« PoprzedniaDalej »
remove a prisoner, in order to be tried in ad subjiciendum, and which is frequently the proper jurisdiction wherein the fact considered as another Magna Charta of was committed. 3 Bl. Com. 130. 3 Steph. the kingdom. 3 Bl. Com. 135—137. 1 Com. 694.
Id. 137. For a summary of its provisions, HABEAS CORPUS AD SATISFA- see 3 Steph. Com. 699, 702. This statute CIENDUM. L. Lat. (You have the has been re-enacted or adopted, if not in body, to satisfy.) In English practice. A terms, yet in substance and effect, in all the writ which issues when a prisoner has had United States. 2 Kent's Com. 27, and judgment against him in an action, and the note. Id. 28—31. plaintiff is desirous to bring him up to some HABEAS CORPORA JURATORUM. superior court, to charge him with process L. Lat. (You have the bodies of the juof execution. 3 Bl.Com. 129, 130. 3 rors.) In English practice. A compulsive Steph. Com. 693. i Tidd's Pr. 350. process awarded against jurors in the Court
HABEAS CORPUS AD SUBJICI- of Common Pleas, commanding the sheriff ENDUM. L. Lat. (You have the body, to have their bodies before the court on the to submit to.) In practice. A writ di- day appointed. It is the same with the rected to the person detaining another, and distringas, issued in the Queen's Bench. commanding him to produce the body of 3 Bl. Com. 354. 3 Steph. Com. 590. 3 the prisoner, [or person detained,] with Chitt. Gen. Pr. 796, 797. See Distringas the day and cause of his caption and deten-juratores. tion, ad faciendum, subjiciendum et recipien- Habemus optimum testem confitentem reum. dum, to do, submit to and receive whatso- We have the best witness—a confessing deever the judge or court awarding the writ fendant. 1 Phill. Evid. 397. Burr. Circ. shall consider in that behalf. 3 Bl. Com. Evid. 496. “ What is taken pro confesso 131. 3 Steph. Com. 695. This is the well- is taken as indubitable truth.
The plea known remedy for deliverance from illegal of guilty by the party accused, shuts out confinement, called by Sir William Black- all further inquiry. Habemus confitentem stone the most celebrated writ in the Eng- reum is demonstration, unless indirect molish law. 3 Bl. Com. 129. i Id. 135. 1 tives can be assigned to it.” Lord Stowell, Steph. Com. 135. It was a common law 2 Hagg. 315. writ, but was confirmed and extended by HABENDUM. L. Lat. [L. Fr. à aver.] the statute 31 Car. II. c. 2, commonly (To have.) In conveyancing. One of the called the Habeas Corpus Act. Crabb's eight formal and orderly parts of a deed, Hist. 525. In modern practice, it is exten- following immediately after the premises; sively used as a means of obtaining the pos- so called from the Latin word habendum, session of the persons of women and infants, with which it commenced, and literally by parties claiming to be entitled to their translated and retained in modern deeds, in legal custody. Macpherson on Infants, 152 the clause beginning with the words “ To -163, part i. c. xv. See United States have and to hold." Its original object was Digest, Habeas corpus.
to determine the interest granted, or to HABEAS CORPUS AD TESTIFI- lessen, enlarge, explain or qualify the premiCANDUM. L. Lat. (You have the body, ses; or, according to Lord Coke, to name to testify.) In practice. A writ to bring a again the feoffee, and to limit the certainty witness into court, when he is in custody at of the estate. 2 Bl. Com. 298. 4 Kent's the time of a trial, commanding the sheriff Com. 468. Co. Litt. 6 a. Hale's Anal. to have his body before the court, to tes- sect. xxxv. Shep. Touch. 75. See infra. tify in the cause. 3 Bl. Com. 130. 2 Tidd: In modern deeds, the premises usually conPr. 809.
tain the specification of the estate granted, HABEAS CORPUS CUM CAUSA. and hence the habendum has become in most L. Lat.
(You have the body, with the cases a mere form; but where no estate is cause.). In practice. Another name for mentioned in the premises, the habendum the writ of habeas corpus ad faciendum continues to retain its original importance. et recipiendum, (q. v.) 1 Tidd's Pr. 348, 4 Kent's Com. 468. See Shep. Touch. 349.
