Obrazy na stronie

quities at Pharsalus. The name of Pharsa alone remains to show what it once was. Southwest of the town there is a hill surrounded with ancient walls, formed of large masses of a coarse kind of marble. Upon a lofty rock above the town to the south are : ruins of greater magnitude, showing a considerable portion of the walls of the Acropolis and remains of the Propylaea. (Cramer's Anc. Gr., vol. 1, p. 398.) Pharusil, a people of Africa, beyond Mauritania, situate perhaps to the east of the Autololes, which latter people occupied the Atlantic coast of Africa, opposite to the Insulae Fortunatas. (Mela, 1, 4, 23.-Vossius, ad loc.) Phaselis, a town of Lycia, on the eastern coast, near the confines of Pamphylia. Livy remarks, that it was a conspicuous point for those sailing from Cilicia to Rhodes, since it advanced out towards the sea; and, on the other hand, a fleet could easily be descried from it (37, 23). Hence the epithet of #veu6eqaa applied to it by Dionysius Periegetes (v. 854). We are informed by Herodotus (2, 178), that this town was colonized by some Dorians. Though united to Lycia, it did not form part of the Lycian confed. eracy, but was governed by its own laws. (Strabo, 667.) Phaselis, at a later period, having become the haunt of pirates, was attacked and taken by Servilius Isauricus. (Flor., 3, 6.-Eutrop., 6, 3.) Lucan speaks of it as nearly deserted when visited by PomK. in his flight aster the battle of Pharsalia (8,251). Nevertheless, Strabo asserts that it was a considerable town, and had three ports. He observes, also, that it was taken by Alexander, as an advantageous post for the prosecution of his conquests into the interior. (Strab.,666.-Compare Arrian, Exp. Al., 1, 24. -Plut., Wit. Aler.) Phaselis, according to Athenæus, was celebrated for the manufacture of rose persume (14, p. 688). Nicander certainly commends its roses (ap. Athen., p. 683.)—“On a small peninsula, at the foot of Mount Takhtalu (the highest point of the Solymean mountains),” says Captain Beaufort, “are the remains of the city of Phaselis, with its three ports and lake as described by Strabo. The lake is now a mere swamp, occupying the middle of the isthmus, and was probably the source of those baneful exhalations which, according to Livy and Cicero, rendered Thaselis so unhealthy. The modern name of Phaselis is Tekropa.” (Karamania, p. 56.) “The harbour and town of Phaselis,” observes Mr. Fellows, “are both extremely well built and interesting, but very small. Its theatre, stadium, and temples may all be traced, and its numerous tombs on the hills show how long it must have existed.” (Tour in Asia Minor, p. 211.)—Beyond Phaselis the mountains press in upon the shore, and leave a very narrow passage along the strand, which at low water is practicable, but, when storms prevail and the sea is high, it is extremely dangerous: in this case, travellers must pass the mount. ains, and proceed into the interior by a long circuit. The defile in question, as well as the mountains overhanging it, was called Climax, and it obtained celebrity from the fact that Alexander led his army along it, after the conquest of Caria, under circumstances of o difficulty and danger; for, though the wind lew, violently, Alexander, impatient of delay, hurried his troops forward, along the shore, where they had the water up to their middle, and had great diffi. culty in making their way. (Strab, 666, seq.—Arrian, Exp. Al.. 1, 26. Plut, Vit. Aler) Captain Beaufort remarks, that “the shore at present exhibits a remarkable coincidence with the account of Alexander's march from Phaselis. The road along the beach is, however, interrupted in some places by projecting cliffs, which would have been difficult to surmount, but round which the men could readily pass by wading through the water.” (Karamania, p. 115, seq.—Com. pare Leake's Tour, p. 190.)

