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LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1893,
wick, which were forfeited to the Crown by the
attainder of Edward, the son of Lady Isabel, were CONTENTS,- N° 59.
in 1513, by royal letters patent, restored to MarNOTES :-“ Salzbery” and “Sombreset”. in 1502, 101-Shaki garet, his sister, at the same time as she was of Sandwich Islands-Silver in Bells-Şir F. Chantrey- officially acknowledged as Countess of Salisbury, Wm. Lovegrove, 105 -— * Brummagem".Beverley Sanc- and consequently the mysterious "doyen's” lands 108—Divining Rod God save the Queen"-Verbosity“ must by that date have fallen to the Crown again. Cowper's Castaway.' 107.
The author of ar MS. records that when QUERIES :-St. Grasinus “Oasts," 107 Buckingham Madame Anne met the various foreign ambassadors
Palace-Herse Cloths - Oboe - Heraldic - B. Bradford-
One hearth hen"--Words in Smart's induced me to look up her pedigree, and, having Song to David' - The Christian Year,' 109--Irish Cur nothing more trustworthy at hand, I consulted De REPLIES :-"Trissino Type” –"The Triple Plea,” 110– la Chenaye-Desbois et Badier's Dictionnaire de la
Letters of Junius, 111- Preposition followed by a Clause, Noblesse' (Paris, 1866), wherein I found the state-
father's side of Margaret de la Pole, daughter * Swift,'. 115– Paganini's Physic-Pie; Tart Ambrose of Richard, Duke of Suffolk. This statement is, æval Diptychs of the Decalogue. 116 - Tooth-brushes of course, absurd on the face of it. There was Painting of Elaine '-" To bone"-Col. Charters-Church only one individual in history known as Richard of Essex,' 117–Furye–The Mayor of Wigan " -- Picture of de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, and he only bore the the Holy Trinity -- Cæsar's Sword – Evan — " The last title by courtesy. This was the hero of Pavia, the
peppercorn," &c, 118. NOTES ON BOOKS :-Dobson's ‘Eighteenth Century Vig
brother of Edmund, the duke decapitated in 1513. nettes ---Allen's - Science in Arcady" - Furnivall’s . Brown- Richard died in 1525 on the battlefield, and could ing's Prose Life of Strafford'-Sweet’s ‘Short Historical not have been the great-grandfather of a young English Grammar.'
lady married in 1502.
Madame Anne de Foix was the same young Notes.
lady about whom the English ambassadors at
the Court of the Emperor Maximilian I. wrote to “ SALZBERY” AND “SOMBRESET" IN 1502.
Henry VII. in February, 1503. They were told Madame Anne de Foix was married to Yladis- by the Emperor that the King of Hungary was laus II., King of Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland, going to wed a lady out of France, and that he on Sept. 29, 1502, at Alba Regale, in Hungary. understood, A detailed description of the wedding festivities, she was an Englishe woman, called the lord Kendales written by a gentleman of her suite, has been pre- doughter, whose landes be supposed to lye in England. served in a MS. of the Paris National Library. And we aunsuerd that she was none Englishe woman, Among the names of the guests present at the nor yet that her fadre had any landes within England, wedding occur repeatedly those of “ Salzbery
but that as we supposed, his auntecestry come out of and of “Sombreset.” The former is described as Letters......illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III.
England at the tyme of the subdueng of Fraunce."“le doyen de Salzbery, ambassadeur du Roy and Henry VII.,' ed. by Jas. Gairdner, vol. i. pp. 207, d'Angleterre,” the latter as “Sombreset, hérault 208. du Roy d'Angleterre"; but is also referred to
The confusion of the “ lord of Kendale's” Dame briefly as “Sombreset.”. Who were these two in with that of the Count of Candale is easily exdividuals ? I may be allowed to remind the reader plained, but it seems odd that in February, 1503, that Edward Plantagenet, the son of George the emperor should not have heard yet of the wedPlantagenet, the brother of King Edward IV., ding, as several of the German electors were resucceeded to the earldom of Salisbury, jure matris, presented at the ceremony. The MS. is very much on the death of Lady Isabel Neville, in 1476, and mutilated, but it is correctly placed by the editor was beheaded in 1499; and that his sister Mar- under the year 1503. Whenever the day of the garet was not advanced to the dignity of Countess week is mentioned in connexion with a date it is of Salisbury till 1513. The other Edward Planta- always in accordance with the dominical letter of genet, the son of Richard III., was, according to that year. Doyle's Official Baronage,' created Earl of Salis. Though the editors of the French dictionary bury in 1477 (see the title 'Salisbury'), or in 1478 quoted above bave, according to the happy-go-lucky (see the title 'Cornwall'), and died in 1485. But who fashion of their countrymen, hopelessly
entangled was the "doyen de Salzbery” in 1502? The castles, Madame Anne's pedigree, and in consequence we manors, and lands of Richard, late Earl of War- do not know yet her exact relationship, it seems
probable that she was in some way related to the no, he'll kill you," or some such thing? Then De la Poles. It was no doubt owing to these before she finishes Demetrius interrupts with his family ties that we find the “White Rose," taunts :Richard de la Pole, seeking refuge at the Hungarian Her.
