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constantly found that the rheumatism has inquiry; and yet, to shew how simple and obcontinued, although the mouth was affected.” vious were the means which nature, by the very Dr. Haygarth gave his patients about half a symptoms, pointed out, Dr. Fuller finds, upon pound of bark a day, and was not disturbed in experiment, that a bandage, saturated with an his idea of its efficacy when he found nume- alkali, will almost immediately remove the pain rous cases of phrenitis and delirium among the and inflammation of arthriticrheumatism. When consumers thereof.
Colchicum has been con- he proceeds to tell us that his mode of treatsidered a specific, but then the symptoms it ment is made up of “ alkalies and the neutral produces are those of poisoning by colchicum salts, with colchicum, calomel, and opium, we (p. 96). Guiacum, nitrate of potash, lemon- have no doubt that he adopts the remedies juice, and many other remedies have taken their which, in the present state of medical knowturn; and all of them have been declared to be ledge, are best adapted to cure, and to cure specifics by men of great reputation and large quickly; and doubtless his experience enables practice. But the curious circumstance, to a him to handle these remedies better than phynon-medical reader accustomed to other scien- sicians who have had less experience in such tific inquiries, is, that no one of these doctors We cannot, however, shut our eyes to is convinced by any amount of failures of the the fact, that all this is mere empiricism (exfallacy of his particular specific; and that Dr. cept, perhaps, the alkalies); that he confessedly Fuller, who has tried them all, or watched them does not know what the colchicum does, nor all in operation, pronounces them, one after what it has to do ; whether the calomel is nethe other, either baneful, poisonous, or ineffi- cessary, or how its acts, except by its specific cient. It is, moreover, worthy of remark, that influence upon the liver, or as a common purno one of the specific mongers either pretends gative; nor why the opium should be exor attempts to account for the operation of his hibited, except that it has been found to alletreatment, or takes any trouble whatever to in viate similar symptoms arising from different vestigate the disease he attempts to combat.
The only one of all these remedies An unlearned man, seeing, during the course which is addressed to the actual cause of the of this disease the presence in large and quite disease is the alkali. This is a philosophical unusual quantities of lithic acid in one secre- remedy, supposing the “materies morbi” be an tion, and other strong and well-developed acid ; but that is precisely the question which acidulous matter in another, would have been no one seems to have taken much trouble to led to commence an investigation as to whether satisfy himself about. the “ materies morbi” might not be an excess We are thorougbly conscious, that in dealing of some superabundant acid in the system. with the subject of medical science we must Thence, if he had half the vows of a Bow-street necessarily exhibit ignorance of technical dedetective, he would have followed up the in- tails, and are liable to misconception of imporquiry, by bringing the whole stock of medical, tant facts; and we are also fully alive to the chemical, and anatomical knowledge to bear inconvenience of any man writing at all upon upon the question how such a disorganization a subject whereon he cannot write correctly. was likely to be produced. By settling the We do, however, know quite enough of medifirst point he would have obtained at once the cine to know how shamefully imperfect is the probable means of cure; by arriving at the so- knowledge of those who are bound to know all lution of the second he might possibly have ac- that can be known. We treat this topic con. quired a knowledge of an easy preventative. fessedly from without the profession, and we shall Medical science, however, has at last, after recur to it, from time to time, in the same spirit
. recklessly disporting itself with bleeding, sali- If the public had waited till the lawyers re, vating, opium-drugging, and colchicum poison- formed the abuses of the law, and if no one had ing, arrived only at the threshold of the first been heard upon the subject who was not a
proficient in special pleading, we should at this
day, and for many a future year, be still risking as freely; vapour and hot-air baths have been substituted for the extra bed-clothes and hot bottles ; and guaicum,
our money and our characters upon the event Dover's powder, and other sudorifics, have been given freely of special demurrers. So the medical profession and repeatedly. So copious is the diaphoresis thus pro will not thoroughly arouse itself to a sense of duced, that the perspiration has often soaked through the the necessity for exertion until the whole public blankets and the mattrass, and has formed a pool on the are thoroughly enlightened as to the ignorance adoption of this method of treatmeent. Sweated almost of the ordinary professors, the empirical chabeyond belief, and exhausted in a corresponding degree, racter of its rules of art, and its disgraceful pois soo much reduced in strength, that he is frequently only non-medical
men can thoroughly see : this the patient obtains very little relief
to his sufferings,
and sition as a science among sciences. This fact imperfectly, often experiences a relapse, and is generally function, only non-medical men can, with due subject for a considerable time to wandering pains in the contempt of the etiquette or esprit de corps limbs."
particular profession, consistently perform.