Phastina, a district of Armenia Major, through which the river Phasis or Araxes flows; whence the name of the region. The beautiful birds, which we call pheasants, still preserve in their name the traces of this their native country. (Vid. Araxes I.) PHAsias, a patronymic given to Medea, as being born in Colchis, on the banks of the Phasis. (Ovid, A. A., 2, 381.) Phasis, I. a river of Asia, falling into the Euxine after passing through parts of Armenia, Iberia, and Colchis. According to Strabo and Pliny, it rose in the southern portion of the Moschian mountains, which were regarded as belonging to Armenia. (Strabo, 498.-Plin., 6, 4.) Procopius states that in the early part of its course it was called Boas, but that, after reaching the confines of Iberia, and becoming increased in size by several tributaries, it took the name of Phasis. (Procop., Pers., 2, 29.) Its modern name is Rion or Rioni, which would seem more properly to belong to the Rheon, one of its tributaries. The Turks call it the Fasch. The Phasis is famous in mythology from Jason's having obtained in its vicinity the golden fleece of Grecian sable. Arrian (Peripl., Mar. Eur.) says, that the colour of the water of the Phasis resembled that of water impregnated with lead or tin; that is, it was of a bluish cast. It was said, also, not to intermingle with the sea for some distance from land. —For some general remarks on the name Phasis, consult remarks at the end of this article. (Munnert, Geogr., vol. 4, p.394, seqq.)—II. A city at the mouth of the hian Phasis, founded by a Milesian colony. (Mela, 1, It does not appear to have been a place of any great trade. In Hadrian's time it was a mere fortress, with a garrison of 400 men. (Arrian, Peripl.-Ammian. Marcell., 22, 8.) The place is not mentioned by Procopius. NIn the vicinity of this spot, the Turks, in former days, had the small fortress of Potti. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 396)–III. A river of Armenia Major, the same with the Araxes. (Vid. Araxes, I.)—The name Phasis would seem to have been a general appellation for rivers in early Oriental geography, and the root of it may be very fairly traced in the Indo-Germanic dialects.N (Phas—Was —German Wasser, “ Water.”—consult Ritter, Wor halle, p. 466.) PHAvoriNus (in Greek baffopivot), * of Arelate in Gaul, who lived at Rome during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian, and enjoyed a high degree of consideration. He wrote numerous works, but no part of them has reached us except a few fragments in Stobalus. Aulus Gellius, however, has o us some of his dissertations in a Latin dress. (Nock. Att, 12, 1 ; 14, 1, 2; 17, 10.) Phavorinus loved to write on topics out of the common path, and more or less whimsical; he composed, for example, a eulogiu Thersites, another on Quartan Fever, &c. Having the misfortune to offend the Emperor Hadrian, statues, which the Athenians had raised to him, we thrown down by that same people. He bequeathe his library and mansion at Rome to Herodes Atticus. Phavorinus was a friend of Plutarch's, who dedicate a work to him. For farther particulars relating to thi individual, consult Philostratus (Wit. Sophist, 1, 8, 1) and Lucian (Eunuch, c. 7–Demon, c. 12, seq. Schöll, Gesch. Gr. Lit., vol. 2, p. 607.) PHAzANIA, a region of Africa, lying to the south o Tripolis. It is now Fezzan. (Plin, 5, 3) PhENEUs (oveoc), a city in the northern part of Arcadia, at the foot of Mount Cyllene. It was a town of great antiquity, since Hercules is said to have resided there after his departure from Tiryns, and Homer has mentioned it among the principal Arcadian cities. (Il., 2,605.) The place was surrounded by some extensive marshes, which are said to have once inundated the whole country, and to have destroyed the ancient town. They are more commonly called

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the mountains to the north of Pheneus, and usually

Pher Aeës, a surname of Jason, as being a native of Pherae. (Wid. Jason, II.) Pher Ecrites, a comic poet of Athens, contempo

finds a vent in some natural caverns or katabathra at rary with Plato, Phrynichus, Aristophanes, and Euthe extremity of the plain ; but when, by accident, polis. (Suid., s. v. IIAérov —Clinton, Fast. Hell,

these happened to be blocked up, the waters filled the

whole valley, and, communicating with the Ladon and Alpheus, overflowed the beds of those rivers as far as Olympia. (Eratosth., ap. Strab., 389.)

vol. 1, p. xl.) Little is known of him. He is said to have written 21 comedies, of which a few fragments remain. The following are the titles of some of his

Pausanias pieces: “The Deserters,” “Chiron,” “The Old Wom

reports, that vestiges of some great works undertaken len,” “The Painters,” “The False Hercules,” &c.

to drain the Phenean marshes, and ascribed by the natives to Hercules, were to be seen near the city s, 14). The vestiges of the town itself are visible, according to Dodwell, near the village of Phonia, upon an insulated rock. The lake is said to be very small, and to vary according to the season of the year. (Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 436–Cramer's Anc. Gr., vol. 3, p. 321.)