Lysander, whereto tends all this? Court a few years after the nuptials. He arrived Lys. Away, you Ethiope ! at the Hungarian capital about the date of the
No, no; he'llqueen's death, in the autumn of 1506 ("Calendar
Dem. Seem to break loose; take on as you would
follow. of Venetian State Papers,' sub anno), and remained there for some months, as he dates a
V. i. 59.letter from Buda on April 14, 1507 ('Letters......
That is hot ice, and wondrous strange snow. Henry VII.,' quoted before, vol. i.).
There have been so many conjectures here that We find more information about the English one more will do no harm, though perhaps it has ambassador who had been to Hungary in 1502 been made already. The proper antithesis could in the 'Sanuto Diaries.' According to this au- bo secured by reading flaming, which follows the thority he arrived at Venice on Dec. 5, 1502, on run of the letters closely enough to make it not an his way home to England, and lodged at the improbable reading. The idea would be not of “Wxite Lion”; had audience given to him by the snow flaming on the ground, but of snow falliog in College on Dec. 8, on which occasion he spoke of flakes, as in canto xiv. of the 'Inferno' (Cary's the love that existed between his king and the translation) :sigpory. According to the diarist, the ambassador O'er all the sand fell slowly wafting down was a doctor and priest('Venetian Calendar' under Dilated flakes of fire, as flakes of snow date). But on the other hand, perhaps Sanuto On Alpine summit, when the wind is hushed. was mistaken about the position of this English- In 'Measure for Measure' and elsewhere there man, and it is not impossible that he was only a are images common to Dante and Shakespeare. It gentleman of the ambassador's suite.
is very probable that the text is incorrect, for With regard to “Sombreset," there seems to be Shakespeare never uses wondrous as a trisyllable in no doubt that he was “Somerset Herald.” We bis other plays. find this official very busy in the autumn of 1501 Fire is used as an antithesis to snow in ‘Merin England, at the festivities in connexion with the chant of Venice,' III. ii. 31, and 'Two Gentlemen reception of Katherine of Aragon, then the bride of Verona,' II. vii. 19, and there is a somewhat selected for Arthur, Prince of Wales. But he had similar one in Lyly's "Euphues and his England' ample time to get to Alba Regale and be present (Arber ed., p. 311) :at the wedding of Madame Anne. On the other
“What straunge fits be these, Philautus, yat burne thee hand, it is not impossible that “Sombreset" was with such a heate, yat thou shakest for cold, and all thy Sir Charles Somerset, Knight, who on another body in a shivering sweat, in a flaming yce, melteth like occasion represented Henry VII, in the pour. wax and hardeneth like the adamant ?" parlers with the delegates of the King of the
G. JOICEY. Romans, his colleague being William Warham, “ TIMON OF ATHENS,' III. iv. 112.-Can the Master of the Rolls, and later Archbishop of Can- mysterious word Vllorca be a misreading of the terbury. One thing, however, is certain, namely, manuscript Villaines ? The and before Semthat " Sombreset" was not a Duke of Somerset, pronius shows that it cannot be a proper name; as the author of the MS. does not give him that but the compositor finding an indistinctly written title, and to our knowledge the dignity was not word may have taken it to be one and deciphered conferred upon any one during the period which it as well as he could. Villains follows the run of elapsed between the death in June, 1500) of the letters and accords with the distracted state of Edmund Tudor, third son of Henry VII., and the Timon's mind :conferring of the title (in June, 1525) on Henry
Lucius, Lucullus, and Sempronius-villains l_all: Fitz-Roy, the natural son of that model husband I'll once more feast the rascale. Henry VIII. L. L. K.
SONNET CXXVI. -
O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power
The last two words have proved a source of Seem to break loose.
trouble to all readers of the sonnets, and numerous This is the reading of Q. 1; Q. 2 has it all in conjectural readings have been made. one line. I do not know whether it has been pro- 1. The Quarto reads "sickle, hower." posed to emend the passage by giving the hemistich 2. Lintott has “ fickle hower" (1709). to Hermia. It seems probable that she would 3. Richard Grant White says it is a most make some reply to Lysander; and in her fear what remarkable instance of inversion for 'Dost hold is more likely than that she would exclaim, “No, Time's fickle bour-glass, his sickle.'”