(by Preston,) 76. HABEAS CORPUS ACT. The Eng- *** The following form of an ancient lish statute of 31 Charles II. c. 2, providing deed, from Bracton, will serve to illustrate the great remedy for the violation of per- the original use and importance of the hasonal liberty, by the writ of habeas corpus bendum. Sciant præsentes et futuri, quod ego talis, dedi et concessi, et hac præsenti Habere contractum; to have a contract; cartâ meâ confirmavi tali, pro homagio et to contract. Calv. Lex. servitio suo, tantam terram cum pertinentiis Habere in procinctu ; to have in readiin tali villa : HABENDAM et tenendam tali ness. Id. et hæredibus suis, generaliter vel cum coarc- Habere venale ; to sell. Id. tatione hæredum, liberè et quiete, &c. Know HABERE. Lat. In old English law. [all] men, present and future, that I, (such To have. Habere ad rectum ; to have one a one,) have given and granted, and by [forthcoming to answer) an accusation. this my present charter have confirmed to Bract. fol. 124 b. (such a one,) in consideration of his hom- This term frequently occurs in the age
and service, (so much land,) with the Year Books, as used by the court in grantappurtenances, in (such a town:) TO HAVE ing any relief prayed. Habeant auxilium; and to hold to (such a one,) and his heirs, let them have aid. M. 3 Edw. III. 37. (generally, or with a limitation of heirs,) Habeat etatem ; let him have his
Id. freely and quietly, &c. Bract. fol. 34 b, 38. 35. See Fleta, lib. 3, c. 14, § 5. See HABERE FACIAS POSSESSIONEM. also the forms in Littleton, sect. 371, 372. L. Lat. (You cause to have possession.) It will be seen that, in this example, Brac- In practice. A writ that issues for a sucton uses the word habendam, agreeing cessful plaintiff in ejectment, to put him in grammatically with terram ; but this is possession of the premises recovered. 3 disregarded in other instances, (see infra,) Bl. Com. 412. 2 Î'idd's Pr. 1244. Chitt. and habendum, as a word of more general Archb. Pr. 765. application, has become established in the HABERE FACIAS SEISINAM. L. later forms.
Lat. (You cause to have seisin.). In pracHABENDAS ET TENENDAS. L. tice. A writ of execution for giving seisin Lat. In old English law. To have and to of a freehold, as distinguished from a chathold. Concessimus etiam omnibus liberis tel interest. 3 B1. Com. 412. Cowell. hominibus regni nostri, pro nobis et heredi- HABERE FACIAS VISUM. L. Lat, bus nostris in perpetuum, omnes libertates (You cause to have view.) In old practice. subscriptas, habendas et tenendas, eis et À writ that lay in divers cases, as in dower, heredibus suis, de nobis et heredibus nostris formedon, &c., where a view was to be in perpetuum ; we have also granted to all taken of the lands in question. Bract. fol. the freemen of our realm, for us and our 379. See View. heirs forever, all the liberties underwritten; HABERJECTS, Haubergects. [L. Lat. to have and to hold to them and their
heirs, haubergetta.] A kind of cloth mentioned of us and our heirs forever. Mag. Cart. 9 in Magna Charta. Cap. 25.
Cap. 25. See HauberHen. III. c. 1.
getta. HABENDUM ET TENENDUM. L. HABETO TIBI RES TUAS. Lat. Lat. In old conveyancing. To have and Have, or take your effects to yourself. One to hold. Formal words in deeds of land of the old Roman forms of divorcing a from a very early period. Bract. fol. 17 b. wife. Calv. Ler. See Tuas res, &c.
