of the ap- || and assistants under his command, to say that the is more to be feared, raise a sentiment in the public pointed number of sixty-two, and in no event to assiduity and intelligence with which they have mind hostile to the Navy itself. The seaman, beexceed that number. The future organization of performed the laborious and complicated duties lieving himself exempt from the speedy penalty of the school will necessarily follow upon the ob- assigned to them, merit the highest approbation; disobedience or neglect of duty, and looking with servance of this provision.
and that the prosperous condition of the school, indifference to the remote and uncertain proceedIn proper connection with this subject of the and admirable arrangement of its details, particu- ling of a court-martial upon his delinquency, grows Academy, it is my duty to apprise you that I have | larly manifested in the deportment and proficiency habitually contumacious to his superiors, and inrecently adopted regulations for the government of the young men confided to their care, eminently | fuses the same sentiment into his comrades; and of apprentices to be admitted at the several navy entitle it to the favorable opinion and encourage in the very fact of the diffusion of this spirit of yards and workshops under the control of this ment of the Government.
insubordination finds ground to hope for immunity Department. The propriety of these regulations I particularly commend to the notice of Congress from punishment-naturally enough believing that has been suggested by the Bureau of Yards and the consideration of the appropriations asked for what has grown to be common and frequent will Docks, and I am indebted to the intelligent labors by the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, also come to be more lighty considered when he of three distinguished officers of the department, for the improvements necessary to purchase the is summoned to a trial at the end of his cruise. It Commodores Morris, Shubrick, and Smith, to grounds and complete the buildings required by may excite.some surprise in the statement of what whom I referred the subject for a report, which I ihe Academy.
I learn to be true, that the most frequent comhave received, and which will be found amongst
plaints against the abolition of corporal punishthe documents accompanying this communication. ORGANIZATION AND DISCIPLINE OF SEAMEN.
ment are made, in great part, by the seamen themThe report presents the regulations which I have There is no subject connected with the pros selves. The difficulties arising out of its abrogaapproved. The number of apprentices as estab- perity of the Navy that, in my estimate, better tion, and the absence of any substitute for it, now lished, for the present, by this system, is eighty- deserves the attention of Congress than that re constitute the most prominent obstacles to the three. They are required to undergo an examin- | lating to the condition of the corps of mariners, ready supply of our squadrons with seamen. This ation twice in each year, and, after the first year, which constitutes the great working force in the Department is familiar with complaints from the those most distinguished in the previous trials navigation and management of the public vessels. recruiting stations of the difficulty of enlisting the are to be subjected to another of a still more In obedience to a sentiment which is prevalent better class of seamen. Of that large number of extensive and rigorous character, upon which throughout the country, and which is naturally men who have heretofore constituted the pride of such as shall be reported as worthy of the highest | suggested by, those impulses that distinctively our Navy, by their good seamanship and highly approbation and reward, and as demonstrating characterize the opinions and habits of our people, respectable personal deportment, comprising, I retalent adapted to eminence in the public service, Congress has been recently led to the considera- | joice to say, the great body of the mariners who are to be commended to the Secretary of the Navy tion of the ordinary mode of punishment, which have sustained the honor and glory of our Aag in for such further advantages of instruction as he it had heretofore been supposed was necessary to its most perilous, as well as in its most useful camay have it in his power to confer.
the preservation of the discipline of the Navy. || reer-of these men, it is a fact which invites the I regard it as a most salutary power to be in- The result of this consideration has been the pas. | deepest concern of Congress, weare daily deprived, vested in the Secretary of the Navy, for the bene- sage of a law for the entire abolition of corporal by their refusal to enter again into the service until, ficial performance of the duty thus assigned to him, punishment on board of our ships, both public and as they ask, they shall have some assurance that that he should have authority to admit into the private. This punishment which, for a long a better system of discipline may be restored. Naval Academy those apprentices whose good con- time, has been practised in the Navy and com They reasonably complain, that whilst the worst duct and capabilities shall have earned this dis-mercial marine, not only without question as to portions of the crew are placed under arrest, and tinction; and to provide that they should there be its efficacy in maintaining the proper observance are exempt, in consequence, from the severe duconducted through a course of study appropriate of duty on ship-board, but which, indeed, had ties of the deck, they find their toil increased by to their intended future vocations, and calculated to become so incorporated in the sober conviction of the constantly-recurring exigencies which compel advance them in mathematical and mechanical sci- both officers and men, as an indispensable neces them, for weeks and months, during a cruise, to ence, under such regulations in regard to the term sity of the service, that it had grown to be the perform the extra work which the reduction of the of their application, their duties and deportment, as most unquestioned usage and generally received force of the ship inevitably throws upon them. So the Navy Department might think it expedient to | incident of naval discipline-many judicious per- | oppressively is this evil felt, that I have reason to adopt. Having completed this course of study, sons believed might be dispensed with, not only believe, if the best seamen, who have heretofore they should be returned to the yards from which most acceptably to the feelings of the nation, but been accustomed to man our ships, could find an they may have been received, or allotted to suitable also without disadvantage to the service. The occasion to express their wishes to Congress, a employments in the service.