4. William Sidney Walker suggests
“sickle- For “ chair" read hair. The tomb is here conhour,” the bour being “represented poetically as a sidered in its memorial character, i, e., as a monusickle.". Hudson agrees with this reading in the ment to departed greatness, which it made eviHarvard edition.
dent" oftentimes by means of long laudatory in5. J. Crosby reads “fickle hour. The boy scriptions. The custom of keeping hair as a simply beld Time's fickle glass while it ran its memorial is witnessed to in Antony's funeral orafickle hourly course. • Dost hold'=dost hold in tion for Cæsar, when he says that if the people hand, in cbeck, ' in thy power'; and ' fickle hour' know the provisions of Cæsar's will they would, =Time's course, that is subject to mutation and among other acts of reverence, vicissitude." Rolfe thinks this the best solution.
beg a bair of him for memory, 6. Clark and Wright, in the Cambridge edition, And, dying, mention it within their wills, oote that “ Capell, in his copy of Lintott's edition, Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy, bas corrected 'hower' to 'hoar,' leaving 'fickle.'
Unto their iegue. Doubtless he intended to read sickle hoar.'
F. ADAMS. Two suggestions are made by the present writer,
105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. each of which comes within the range of probability :
RICHARD III.' V. iv. 7.(a) Dost hold Time's fickle glase, his tickle hour.
A horse ! a horse ! my kingdom for a horse ! Tickle was used by Shakespeare, Spenser, Wat. Has it over struck any student that the last five son, Lyly, and other Elizabethans as an adjective words of this line do not constitute an offer, a bid, signifying uncertain or slippery, and in this sense the surrender of the speaker's right to the throne could certainly apply to the hour as it slipped for the momentary possession of a charger ? Taken through the hour-glass. I will quote but once, in the usually accepted sense, the exclamation from Spenser
would mean the denuding the tenderer of that for O weary life ! that does lean which he was fighting in return for the means of On thing so tickle as the unsteady air.
wreaking a present vengeance upon his opponent. (6) Dost bold Time's fickle glass, his sickle lower. This may be the meaning of the dramatist. That
This amendment I confess to prefer. The whole Richard did glat himself with revenge on the sentence then reads :
followers of his rival and perish in so gratifying O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power his desire there is no doubt. On the other hand, Dost bold Time's fickle glass, his sickle lower; there seems something anomalous ia regarding the Who hast by waping grown, &c.
expression as bidding & price: “I am struggling The lowering of the sickle is another instance in for the possession of a kingdom. I will give up
that imagery of the boy's power. He holds (or stops) realm-all my rights to it-in exchange for a Time's fickle glass, and lowers (or prevents injury quadruped worth not a millionth part of that for trom) Time's sickle. E. B. BROWNLOW. the retention of which I am in arms, if I can secure Montreal, Canada.
a mount at this instant moment"! Regarded in ROMEO,' III. v. 177 899.
that light, Catesby, according to his royal master's
pledge, accepting the bargain—the follower who at God's bread ! it makes me mad: Day, nigbt, hour, tide, time, work, play,
once belps the leader to a steed-becomes entitled, Alope, in company, still my care hath been
in return, to the regal crown. Is not this absurd ? To have her match'd.
Is it not more reasonable to regard the words The three words "hour, tide, time " are not in “My kingdom for a horse !" not as an offer, but antithetic relation either to each other or to the as an ejaculation of, if I may say so, sarcastically context, and do not enlarge the sense. The line cynical despair ? We most of us are familiar with in which they stand is metrically incomplete, as the proverbial proposition negativing, in a sense, the aleo is the preceding line. Who will object to the doctrine de minimis—"For want of a nail the shoe excision of the three superfluous words, and the was lost ; for want of a shoe the horse was lost; amalgamation of the first with the remnant of for want of a horse the rider was lost ; for want of the second line ?
a rider (carrying despatches implied] the battle was God's bread ! it makes me mad. Day, night, work, play, victory] the kingdom was lost.” I read the phrase
lost ; for want of the battle [gaining the battle, a Alone, in company, &c.
F. ADAMS. My kingdom for a horse !” as a bitter reflection, 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E.
ironically expressed, which may be thus col
loquially paraphrased : "The pity of it!' Only CORIOLANUS,' IV. vii. 52.
to think ; hero am I about to lose a realm for So our virtues
the want of such a paltry, such an insignificant, Lie in the interpretation of the time : And power, unto itself most commendable,
and get such an indispensable instrument for Hath not a tomb 80 evident as a chair
achieving a victory as an ordinary horse! Fancy To extol what it bath done,
losing my kingdom for a horse !!” I tbrow out the suggestion for what it may be wortb. cult it is to reply to the former, especially when the Possibly I have been anticipated in this reading. objector knows nothing of science or its methods.