Observations on the Magnetic Orbit-(Read at the Meeting of the British Association, 1819)
By the Rev. H. GROVER. London: 1852. It is but rarely that we are called on to notice primary seats of the magnetic force; while, those great works of the human intellect, however, in the author's opinion, the force which, like Cuvier's “Regne Animal,” or exercised at the magnetic pole, is not solely a Faraday's series of Electro-chemical Investis. resultant force, but arises from the combined gations, form, each in themselves, an era in forces of the isodynamic poles together with a the progress of their respective sciences. But subsidiary or secondary force residing in the when such works do appear, their logic is so moveable magnetic pole itself, the nature and complete, their brilliancy so dazzling, as almost action of which he illustrates physically, at conto efface from our minds the humble and un- siderable length, by reference to analogous pretending labours of those whose incessant phenomena in electricity and electro-magnetism. efforts have collected, sifted, and arranged the 4. A reference of this secondary force to the materials on which the more comprehensive variable electrical action of the sun upon the theories are built.
earth. 7. An approximate computation of the Among such labours we consider Mr. period of the polar orbit, which our author, not Grover's observations well entitled to a favour- (he must pardon us the suspicion) without some able consideration ; nor are they the less use appearance of a foregone conclusion, estimates, ful, because combined with hypotheses. In at 1460 years, being within one year of the fact
, every method of scientific arrangement Egyptian Sothic period, the epochal year of rests on hypothesis, and even a false hypothe- which, as he further attempts to shew, coincided sis. The Ptolemaic Epicycles, for example, with the magnetic zero on that meridian. may have the greatest scientific value as long With this brief analysis we must take leave as it is sufficient for the arrangement of all the of our author, regretting for his own sake, and, known facts. On the actual value to science we gladly add, for the sake of his readers, that of Mr. Grover's theoretical inferences it hardly he should have given to these latter coincidences, falls within our province to pronounce, such a resting as they do on the vaguest and roughest verdict being the speciality of the scientific calculations, a prominence calculated to diminish journals; but for the benefit of those who are the attention which might otherwise be paid to interested in the investigation, we may briefly his zealous and laborious efforts to reduce the state the author's principal results.
magnetic phenomena to a regular and calculable These are, 1. The assignment of a segment law. How far Mr. Grover has succeeded in deof a definite orbitual path upon the earth's ducing such a law, or (which is a wider and more surface to the movement of the north magnetic important step) in assigning to it a physical pole during the 270 years which have passed cause, the Humboldts, the Sabines, the Haussince the variations of the compass have been teens, must determine. Mean time, we are all subjected to observation. 2. The establishment obliged to him for endeavours which, even if of a definite relation between this orbit and the they fail to command success, are always praiseposition of the north magnetic pole with re- worthy, and often, perhaps we might say alference to the northern isodynamic poles. 3. An ways, useful. inference that the isodynamic poles are the
Exposition of the Apostles' Creed. By Bishop Key. London: Pickering. 1852. This is a particularly delicate subject for a nice, scholarlike, antique-looking little volume, review which professes perfect neutrality upon it is the edition we should recommend to any ali religious subjects. All we can say of it subscriber who may wish for a copy of Bishop is, that as a specimen of typography, and as a Ken's well-known work.
Ecclesiography; or, the Biblical Church analytically delineated. By John G. MANBY.