adoption of this opinion by Congress, in the pas-majority of the whole number would be seen to It would be a useful provision in this scheme to sage of the act of September, 1850, which for- | prefer a restoration of that form of punishment give to the young men so educated a preference in | bade the accustomed penalty, without providing which has been forbidden, rather than be subject the admissions to the corps of engineers for steam a substitute for it, has afforded the Navy the to the severities imposed upon them by the present ships, for which appointments their education | opportunity to make the experiment. I very condition of disorder in the naval discipline. would particularly qualify them; their admission sincerely regret to say that the records of this De Looking at this state of things in the Navy, I into that corps, nevertheless, to be dependent upon )partment, as well as the almost entire concurrence think the occasion propitious to the adoption of a successful examination and a favorable certificate of facts and opinions, brought to my notice from new system for the organization and government to moral and intellectual character.
authentic sources, and vouched by intelligent and of the whole material constituting the crews of In the operation of this scheme the Navy would experienced observers, all tend to indicate a most our ships; and I take advantage of the present derive the benefit of the best talents and acquire- | unsatisfactory result. The omission of Congress time to submit to your consideration the outline of ment for the supply of engineers, naval architects, to provide for the punishment of what may be a plan, which I trust will engage your attention, and constructors and superintendents in the vari- || called minor offenses against discipline and good and receive the approbation of Congress. ous departments of mechanical employment con order on ship-board may, perhaps, account in part The supply of our Navy with seamen has herenected with the service.
for the failure; but the fact of the most serious tofore been obtained by a system of enlistment, I take great pleasure in presenting this subject to detriment to the efficiency of our service is so un modeled, in its principal elements, upon the plan your approval and to the attention of Congress. happily forced upon my attention, as the effect of adopted in Great Britain, from which nation we
In view of this reorganization of the Academy, the recent change, that it becomes the gravest of have derived, by old habit and national descent, I submit, also, as a question worthy of considera- my duties at this time to lay the subject once more the general features of our marine. Like Enga tion, whether it would not be a salutary provision before Congress, and to ask its attention to the land, we have looked to our commercial navigato require that the officers of the Marine Corps | consideration of such a corrective to the present || tion for the reinforcement of the men of the Navy. should be prepared for that service by an educa- condition of the service as I ant confident it must We enlist the mercantile seamen for the national tion at the school? My own opinion is, that it | find to be indispensable to the proper government cruise, discharging and paying them off when it is would be attended by manifest advantage, both as of the Navy. We have evidence furnished to this finished, and returning them to the merchant serrespects the necessary accomplishment for naval Department, in the history of almost every cruise, vice. The Navy, in general, has been sufficiently service in that corps, and the personal character of acts of insubordination that not only impair | attractive to the sailor to be able to secure his serand deportment of the officers belonging to it. It the usefulness of our ships, but which tend also vice when needed; and this mode of enlistment is amongst the incidents of their employment that to the gradual development of habits amongst the || being an easy and accessible resource, but little they are sometimes required to perform important seamen that threaten to lead to extensive and un consideration has heretofore been bestowed upon military duties on shore in which a necessity is controllable mutinies. The multiplication ofcourts. | its effect either on the Navy itself or upon the found for that species of knowledge only to be martial, and all the consequences of an increase of seamen. To the Navy it has given a large and gained in the military or naval school; and in every || disorder and crime, are amongst the least of the meritorious class of mariners, not unmixed, howservice to which they are called it is quite apparent || apparent and growing evils of the new system. ever, with many of a different character, and from that this knowledge, and the spirit to appreciate | The demoralization of both men and officers is a that mixture itself requiring a prompt and effective the duties of command that is inseparable from it, yet more observable consequence. The absence system of punishment adapted to secure a ready must increase the efficiency of the officer and ele. or prohibition of the usual punishments known to discharge of duty in every emergency. The effect vate the character of the corps to which he is at seamen has led to the invention of new penalties of the system upon the men of the Navy has been tached. If these considerations should influence of the most revolting kind, in the application of overlooked, or, if regarded at all, it has not atthe opinion of Congress as they do my own, they | which full scope has been given, and the strongest tracted the attention of the public authorities. The will suggest the expediency of making the pro- | provocations administered, to that exhibition of sailor is, in general, upon shore a helpless being vision to which I have invited their attention. temper and passion which, however natural it may Between himself and all around him there is a pal
In concluding this notice of the Naval Academy, ll be to men of hasty and excitable natures, is sel- | pable incongruity. He has come off a long cruise
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SENATE & Ho. OF Reps. and has earned some three or four hundred dol- commanding officer of a squadron, or of a single 3. No registered seaman of the Navy to he sub. lars. He has no home; often no friends but his ship when not with a squadron, shall, on his re ject to any corporal or other punishment of a de. comrades. He knows no thrift, no saving econ turn from a regular cruise, report to the Navy De grading character, and to such only as may be omy: has no adviser. His only outlook is for partment, in the muster-roll of the men under his ordered by a court-martial on charges duly presome pastime, and his idea of that is confined to command, a statement of the good or bad general ferred and tried. This prohibition not to prevent sensual enjoyment. Every one is familiar with i deportment of each man, with a special designa the punishment without a court-martial of such his history in his brief sojourn on shore. He is tion of those whose conduct has merited that de minor delinquencies in conduct and discipline as a victim to that class of persons who pander to his gree of approbation which shail entitle them to be may be corrected by withholding the usual indula appetites and who plunder him of his earnings. I admitted into the Navy.
