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A CONFUTATION OF THEIR ARGUMENTS, GlossES, AND ANNOTATIONS. This elaborate work was dedicated to the Queen, and went through several editions in the course of a few years.

In commenting on the expressions of our Lord respecting the man who “fell among thieves which “stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, " and departed, leaving him half dead* ;" the Catholics say—“ Here is signified, man wounded very “sore in his understanding and free will, and all “other powers of soul and body, by the sin of “ Adam : but yet, that neither understanding, nor « free will, nor the rest were extinguished in man “or taken away." In support of this, they refer to the decisions of a Council held in the year 529.

Dr. Fulke replies ; “ Against this vain col“ lection by allegory, the Scripture is plain, that

we are all dead in sin by the sin of Adam. “Rom. v. 12. Eph. ii. 1, 5. Col. ii. 13. The “ Council Arausicanum, which you quote, (belike "to prove that the freedom of will is not lost in “Adam,) saith ; "It is so inclined by the sin of the "6.5 first man, and attenuated, that no man after “could love God as he ought, or work that which “ ' is good for God's sake, except the grace and

mercy of God prevented him.' And if by those “words you think there is any life left unto it, in

cap. 22. the Council saith, 'No MAN HATH ANY

* Luke x. 30.

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"OTHING OF HIS OWN BUT LIES AND SIN. And " in cap. 21. 'Nature by Adam lost, by Christ is repaired.' And whereas you seem to leave some

life, justice, and freedom of will in man, which by “Christ is recovered, increased, healed, and enabled; "_thus we read in the seventh chapter, the title of "which is, ' That we are not apt to think any thing "of ourselves, as from ourselves; — If any man “ do hold, that a man by the force of nature can ««think any good thing, which pertaineth and is “! expedient to eternal life, or that he can choose «6 either to be saved, that is, to consent to the

preaching of the gospel, without illumination cand inspiration of the Holy Ghost, which giveth "sto all men the sweetness, in consenting and be

lieving the truth, he is deceived with an heretical spirit, not understanding the voice of God, say

ing in the gospel, Without me ye can do nothing ; «' and that of the Apostle, Not that we are "capt of ourselves to think any thing as of “ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God.' And "touching understanding, the Apostle saith, The “natural man understandeth not those things that “ be of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness "unto him, neither can he know them because they

are spiritually discerned. So that neither the will nor "the understanding have any heavenly life in them.”

From the Apostle's conclusion, that “it is not of “ him that willeth nor of him that runneth, but of “God that showeth mercy * ;'--the Catholic Expositors argue," that God's grace is the principal

* Rom. ix. 16.

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cause, and men's free will the secondary cause, “ of their willing or working any good to their sales vation."

Dr. FuLke replies ; “ Our election, calling, and “first coming to God, lieth wholly in God's mercy, “and not either wholly, or principally, or any “thing at all, in our own will or works. But whom “ God elected before time, he calleth in time by “him appointed, and of unwilling, by his grace “maketh them willing to come to him, and to walk “ in good works unto which he hath elected them. “So that man hath no free will, until it be freed ; “man's will worketh nothing in our conversion, « until it be converted; man hath no power to

change his will unto better, except it be given of “God. August. Retract. lib. i. cap. 22. It is « « free yet not good, it is free yet not sound, it is .free yet not righteous. And by how much the «more it is free from goodness, rectitude, sound“'ness, and righteousness, by so much the more “sis it bound by the deadly slavery of wicked“ ness, perverseness, infirmity, and iniquity. For "he who committeth sin is the slave of sin, and

by whatever a man is held in bondage, to that “he is a devoted slave. While sin reigns, there««fore, he has free will, but free without God,

not free under God, that is free from righteous

ness, not free under grace, and therefore most corruptly and slavishly free, because not freed

by the gratuitous gift of God who showeth « mercy.'--Fulgent. de incarnat. et grat. cap. 19." On this passage,

66 Not the hearers of the law

are just before God, but the doers of the law shall "be justified*;" the Rhemish Annotators observe, « This same sentence—is the very ground of St. “ James' disputation, that not faith alone but good “ works also do justify. Therefore St. Paul, how

soever some perversely construe his words in other

places, meaneth the same as St. James. And “ here he speaketh not properly of the first justifica« tion, when an infidel or ill man is made just, who “ hadno acceptable works before to be justified by, of “ which kind he specially meaneth in other places “ of this epistle, but he speakech of the second jus“ tification or increase of former justice, which he « that is in God's grace daily proceedeth in, by “ doing all kind of good works, which be justices, “ and for doing of which he is just indeed before « God."

Dr. FuLke replies; “ This sentence is not the

ground of St. James' disputation, that faith void “ of good works doth not justify, and that good “ works also justify or declare a man to be just. " For the Apostle here speaketh not of faith, but « of the law. The Law justifieth only the doers “ and perfect observers thereof; Faith justifieth the « believers. Neither doth St. Paul speak here of any “ means whereby a man is justified, but showeth that

no transgressor of the law can be justified by the “ Law, because the Law justifieth none but the “ doers thereof; which seeing no man doth perfect

ly, no man is justified by the works of the Law,

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* Rom. ii. 13.

" as he saith expressly Rom. iii. 20. Gal. iii. 11. « As for your distinction of the first and second " Justification before God, it is but a new device, « not threescore years old, utterly unheard of among " the ancient Fathers. For whom God justifieth “ by faith without works, he also glorifieth. Rom. “ viii. 30. And that which you call the second

justification, or increase of justice, is but the ef« fects and fruits of Justification before God, and " a declaration before men that we are just. And « so meaneth St. James, that Abraham, who was * justified or made just, before God, through faith, " was also justified or declared to be just, before " men, by works.We acknowledge all good " works of Christian men to be the gifts of God, the “ fruits of Justification, the notes of Election, the way

wherein all Christians must walk unto salvation; but seeing that they are unperfect, they « are not able to make just in the sight of God.”

On the words of the Apostle James, “ Ye see “how that by works a man is justified and not by “ faith only* ;” the Catholics

say, “sition of speech is directly opposite or contra« dictory unto that which the heretics hold. The “ heretics say, Man is not justified by good works, « but by faith only. The Fathers indeed use some« times this exclusive only, but in far other sense " than the Protestants. &c.”

Dr. FULKE replies; “ This proposition is not directly opposite or contradictory to that which

* James ii, 24.

6. This propo

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