London : Partridge and Oakey. 1852. Meditating in the mountains of Jamaica in
pages upon the Greeks and the Jews, the the month of May 1850, Mr. Manby first convivialism of church society,” the “penconceived the project of composing this very tecostal church-germ,” the “church elicitive," extraordinary volume. “We want to know, the “church consummatory” the “genitic and he
says, “ the Church of Christ, not the archaic unity of the church," and divers other Church of the fathers, of the councils, of the church accidents and church differentiæ; all schoolmen, or of the reformers, by law esta- which, mingled with a good deal of Greek, some blished and by dissent determined" and Mr. Chaldee, and a little Syriac, make us glad to Manby undertakes to tell us what this Church is. get out of our author's hands, and to return to
With this view he gives us four hundred the good old-fashioned plain English definition,
which we find in the thirty-nine articles of reader in Messrs. Partridge and Oakey's printthe Church as “a congregation of faithful ing-office was, however, the very last man who men.”
ever did, or ever will, read it through; and Those who are very curious students may we firmly believe that that much-to-be-comlook into this volume, and may find in its very miserated individual understands it just as well grotesqueness some materials for thought. The as its author does.
An Analytical Digest of all the Reported Cases decided in the Supreme Courts in India, in
the Courts of the East-India Company, and, on Appeal from India, by Her Majesty in Council. Together with an Introduction, fc. By WILLIAM H. MORLEY. 2 vols. 8vo.
London: Allen, and Stevens and Norton. 1850. Ditto ditto. New Series. Vol. I. 1852. The name of William Morley, as an Orientalist, step in this labyrinth, had he not enticed us was not strange to us, but we (perhaps we should by an introductory chapter, wherein he gives say rather the present writer), being all inno- a general view of the whole judicial system cent of the gossip of Westminster Hall, and of India, a subject upon which we confess to ignorant of its reputations, were scarcely pre- some curiosity. pared to find that Mr. Morley's wanderings Mr. Morley thus describes its contents :among Persian manuscripts were merely the
I shall divide the subject-matter of the following recreations of the scholar, and not the princi- pages into six distinct sections, giving the history of pal pursuit of the man. It seems, however, the Courts of Judicature, and the systems for the adthat what we have received as no bad results ministration of justice, from their origin down to the of a life of Oriental study, has been, after all,
present time, and a detailed account of the actual
constitution of the Courts, and their powers and juris. but les rinceaux des verres. Law, stern law, dictions as they now exist. The subject of appeals to has been drinking the strong wine.
England, and the laws peculiar to India, will also be When we turn ignorantly over these pon
treated bistorically in addition. I shall, in the former derous volumes (the first contains 1062 pages),
case, enter fully into the mode of procedure in this
country with regard to Appeals to Her Majesty in and see how closely they are printed, and Council; and in the latter, at the risk of prolixity, mark what a world of poring over libraries I shall describe at some length the sources whence of books (even perhaps more unreadable than
the native laws are derived, and the works from which themselves) they betray, we are lost in wonder
a knowledge of them may be most readily obtained. at the patience and determination of a man This Indian judicial system is not treated of who can make it the business of his life to completely in any other work. elucidate such questions as whether a Hindú seek for information on the subject have widow is incompetent to give her only son in hitherto been forced to have recourse to a adoption as a “Dwyámushyáyana,"—when pro- multitude of volumes and a chaos of blue perty becomes “ Stridhana,”—when “ Sasun- books. birt” may be claimed—and other similar light What use we have made of the information and playful inquiries.
gained must appear in another article, wherein We confess that we copy these long words with we flatter ourselves we have sufficiently degreat respect, probably derived from the fact molished Mr. Morley's Blackstonian eulogy that they convey no ideas to us. No doubt, of things as they are. as Indian law is now administered to upwards We however recommend the Introduction of 100,000,000 of our fellow subjects, it is use- to the perusal of our readers, on the principle of ful to have ample means of acquiring some know- audi alteram partem, and because Mr. Morley, ledge thereof, and neither do we doubt that however much he may be a partisan of the exthe indolent Bar and Bench of India are isting system, has dealt copiously and learnedly delighted to have this work so well digested with the subject. If we cannot agree with him for them, and could no more do without their in his conclusions upon the great matter of our “Morley” than a schoolboy could without Indian rule, we must not therefore refuse to his “Ainsworth.” Mr. Morley, however, acknowledge the merits of a ripe scholar and would never have tempted us to take one great jurisprudential writer.