NEMU, But the point I have in view is to show that as Temple,
our knowledge of nature increases, the language
that expresses it becomes more accurate and exact, ACCURATE LANGUAGE.
nor can it be said that our modern science is likely It is gratifying to the cause of progress to read to require much revision from future science. the sensible remarks of your correspondents (p. 533 Modern science is furnished with newer tools, of the last volume) on the use of scientific terms in better tests and modes of research, and more ordinary speech. I wish it could be impressed on cogent methods of proof than belonged to the scienpeople generally always to use our noble language tists of the past. What men said and wrote 80 as to convey a true meaning instead of a false about lightning, for example, was sure to be faulty one, as is sometimes the case. For example, I previous to Franklin's kite experiment; and what meet an acquaintance who informs me that it is a wen said about the ignis fatuus was mere guess" nice day," hopes I shall have a “nice walk," and work before Priestley's discovery of gases, so that tbanks me for the “nice book” that I lent him. other low-lying meteors were confounded with it I inquire whether he had read it; he says, “No, but so long as the knowledge of their origin remained my sister has." On my remarking that it is a unknown. But when such phenomena were fairly stiff book for a young lady, he replies, “But she traced to their origin, generalized, and accounted is so awfully clever !” A young gentleman, fresh for, they became admitted facts; and a fact in from the university, where he was supposed to science once established is immortal, notwithhave completed his education, called upon me to standing the changes that scientific theory may thank me for some trifling service I had rendered undergo. him; but he did not do so in good, sensible English, It will be sufficient, in order to illustrate my but in the usual slang : it was “awfully good ” of main position, to trace a portion of the history of a me, &c. Working-men also hunt to death a single well-known article in every-day use. In my young epithet of a sanguinary nature, which, like the days common table salt was named muriate of other two, tends to impart a universal meaning to soda ; that is, a chemical union of muriatic acid and words of limited capacity. The origin of this the alkali soda. But Sir Humphry Davy disslovenly use of our language, whether in speaking covered the wonderful fact that soda is the oxide or writing, and the lack of good reading, I propose of a light metal which takes fire on contact with to consider on some future occasion. My present water, and that this metal sodium alone—not purpose is to suggest a lesson, and a good example sodium and oxygen—is to be found in common to follow, from scientific practice.
salt. He further discovered that muriàtic acid is a The one sole object of science is the discovery of compound of hydrogen and chloride (and hence truth. By science I do not mean the steam-engine, renamed hydrochloric acid), and that there is no the electric light, or the telephone, &c., by which hydrogen in common salt. Hence that compound money can be made; they and such like belong to could no longer be known as muriate of soda, båt applied science. The object of science, as MR. only as chloride of sodium, which has ever since WELCH well puts it, is to discover the truth as it is been recognized as its true name and must so conin nature, and to educate the people up to this tinue. But the story does not end here. Chlorine standard. If we look back upon the progress of was a new term proposed by Davy, on the ground science, it will be found that just in proportion as that it is a simple elementary gas of a green scientific knowledge advanced, the language that colour (from the Greek xdwpòs, green)--a term expressed it became improved—a result which involving no theory. It had been recognized by ought to apply to the language of every-day life, chemists as a compound bearing the unwieldy but unfortunately does not, seeing that we have name of oxygenated muriatic acid gas-a term engrafted into our every-day speech much of the which did involve a theory. Davy's views were terminology of a comparatively ignorant age. But opposed by several chemists, who, however, graduit is sometimes asked whether, if the science of the ally yielded to them. The last to yield was Prof. past required to be corrected by the light of the Hope, of Edinburgh. He brought forward what he present, the science of the present may not equally regarded as a triumpbant proof that the so-called require correction by the light of the future? This elementary body chlorine was a compound conquestion has been put to me from time to time by taiping oxygen. Now the most delicate test of the good people who, alarmed at certain results of presence of oxygen is a gas known as nitric oxide modern Biblical criticism, argued that if science If the smallest trace of oxygen be brought into conhas been proved to be wrong, criticism may some- tact with it, red fumes are produced. Hope found times also be fallible.
that chlorine mixed with pitric oxide produced red I am the more unwilling to attempt an answer fumes, and therefore chlorine must be a compound to the latter part of this objection, seeing how diffi- containing oxygen. Davy, however, pointed out