Pher E.I. a city of Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly, one of the most ancient and important places in the country. It was the capital of Admetus and Eumelus, as we learn from Homer (Il., 2, 711, seq.) and Apollonius. (Arg, 1,49.—Compare Hom., Od., 4, 798) Phera, was famed at a later period as the native place of Jason, who, having raised himself to the head of affairs by his talents and ability, became master not only of his own city, but of nearly the whole of Thessaly. (Vid. Jason, II.) After the death of Jason, Phera: was ruled over by Polydorus and Polyrophon, his two brothers. The latter of these was succeeded by Alexander, who continued for eleven years the scourge of his native city and of the whole of Thessaly. (Xen, Hist. Gr., 6, 5.) His evil designs were for a time checked by the brave Pelopidas, who entered that province at the head of a Boeotian force, and occupied the citadel of Larissa ; but, on his falling into the hands of the tyrant, the Boeotian army was placed in a most perilous situation, and was only saved by the presence of mind and ability of Epaminondas, then serving as a volunteer. The Thebans subsequently rescued Pelopidas, and, under his command, made war upon Alexander of Pherae, whom they defeated, but at the expense of the life of their gallant leader, who fell in the action. (Plut., Wit. Pelop.–Polyb., 8, 1, 6, seqq.) Alexander was not long after assassinated by his wife and her brothers, who continued to tyrannize over this country until it was liberated by Philip of Macedon. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 6, 4.— Diod. Sic., 16, 38.) Many years after, Cassander, as we are informed by Diodorus, sortified Phere, but Demetrius Polior. cetes contrived, by secret negotiations, to obtain possession of both the town and citadel. (Diod. Sic., 20, 110.) In the invasion of Thessaly by Antiochus, Phera, was forced to surrender to the troops of that monarch after some resistance. (Liv., 36, 9.) It afterward sell into the hands of the Roman consul Acilius. (Id, 36, 14) . Strabo observes, that the constant tyranny under which this city laboured had hastened its decay. (Strab, 436.) Its territory was most fertile, and the suburbs, as we collect from Polybius, were surrounded by gardens and walled enclosures (18, 2). Stephanus Byzantinus speaks of an old and new town of Phcraft, distant about eight stadia from each other. Pherae, according to Strabo, was ninety stadia from Pagasae, its emporium. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p.393.)—II. A town of Ætolia. (Steph. Byz, s. r. sepaí.)—III. A town of Messenia, to the east of the river Pamisus. At this place Homer makes Telemachus and the son of Nestor to have been entertaincd by Diocles, on their way from Pylos to Sparta, (Od. 15, 186.) It is also alluded to in the Iliad (5, 543). Pherae was one of the seven towns offered by Agamemnon to Achilles. (Il, 9, 15.1.). It was annexed by Augustus to Laconia, after the battle of Actium. (Pausan, 4, 30.--Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 141.)