Hippolytus and his Age; or, the Doctrine and Practice of the Church of Rome under Com
modus and Alexander Severus; and Ancient and Modern Christianity and Divinity compared By CHRISTIAN CHARLES Josias Bunsen, D.C.L. 4 Vols. 8vo.
London: Longman and Brown. 1852. Those who recollect a volume published five the Future,” will have no difficulty in underyears ago under the title of " The Church of standing the purport of this larger work, or in
estimating the convictions of this popular and In the first volume of “Hippolytus and his accomplished diplomatist upon matters eccle- Age" M. Bunsen applies himself, in the spirit siastical.
of historical criticism, to the authenticity, the As the“ Church of the Future" grew out of authorship, and the contents of this book, to a correspondence with Mr. Gladstone upon which he proposes to give the new title of the German Church Episcopacy and Jerusa- “Του αγιου Ιππολύτου Επισκόπου και Μάρτυρος lem, in reference to the recent public act of κατά πασών αιρέσεων έλεγχος των δέκα βιβλίων erecting Jerusalem into a bishopric of the Anglo- Tàowcóueva.” Prussian Church, so does the present work In the second volume the author
the arise from letters written to an English friend subject of the philosophical history of the upon the recent discovery of a MS. attributed Christian church; treating it, nevertheless, first to Origen, and published at Oxford, with the in a broken series of aphorisms, and afterwards prefix of a Greek title, signifying “The Philo- in fragmental discussions, critical, doctrinal, and sophumena of Origen, or the Refutation of all historical. Heresies.”
In the third and fourth volumes the chevalier M. Bunsen states that it can be proved by attempts to reconstruct the Christian church as unanswerable arguments, that this discovered it existed in the age of Hippolytus-to shew treasure is not from the hand of Origen, but the community life of the paulo-post apostolic from that of St. Hippolytus. Now, St. Hip- age of Christianity —its education, worship, gopolytus was a disciple of Irenæus, and being vernment, social relations, and the theology of about twenty years older than Origen, must the present time reflected in the mind of the have enjoyed, on many important points, still primitive saint. more than he, the living traditions of the apo- The apology of Hippolytus, whereof the
fourth volume is partly composd, is certainly a Irenæus was the disciple of Polycarp of bold adventure in a modern, for the author Ephesus, who was the immediate disciple of St. undertakes to speak as from the mouth of the John. The very words of the Saviour, there- disciple of Irenæus, and to say many things fore, came down to this early Roman presby- startling to English ears. ter, passing through the memory and lips of The saint complains that his identity is three of the most illustrious fathers of the doubted and his book unread, “after having church. “The book,” says M. Bunsen, “ gives enjoyed a literary reputation unequalled in my authentic information on the earliest history of church, and after having sealed his faith by Christianity, and precisely on those most im- confessing Christ during a cruel persecution." portant points of which hitherto we have known He is complimentary to the English, but, not very little authentically. It contains extracts unnaturally, indignant with the French, seeing from at least fifteen lost works of the Gnostic, that it was in Gaul that his work lay so long Ebionitic, and mixed heretical schools and neglected, and that it was a Frenchman who so parties of the earliest times of Christianity. falsely assigned it to Origen. These extracts begin with the account of here- Having stated his grievance, he takes courage sies which existed in the age of St. Peter and to tell something of his own life, of his wife St. Paul, and consequently preceded the Gospel Chloe, and of his father-in-law,“the sacristan of of St. John. They go down in an uninterrupted the gaudy and deceitful temple of Serapis." line to the first quarter of the third century. Then he passes to a discussion of the sacred We have here, amongst others, quotations from writings, as used in his own age; confesses to the Gospel of St. John, by Basilides, who an ignorance of Hebrew, but thinks he had flourished in the beginning of the reign of read a better Greek text than we have at the Hadrian, or about the year 117; furnishing a present day. He knew nothing of the second conclusive answer to the unfortunate hypothesis epistle of St. Peter, and doubted exceedingly of of Strauss, and the whole school of Tübingen, the Book of Daniel. that the fourth gospel was written about the Those readers who are versed in Neander's year 165 or 170. Many other points of almost works will understand all this, and expect what equal importance are settled for ever by these follows. For our part we limit ourselves to an extracts, at least for the critical historian... intimation of the contents of these four volumes.