gences of the service, stopping portions of the raNecessity and inclination very soon drive him That this report be submitted by the Depart iion, or increasing ordinary duty. back to ihe sea, where he finds bis natural home ment to the President, who shall thereupon issue 4. Every registered seaman to be entitled after and the only friends who can understand his char a general order to admit into the Navy the seamen any term of three years' service to a furlough of acter and sympathize with it. It is very apparent who have been distinguished in the report for good such reasonable length as may enable him to make that a man so organized and circumstanced stands conduct. And the President shall transmit with one or more voyages in the merchant marine, not very much in need of better culture than this course this order to the commanding officer of the squad extending, without special permission, to more of life affords. A discreet attention to his condi ron or ship a certificate to each seaman, written on than six months; such furlough to be granted by tion by the Government, with a few satutary regu- || parchment and stamped with the signature of the the commanding officer of the squadron, or the lations that may teach him more thrift and furnish President himself, expressing his approbation of commandant of the navy-yard nearest to the port him guidance and encouragement, will make him his conduct and his permission to admit the sub at which his cruise may terminate, and only to be more useful as a citizen, or at least more self-de- l ject of it into the Navy; which certificates shall be granted in any case with an expressed reservation pendent and respectable in his individual charac delivered by the commanding officer of the squad and notice that the seaman to whom it is given ter, and render him at the same time certainly not ron or ship to the men entitled to them before they shall report for duty in the Navy when any publess useful in his profession. are discharged from the ship. This delivery to be lic
emergency shall render it necessary so to order I propose, for the consideration of Congress, a made in the presence of the crews and with suit him, the order for his return to duty to be issued plan for the reorganization of this portion of the able formality to attract public notice.
by the Navy Department or by such officer as Navy, which, if matured by such experience as That each seaman to whom this certificate shall may be authorized by the Department to do so. the future practice of it may afford, will, I am con be awarded shall, if he accept it, register his name A failure to report in accordance with this provisfident, enhance the respectability and value of our in a book to be provided for that purpose and kept ion to render him liable to be struck off the regisseamen, and secure to the country a most efficient on board of the ship, by which registry he shall try by the Secretary of the Navy. Every regiscorps of men permanently devoted to the public become a registered seaman of the Navy of the tered seaman reporting for duty within three service.
United States, and be entitled to all the privileges months of his last cruise, and being thereupon I think it cannot be doubted that the successful and be bound to all the obligations of that charac ordered to duty, to be entitled to pay from the application of the Navy to the purposes for which ter. This registry book shall be transmitted to date of termination of his last cruise. it is designed would be better assured by the ser the Navy Department, where it shall be preserved; All furloughs to be regularly reported and noted vices of a well-disciplined and carefully.main-and the entries made in it copied into a general at the Navy Department. tained body of seamen permanently attached to | registry, alphabetically arranged, and kept in the 5. Every registered seaman to be entitled to the public naval establishment and incorporated Depariment.