Such was the license which prevailed at this period on the Greek stage, that Pherecrates was particularly commended for having abstained entirely in his pieces from any personal attacks. He was also the inventor of a species of verse, which was called from him the Pherecratean or Pherecratic. The Pherecratic verse is the Glyconic deprived of the final syllable, and consists of a spondee, a choriambus, and a catalectic syllable. The first foot was sometimes a trochee or an anapaest, rarely an iambus. When this species of verse has a spondee in the first station, it may then be scanned as a dactylic trimeter. It has been conjectured that the trochee was originally the only foot admissible in the first place of the Pherecratic. (Ramsay, Lat. Pros., p. 192–Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 90.) The fragments of Pherecrates were given with those of Eupolis, by Runkel, Lips., 1829, 8vo. PHERE.cy des, I. a Grecian philosopher, contemporary with Terpander and Thales, who flourished about 600 B.C., and was a native of the island of Scyros. The particulars which remain of the life of Pherecydes are sew and imperfect. Marvellous circumstances have been related of him, which only deserve to be mentioned in order to show, that what has been deemed supernatural by ignorant spectators may be easily conceived to have happened from natural causes. A ship in full sail was, at a distance, approaching its harbour; Pherecydes predicted that it would never come into the haven, and it happened accordingly, for a storm arose which sunk the vessel. Aster drinking water from a well, he predicted an earthquake, which happened three days afterward. It is easy to suppose that these predictions might have been the result of a careful observation of those phenomena which commonly precede storms or earthquakes, in a climate where they frequently happen. Pherecydes is said to have been the first among the Greeks who wrote concerning the nature of the gods; but this can only mean that he was the first who ventured to write upon these subjects in prose. For, before his time, Orpheus, Musaus, and others, had written theogonies in verse. Some have ascribed to him the invention of the sundial; but the instrument was of a more ancient date, being mentioned in the Jewish history of Hezekiah, king of Judea (2 Kings, 20, 11.) Concerning the manner in which he died, nothing certain is known; for, as to the story of his having been gradually consumed for his impiety by the loathsome disease called morbus pedicularis, this must doubtless be set down in the long list of idle tales by which the ignorant and superstitious have *. endeavoured to bring philosophy into contempt. He lived to the age of eightyfive years.--It is difficult to give, in any degree, an accurate account of the doctrines of Pherecydes; both because he delivered them, after the manner of the times, under the concealment of symbols, and because a very few memoirs of this philosopher remain. It is most probable, that he taught those opinions concerning the gods and the origin of the world which the ancient theogonists borrowed from Egypt. Another tenet, which is, by the universal consent of the ancients, ascribed to Pherecydes, is that of the immortality of the soul, for which he was, perhaps, indebted to the Egyptians. Cicero says (Tusc. Quast., 1,16) that he was the first philosopher in whose writings this doctrine appeared. He is also *..." not imFrobably, to have taught the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul; for this was a tenet commonly received among the Egyptians, and afterward taught by Pythagoras. Whether it was that Pherecydes instituted no sect; or that his writings fell into disuse through their obscurity; or that Pythagoras designed. ly suppressed them, that he might appear the original author of the doctrines which he had learned from his master; or whatever else might be the cause, we are left without farther information concerning his philosophy. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 362, seqq.) There are extant some fragments of a Theogony composed by him, which bear a strange character, and have a much closer resemblance to the Orphic poems than to those of Hesiod. . They show that, by this time, the characteristic of the theogonic poetry had been changed, and that Orphic ideas were in vogue. (Müller, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 234.) The fragments of Pherecydes, together with those of his namesake of Leros, were edited by Sturz, Gera, 1789, 8vo, and a new edition appeared in 1824, Lips., 8vo, with additional fragments, and more enlarged explanations. The preface to this latter edition contains the greater part of Matthia's dissertation, which Sturz undertakes to refute. The dissertation just mentioned was published by Matthia, in 1814, Altenb., 8vo, and was reprinted in Wolf’s Analekten, vol. 1, p. 321, seqq.—Pherecydes, and Cadmus of Miletus, are said to have been the first of the Greeks that wrote in prose. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 212. Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr., vol. 3, p. 219.)—II. A native of Leros, one of the Sporades, and a contemporary with Herodotus. He was the last of the Logographers, or compilers in prose of historical traditions (26) ov, and Ypápo). After him the regular historians begin. Pherecydes, among other works, made a collection of traditions relative to the early history of Athens. The fragments of this writer have been edited, along with those of Pherecydes of Scyros, by Sturz, Gera, 1789, 8vo, republished at Leipsic in 1824. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 140.) PhEREs, son of Cretheus, and of Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus. He founded Pherae in Thessaly, where he reigned, and became the father of Admetus, and of Lycurgus, king of Nemea. (Apollod., 1, 9, 11. —Id., 1, 9, 13.) Phidi As, a celebrated statuary, son of Charmidas, and a native of Athens. Nothing authentic is related concerning his earlier years, except that he was instructed in statuary by Hippias and Ageladas, and that, when quite a youth, he practised painting, and made a picture of Jupiter Olympius. (Plin., 35, 8, 34.—Siebel., Indic. Winkelm., p. 324–Jacobs, Amalth., vol. 2, p. 247.) Respecting Hippias we have little information. In what period Phidias was a pupil of Ageladas is likewise uncertain; but as Pausanias makes Ageladas a contemporary of Onatas, who flourished about the 78th Olympiad (Pausan., 8, 42, 4), and as in this period Ageladas was both distinguished by his own productions as an artist, and was at the head of a very celebrated school of statuary, we may properly assume this as the time in which Phidias was under his tuition. Between the date just mentioned and the third year of the 85th Olympiad, there is an interval of 30 years. . If with these conclusions we attempt to ascertain the time of the birth of Phidias, it is by no means an improbable conjecture that he was about 20 years of age when he received the instructions of Ageladas, and, therefore, was born in the first year of the 73d Olympiad, or B.C. 488, a date very nearly according with that given by Müller. This computation will explain the fact, that in B.C. 438, Phidias, then 50 years of age, represented himself as bald on the shield of the Athenian Minerva. He must also have been about 56 years of age at the time of his death. ‘Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.)—Phidias brought to his pro