“The conclusion of the work is not less inter- In the historical criticism which they containesting and important. It contains the solemn more especially, perhaps, in the collocation of the confession of faith of the learned and pious» liturgies of ancient churches, and in the notes author himself, who represents the doctrine of: to the apology of Hippolytus—the chevalier the Catholic church exactly one hundred years - pours forth his learning, and evinces his rebefore the Council of Nice in the very eye of search; but it is upon a subject and towards an transitions from the apostolic consciousness to end that will not be greatly appreciated in the ecclesiastical system.'
Phaethon; or, Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers. By the Rev. CHARLES KINGSLEY.
Cambridge: Macmillan. 1852.
An intellectual country squire and a clergyman Whately has held up for avoidance. Of course, are flogging a clear limestone-bottomed trout the nature of the subject utterly precludes us stream. The fish are shy, but lunch comes from examining these “arguments” by the from the Hall, so they thrust their rod-spears in rules of logic; suffice it to say, that one of his the ground, let the wind blow aloft their flies, most important conclusions is drawn from two and talk about a Yankee atheist and Socrates, propositions, one of which is an universal affiras Socrates appears in Plato.
mative, and the other a particular negative; The squire confesses himself an atheist, or as if a man should seek a conclusion from rather, perhaps, a sceptic: the clergyman pro- the two propositionsduces from his pocket a paraphrase he had written from Plato. He probably took “the
All men are animals.
This picture is not a man. Sophists” as his model. He reads it to his friend, and, after some discussion, the squire We do not believe that any new books, promises to read Plato again, and so the against atheism are wanted. A few deists, no dialogue ends.
doubt, are to be met with, but an atheist is If there be an atheist in the world, and out- not a real animal. If, however, Mr. Kingsley side the walls of Bedlam, this dialogue certainly insists upon throwing down his glove in this will not convert him. Mr. Kingsley not only cause, we at least have a right to require that does not understand the spirit of the Socratic he should qualify himself for his task. argument, but he does not even understand the suspect, however, that this reverend writer rules of Aldrich's logic. With a very pre- of Socialist novels has a mind which is intending parade of ingenuity, he perpetrates in capable of understanding what close reasonthis little tract every fallacy that Archbishop ing is.
Discussions on Philosophy and Literature, Education, and University Reform.
By SIR WILLIAM Hamilton, Bart. London: Longman, 1852.
It is not every one who would expect to find sparkling beverage—to wit, the Report of the in this bulky volume five hundred and seventy- Commissioners upon Municipal Corporations three closely-printed pages of articles from the in Scotland. We must admit, however, that Edinburgh Review, although we must confess there are some curious tables upon the comthat, if read steadily through, the title page af- parative achievements, in the schools, of the fords notice that the work is “chiefly from the respective Oxford colleges; and “Oxford as it Edinburgh."
is and might be” certainly contains a mass of Of these articles, some are old acquaintances facts upon the subject. As to the conclusions, well remembered, such as that upon Cousin's we do not value them greatly. Your Edinburgh lectures, and the paper on the study of mathe- and Glasgow and Hiedelberg professors have an matics as an exercise of the mind. Others especial love for fancying themselves engaged are reproduced which attracted no attention on in the work of recasting the two great Universitheir first appearance, and will scarcely obtain ties of Europe. We are as anxious to see imreaders even with the advantage of their parents' provement there as any one can be; but we are avowal of them.
somewhat sceptical whether Scotch metaphyTo these articles we have about one hundred sicians and German rationalists are exactly and seventy pages of appendix. There is the the people to work out such an object. appendix philosophical; the appendix logical, As to reviewing a work which thus treats containing the whole controversy between the de omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis, it is of author and Mr. De Morgan, excited by Sir course out of the question. We confine ourWilliam's editon of Reid's works; and the self to the duty of indicating the nature of its appendix educational, wherein are adminis- contents. tered many copious draughts of a not very
Spirits of the Past. An Historical Poem.
posed more congenial to the muse, than that By Nicholas Michell. Tegg and Co. of evoking from ihe tomb, and causing to pass The structure of this poem is happily ima- before the mind's eye in solemn array, the gined. A task could scarcely have been pro- shades of those who, by their character and by