wear on his dress some appropriate badge by with it, than it ever has been, or is ever likely to The obligations incurred by every seaman who which he may be distinguished and known in the be by the fluctuating and variable resource of fre- signs the register shall be those of faithful service Navy, which' badge will be designated and proquent enlistment and discharge. The constant and due performance of all seamanlike duty under vided by the Navy Department. changes which this corps undergoes is unfavorable the flag of the United States, good moral deport .6. The petty officers of each ship to be selected, to the growth of that sentiment, so essential to the ment, and prompt obedience to all orders that may as far as convenient, from the class of registered service, which makes a sailor proud of his flag. i be issued by his lawful superiors so long as he seamen, and the appointment always to be regardIt is still more unfavorable to the acquirement of shall continue to be a member of the Navy. ed as dependent upon the merit and good characthat peculiar adaptation of habit and training to The privileges attached to this registry shall ter of the person selected, to be held on good bethe duties belonging to the employment of a man be:
havior, during the term of a cruise. of-war, which all officers regard' as the test and 1. For every five years of actual duty on board 7. A record to be kept, under the direction of indispensable element of an efficient seaman in the a public vessel an increase of one dollar a month every commanding officer of a squadron or ship, Navy. In a large Navy, like that of England, over and above the established rates of ordinary of the actual amount of sea service performed by where all the seamen of the mercantile marine, in pay; that is to say, for the first five years of such each registered seaman whilst under his command. a certain sense, belong to the Government, the dif service one dollar per month; for a second term of This record to be returned to the Department at ference between the man-of-war's man and the five years of such service an additional dollar per the end of every cruise, and to be transferred to seaman of civil employment is not so apparent or month; for a third term of five years another dol the general registry of seamen. Upon the evidence significant as it is in our service, in which the sea lar; and for a fourth terın of five years—making of this general registry the additional pay to be men bear so small a proportion to the whole body a total of twenty years service-another dollar;
granted. of mariners of the nation. Every English sailor amountirg in all for such twenty years service to 8. Every seaman to be admonished to give his has generally more or less service in the Navy, and four dollars a month; after which no further in true name, age, and place of birth, upon signing the passes so frequently from the private to the public crease to be made. This additional monthly pay, registry, and to be required to engage not to ship employment as to give him to a great degree an so earned by service, to be paid to each man so in merchant or other vessels, whilst on furlough, actual incorporation in the national marine: the long as he may continue to be a registered seaman by any other name. His being convicted of vioone service is so connected with the other that the of the Navy; and, after twenty years of service, lating this engagement to render him liable to be seamen of both assimilate more in their training to be paid whether he continues a registered sea struck from the list of registered seamen upon the and education than the correspondent classes in
order of the Secretary of the Navy. this country. Our Navy, for obvious reasons
to connected with these considerations, is much more forfeiture at any time within the twenty years as a registered seaman, the party so dismissed dependent upon a body of men nurtured by the actual service by the resignation of any seaman 10 receive whatever moneys may be due to him, Government and attached to the service than that on the registry, or by his being struck off the list unless the same shall have been forfeited by the of England. It is, therefore, a fundamental pur of registered seamen; which may be done at any sentence of a court-martial imposed as a punishpose in the plan which I submit to Congress to time; and shall only be done by the order of the ment for an offense committed by him. A seaman provide for the ultimate establishment of a perma- Secretary of the Navy, or by the sentence of a dismissed from the registry not to be entitled to be nent and recognized body of seamen, connected naval court-martial, upon charges of misconduct; restored but upon the permission of the head of the with the Navy by the strongest and most durable in either of which events-resignation or discharge Navy Department, granted in consideration of the bonds of attachment and interest
by sentence of the Secretary of the Navy or of meritorious character of the applicant. Whilst providing for the gradual and eventual a court-martial-he shall cease to belong to the 10. Seamen, ordinary seamen, and landsmen in organization of such a body, my attention has Navy, and shall lose all the privileges of such a the service, not belonging to the registry, to be subbeen directed also to the procurement of men of character.
ject to such discipline, duty, and penalties as Con. the highest character in personal and professional 2. Every registered seaman to be entitled to re gress may provide in a code of regulations adapted quality, in whose good' deportment and faithful sign his post in the Navy at any time after three to their government, under such restrictions or service will he found the most satisfactory reasons years' service, if not engaged on a cruise. When modifications as the Department may think proper for protecting by legal enactment their whole plass engaged on a cruise and absent from the ports of to make. against the form of punishment which has of late the United States, he shall not resign without the 11. A printed book or circular to be made hy so much excited the sensibility of the nation. The consent of the commanding officer of his ship. A the Department, containing all the regulations and successful accomplishment of such an object, I record of all resignations to be duly kept and re conditions relating to the establishment of registrust, will commend the plan to the regard of all ported to the Department.
tered seamen, giving a full description of the obli. who desire to preserve that exemption, and who A registered seaman of more than twenty years' gations to be contracted by them, and of the privihave hoped to find it in practice not incompatible service continuing in the Navy, only to forfeit his leges to which they may be entitled. Copies of with the highest efficiency of service on shipboard. additional pay when such forfeiture shall be ad. this book or circulars to be furnished to every
The gen-ral online of the plan may be exhib- judged by a court-martial as a punishment for squadron or single vessel in commission, of which ited in the following regulations:
grossly immoral or insubordinate conduct. By copies, one shall be given to every senman, in With a view to the commencement of this sys such sentence also for such offenses, his additional order that he may be fully informed of the nature tem, and to organize a body of efficient seamen of pay may be suspended by a court for such time of the engagements to be incurred by him on enthe most meritorious class, I propose that every as they may adjudge.
tering the service of the United States. These
man or not.