session a knowledge of all the finer parts of science which could tend to dignify and enhance it. With the most exquisite harmonies of poetry, and the most gorgeous fictions of mythology, he was no less familiar than with geometry, optics, and history. From Homer, whose works he must have deeply studied, he drew those images of greatness, which he afterward moulded in earthly materials with a kindred spirit. The circumstance which, by a singular felicity, not often accorded to genius, elicited the powers of Phidias, was the coincidence, in point of time, of the full maturity of his talents with the munificent administration of Pericles. Intent on his great national design of adorning Athens with the choicest specimens of art, this statesman saw with eagerness, in the genius of Phidias, the means of giving form, shape, and completeness to the most glorious of his conceptions. He accordingly appointed this great sculptor the general superintendent of all the public works then in progress, both of architecture and statuary (Plut., Wit. Pericl., 13), . well did the event sanction the choice which was thus made by him. The buildings reared under the direction of Phidias, though finished within a comparatively short period, seemed built for ages, and, as ob

served by Plutarch, had the venerable air of antiquity when newly completed, and retained all the freshness of youth after they had stood for ages. The beauti

ful sculptures on the frieze of the Parthenon were the work of Phidias and his scholars, while the statue of the goddess within the temple was his entire production. This was, indeed, the most celebrated of all his works, if we except the Olympian Jupiter at Elis. Independently of the workmanship, the statue was of noble dimensions and of the most costly materials. It was twenty-six cubits, or thirty-nine feet in height, and formed of ivory and gold; being most probably composed originally of the former, and overlaid, in part, by the latter. The goddess was represented in a noble attitude, erect, clothed in a tunic reaching to her feet. On her head was a casque: in one hand she held a spear; in the other, which was stretched out, an ivory figure of Victory, four cubits high; while as her feet was a buckler, exquisitely carved, the concave representing the war of the giants, the convex the battle between the Athenians and Amazons, and portraits of the artist and his patron were introduced among the Athenian combatants, one cause of the suture missortunes which envy brought upon the author. On the middle of her helmet a sphinx was carved, and on each of its sides a griffon. On the aegis or breastplate was displayed a head of Medusa. The golden sandals were sculptured with the conflict between the Centaurs and Lapithe, and are described as a perfect gem of minute art. On the base of the statue was represented the legend of Pandora's creation, together with the images of twenty deities. (Pausan, 1, 24, 5. – Siebelis, ad loc.— Maz. Tyr., Diss. 14.— Plin., 36, 5, 4.) It was from this statue that Philorgus took away the golden head of Medusa (Isocrat. ad Callim., 57, ed. Bekk.), in the place of which an ivory figure of this head was afterward introduced, which was seen by Pausanias. (Böckh, Corp. Inscript., 1, 242.) This magnificent statue was repaired by Aristocles, in Olymp. 95.3 (Böckh, Corp. Inscript., 237); and that it might not be without the necessary moisture, as it was placed on the dry ground, they were accustomed to sprinkle water on the ivory. (Pausan., 5, 11, 5.) According to the account of an ancient writer named Philochorus (ap. Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac., 604). Phidias, soon after completing this statue, was charged with having embezzled a portion of the materials intended for the work, and, in consequence, fled to Elis, where he was employed in making the famous statue of Jupiter; but here again he was accused of similar embezzlement, and was put to death by the Elians The best critics, however, consider this whole story to be false. Heyne, though he errs in maintaining that this statue was dedicated before that of Minerva, yet has very properly observed that, had Phidias been guilty of embezzlement in relation to it, the Elians would never have allowed him to inscribe his name on it, nor would they have intrusted its preservation to his descendants." (Antiq. Aufs., vol. 1, p. 201.) Müller, too, examines the whole subject with great impartiality, and comes to the conclusion, that the fame which Phidias had acquired by his Minerva induced the Elians to invite him to their country, in connexion with his relations and pupils; and that this journey was undertaken by him in the most honourable circumstances. (Müller, de Phidia Vita, p. 25, seqq.)—The statue of the Olympian Jupiter graced the temple of that god at Olympia in Elis, and was chryselephantine (made of gold and ivory), like that of Minerva. Like it, too, the size was colossal, being sixty feet high. The god was represented as sitting on his throne: in his right hand he held a figure of Victory, also made of gold and ivory, in his lest a sceptre beautifully adorned with all kinds of metals, and having on the top of it a golden eagle. His brows were encircled with a crown, made to imitate leaves of olive ; his robe was of massive gold, curiously adorned, by a kind of encaustic work probably, with various figures of animals, and also with lilies. The sandals, too, were of gold. The throne was inlaid with all kinds of precious materials, ebony, ivory, and gems, and was adorned with sculptures of exquisite beauty. On the base was an inscription recording the name of the artist. (Pausan., 5, 11. — Compare Quatremère de Quincy, Jup. Olymp., p. 310. — Siebelis ad Pausan., l.c.) Lucian informs us, that, in order to render this celebrated work as perfect in detail as it was noble in conception and outline, Phidias, when he exposed it for the first time after its completion to public view, placed himself behind the door of the temple, and listened attentively to every criticism made by the spectators: when the crowd had withdrawn and the temple gates were closed, he revised and corrected his work, wherever the objections he had just heard appeared to him to be wellgrounded ones. (Lucian, pro Imag., 14.) It is also said, that when the artist himself was asked, by his relation Pana-nus, the Athenian painter, who, it seems, aided him in the work, whence he had derived the idea of this his grandest effort, he replied, from the well-known passage in Homer, where Jove is represented as causing Olympus to tremble on its base by the mere movement of his sable brow. (Il., 1, 528.) The lines in question, with the exception of their reference to the “ambrosial curls,” and the brow of the god, contain no allusion whatever to external form, and yet they carry with them the noble idea of the Supreme Being nodding benignant assent with so much true majesty as to cause even Olympus to tremble. (Strab., 354.—Polyb., Erc, L., xxx., 15, 4, 3.-Müller, de Phid. Wit, p. 62.)—Of the whole work Quintilian remarks, that it even added new feelings to the religion of Greece (Inst. Or, 12, 10, 9), and yet, when judged according to the principles of genuine art, neither this nor the Minerva in the Parthenon possessed any strong claims to legitimate beauty. It does not excite surprise, therefore, to learn that Phidias himself disapproved of the mixed effect produced by such a combination of different circumstances, nor will it appear presumptuous in us to condemn these splendid representations. In these compositions, exposed, as they were, to the dim light of the ancient temple, and from their very magnitude impersectly comprehended, the effects of variously reflecting substances, now gloom, now glowing with unearthly lustre, must have been rendered doubly imposing. But this influence, though well calculated to increase superstitious devotion, or to impress mysterious terror on the bewildered sense, was meretricious, and altogether diverse from the solemn

repose, the simple majesty of form and expression, which constitute the true sublimity of sculptural representation. (Memes, History of the Fine Arts, p. 52.) —In the time of Pausanias, there was still shown, at Olympia, the building in which this statue of Jupiter was made, and the posterity of Phidias had the charge of keeping the image free from whatever might sully its beauty, and were, on this account, styled patópvyTai. (Pausan., 5, 14, 5.)—We have already remarked that, according to the best critics, this statue war executed subsequently to that in the Parthenon, and not, as the common accounts have it, before this. It was on his return to Athens, after completing the Olympian Jove, that Phidias became involved in the difficulty, which many erroneously suppose to have preceded his visit to Elis. According to Plutarch, his friendship and influence with Pericles exposed the artist to envy, and procured him many enemies, who, wishing, through him, to try what judgment the people might pass upon Pericles himself, persuaded Menon, one of his workmen, to place himself as a suppliant in the forum, and to entreat the protection of the state while he lodged an information against Phidias. The people granting his request, Menon charged the artist with having embezzled a portion of the forty talents of gold with which he had been furnished for the decoration of the statue in the Parthenon. The allegation, however, was disproved in the most satisfactory manner; for Phidias, by the advice of Pericles, had put on the golden decorations in such a way that they could be easily removed without injury to the statue. They were accordingly taken off, and, at the order of Pericles, weighed by the accusers; and the result established the perfect innocence of the artist. His enemies, however, were not to be daunted by this defeat, and a new charge was, in consequence, soon prepared against him. It was alleged that, in his representation of the battle of the Amazons upon the shield of Minerva, he had introduced his own effigy, as a bald old man taking up a large stone with both hands, and a highlyfinished picture of Pericles contending with an Amazon. This was regarded as an act of impiety, and Phidias was cast into prison, to await his trial for the offence; but he died in confinement before his cause could be heard. (Plut., Wit. Pericl.–Müller, de Vit. Phid., p. 33, seqq.—Schömann, de Comit., p. 219.Platner, der Process, und die Klagen, vol. 1, p. 353.) —The numerous works of Phidias belong to three distinct classes: Toreutic, or statues of mixed materials, ivory being the chief; statues of bronze; and sculptures in marble. In this enumeration are included only capital performances; for exercises in wood, plaster, clay, and minute labours in carving, are recorded to have occasionally occupied his attention. —Of the first class of works we have already mentioned the two most remarkable ones, the statues of Minerva and Jupiter. Among his works in bronze may be enumerated the following: 1. The celebrated statue of Minerva Promachus, to which we have alluded in a previous article. (Wid. Parthenon.)—2. A statue of Minerva, placed, like the previous one, in the Athenian Acropolis, and highly praised by Pliny (34, 8, 19). Lucian prefers it to every other work of the artist's. (Imag., 4.)—3. Another statue of Minerva, removed to Rome in B.C. 168, and placed by Paulus AEmilius in the temple of Fortune. (Plin., l.c.)—4. Thirteen brazen statues, dedicated at Delphi, by the Athenians, out of the spoils taken at Marathon. (Pausan, 10, 30, 1.)—The following were among the productions of Phidias in marble. 1. A statue of Venus Urania, placed in a temple dedicated to this goddess, not far from the Ceramicus at Athens. It was of Farian marble. (Pausan., 1, 24, 8)–2. Another statue of Venus, of exquisite beauty, which was in the collection of Octavia at Rome. (Plin, 36, 5, 4.)—3. A statue of Mercury, placed in the vicinity of To (Pau sam., 9, 10, 2.)—Phidias not only practised statuary, the art in which he was pre-eminent, but also engraving, as we learn from Martial (Epigr., 3, 35), and from Julian (Epist, 8, p. 377, ed. Spanh.). The pupils of this most distinguished artist were, Agoracritus, Alcamenes, and Colotes. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.– Junius, Catal. Artific., p. 151, seqq.–Müller, de Phid. Wit., p. 37, seqq.)—The sublime style perfected by Phidias seems almost to have expired with himself; not that the art declined, but a predilection for subjects of beauty and the softer graces, in preference to more heroic and masculine character, with the exception of the grand relievos on the temple at Olympia, may be traced even among his immediate disciples. In the era and labours of Phidias, we discover the utmost excellence to which Grecian genius attained in the arts; and in the marbles of the British Museum, the former ornaments of the Parthenon, we certainly behold the conceptions, and, in some measure, the very ractice of the great Athenian sculptor. Of the inteli. character of these admirable performances, grandeur is the prevailing principle ; the grandeur of simplicity and nature, devoid of all parade or ostentation of art; and their author, to use the language of antiquity, united the three characteristics, of truth, grandeur, and minute refinement; exhibiting majesty, gravity, breadth, and magnificence of composition, with a practice scrupulous in detail, and with truth of individual representation, yet in the handling rapid, broad, and firm. This harmonious assemblage of qualities, in themselves dissimilar, in their result the same, gives to the productions of this master an ease, a grace, a vitality, resembling more the spontaneous overflowings of inspiration than the laborious offspring of thought and science. (Memes, History of the Fine Arts, p. 52, seqq.)—In the course of this article, we have frequently referred to the Life of Phidias by Müller. We will end with a brief account of it, which inay also serve, in some degree, as a recapitulation of what has here been advanced. Müller published, in 1827, three dissertations relative to Phidias, read before the Royal Society of Sciences at Göttingen. The first is a biographical sketch of Phidias, and establishes beyond doubt that Phidias began to embellish Athens with his works of sculpture in Olympiad 82 or 83, when Pericles was $ruarátnç; that he finished, in the third year of Olympiad 85, the statue of Minerva for the Parthenon; that the Elians, when the name of Phidias had become known over all Greece for the splendid works he had executed at Athens, induced him to come to Elis, and that he made there the statue of the Olympian Jove between Olympiads 85.3, and 86.3; and, finally, that after his return to Athens, he was thrown into prison by the enemies of Pericles, on a charge of impiety, and that he died in prison, in the first year of Olympiad 87, in which year the last work of Pericles, the Propylaea, had been finished. —The second shows the state of the fine arts before Phidias, and to what height they were carried by his genius.-The third gives a new explanation of the statues on the western front of the Parthenon at Athens. The work is in Latin, and has the following title: “C. Odofr. Muelleri de Phidia, Vita et Operibus Commentationes tres, &c.” (Götting., 1827, 4to.) Phinos, I. a king of Argos, of the race of the Heraclidae, who, breaking through the constitutional checks oy which his power was restrained, made himself absolute in his native city. He soon became possessed of extensive rule by various conquests, reducing, about the 3d Olympiad, the city of Corinth under his sway, and subsequently, about the 8th Olympiad, the greater part of the Peloponnesus. (Muller, Æginet., p. 51, seqq.) The Lacedæmonians were at this time too much occupied with the first Messenian war to be able to check his progress, while he himself, as the descendant of Temenus, one of the Heraclidae, founded his

conquests upon his claim to the possessions of his progenitor. (Muller, p. 52.) Phidon is described by Herodotus (6,127) and Pausanias (6, 22) as having exercised his authority in the most arbitrary manner of any of the Greeks. Among other acts of highhanded power was his driving out the Elian agonothetae, or presidents of the games; and presiding himself in their stead. (Herod., l. c.—Pausan., l. c.) Phidon is said to have been the first who established a common standard of weights and measures for the Peloponnesians. Not that, as some maintain, he was the inventor of weights and measures, for these were in existence long before (Salmas, de Usur., p. 429.Heyne, ad. Hom., vol. 5, p. 389), but he caused one uniform kind of weights and measures to be used by those of the Peloponnesians whom he had reduced be. neath his sway. (Herod., l. c.—Muller, p. 56.) He is reported also to have been the first that stamped money, or, in other words, introduced among the Greeks a regular coinage. This can only mean, not, as Salmasius thinks, that he merely stamped a certain mark on silver and brass, laminae, which had before been estimated by weight, but that he abolished the use of metallic bars or spits, and brought in stamped laminae for the first time. (Muller, Æginet., p. 57.Id, Dorians, vol. 2, p. 386, Eng. transl.—Etymol. Mug., s. v. 'O6ežíakoç.) This early mint was established in the island of Ægina, at that time subject to his sway, and the very place for one, since its inhabitants were famed for their industrious and commercial habits. (Strab., 376.—Eustath. ad Il., 2, p. 604.— Marmor. Par., p. 25, ep. 31.) The scholiast on Pindar (Ol., 13, 27) makes Phidon to have been a Corinthian; ; Teuß beiðarv Tuc, Kopivfuoc àvip, eipe uérpa Kai aratuia. . This, however, can only mean, that Phidon, on the conquest of Corinth, introduced there the same weights and measures, and the same stamped money as at AEgina. Hence the more correct remark of Didymus (ad v. 36), bri peidov, 6 Tpiroc kópar Koptvtious uérpov, 'Apyelog #v. (Müller, Æginet, p. 55.) But what are we to do with the authority of Aristotle, who speaks of Phidon as a Corinthian, and very early legislator (Polit., 2, 3, 7, ed. Schn.), while elsewhere he makes mention of Phidon, the tyrant Topi 'Apyog (Polit., 5, 8, 4, p. 218, Schn.)? The best answer is that contained in the words of Müller: “Potest Aristoteles, de instituto vetere Corinthiorum, quod ad Phidonem legislatorem referebant, certior factus, quis ille Phido fuerit ipse dubitasse.” (AEginet, p. 56.) The question, however, still remains open to discussion, and Heyne, among others, expressly distinguishes the Corinthian from the Argive Phidon. (Opusc, Acad., vol. 2, p. 255, in notis.) In a fragment also of Heraclides Ponticus (p. 22), mention is made of a Cumaean Phidon, who rāsioat usréðoke Tic Tožareiaç. So that the name appears to have be. longed to more than one legislator.—The power of the Argive Phidon is said to have been overthrown by the Lacedæmonians about the iith Olympiad, when leisure was allowed them to attend to the affairs of the Peloponnesus, the first Messenian war having been brought to a close. The chronology of Phidon's reign has been satisfactorily settled by Müller, in his “AEginetica,” a work to which we have already more than once referred, and in the course of the discussion he examines critically the computation of the Parian Marble, and also that of Eusebius. The same scholar has likewise explained away the difficulty in the text of Herodotus (6, 127), by supposing that the historian confounded a later Phidon with the ruler of Argos. There is no need, therefore, of any of the emendations proposed by Gronovius, Reitz, and others, although the correction suggested by Gronovius meets with the approbation of Larcher, Porson, and Gaisford. (Lar. cher, ad Herod., l.c.—Porson, Tracts, p. 325–Gais. ford ad Herod., l.c.—Compare Musgrave, Disserta.

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