HABENTES HOMINES. L. Lat. In HABILIS, (pl. Habiles.) Lat. Able; old English law. Rich men; literally, fit; competent; suitable. Habiles ad mathaving men. 1 Mon. Angl. 100. Du- rimonium ; constitutionally fit for matrifresne. The same with fæsting-men, (q. v.) mony. 1 Bl. Com. 436. Habilis and Corell.
inhabilis. Shelf. Marr. & Div. 55. AdHABERE. Lat. In the civil law. To mitto te habilem ; I admit thee able. Co. have. Sometimes distinguished from te- Litt. 344 a. nere, (to hold,) and possidere, (to possess ;) Good; sound; merchantable. Applied habere referring to the right, tenere to the to merchandize warranted. Yearb. M. 9 fact, and possidere to both. Calv. Lex. Hen. VI. 37. Habetur, quod peti potest; that is had, HABITANT (pl. Habitans.) Fr. In which can be demanded. Dig. 50. 16. French and Canadian law. A resident 143. See Id. 50. 16. 164. 2. Id. 50. 16. tenant; a settler; a tenant who kept hearth 188. So habere was otherwise distinguished and home on the seigniory. Dunkin's Adas referring to incorporeal things, tenere to dress, 17. corporeal, and possidere to both. Calv. HABITARE. Lat. To inhabit; to Let. Prateus.
dwell or reside. In the civil law, habitare properly signified to dwell permanently, as | vice of his wise men, established. 1 Bl. distinguished from commorari, (to stop for Com. 148. Hæc sunt judicia quæ sapientes a while.) But it had the latter sense also. consilio regis Ethelstani instituerunt; these Calv. Lex. Pratews. Spiegelius, cited are the judgments which the wise men, ibid.
with the advice of King Athelstan, estabHABIT AND REPUTE. In Scotch lished. Id. ibid. law. Held and reputed. Terms used to
HÆC EST CONVENTIO. L. Lat. express whatever is generally understood This is an agreement. Words with which and believed to have happened. Bell's agreements anciently commenced. Yearb. Dict.
H. 6 Edw. II. 191. HABITATIO. Lat. [from habitare, HÆC EST FINALIS CONCORDIA. 9. v.] A habitation, or dwelling. Towns. L. Lat. (This is the final agreement.) Pl. 116. 2 Inst. 702.
The words with which the foot of a fine In the civil law. The right of dwelling; commenced. 2 Bl. Com. 351. the right of free residence in another's HÆREDA. In Gothic law. A tribunal house. Inst. 2. 5. Dig. 7. 8. Heinecc. answering to the English court leet, and Elem. Jur. Civ. lib. 2, tit. 5.
of which it was said, de omnibus quidem “HABITATION,” held to mean a dwell- cognoscit, non tamen de omnibus judicat ; ing-house or home. 10 Grattan's R. 64. it takes cognizance of all matters, but does
. Lat. In old English law. not finally determine all. Stiernh. de Jur. Habit; apparel; dress or garb. Habitus Goth. 1. i, c. 2. 4 Bl. Com. 274. religionis ; the habit of religion. Fleta, HÆREDES, Heredes. Lat. (pl. of Helib. 5, c. 5, § 32. Habitus et tonsura cle- res, q. v.) Heirs. Bract. fol. 17, 20 b. ricalis ; the clerical habit and tonsure. 4 HÆREDES NECESSARII. Lat. In Bl. Com. 367. 2 Hale's P. C. 372. the civil law. Necessary heirs ; a term ap
HABLE. L. Fr. In old English law. plied to the slaves of a testator. A slave A port or harbor; a station for ships. made heir by his master was called necesStat. 27 Hen. VI. c. 3.
sarius hæres, because, whether he would or HABLE. L. Fr. Able; competent. not, (sive velit sive nolit,) he became, imDyer, 70 b, (Fr. ed.)
mediately after the death of the testator, HABUNDA. L. Lat. In old records. absolutely free and a necessary heir. Inst. Abundance ; plenty. Paroch. Ant. 548. 2. 19. 1. Heinecc. Elem. Jur. Civ. lib. 2, Cowell.
tit. 19, § 587. HACCHE. [Sax. hæca, a hatch or bolt.] HÆREDES SUI ET NECESSARII. A hatch; a gate or door. Cowell.
Lat. In the civil law. One's own (or HACHIA. L. Lat. In old records. proper) and necessary heirs. A term apA hack; a pick, or instrument for digging. plied to the sons, daughters, grandsons Placita, 2 Edw. III. MS. Cowell. grand-daughters by a son or other direct
HACIENDA. Span. In Spanish law. descendants of a party deceased. Inst. 2. Real estate. White's New Recop. b. 1, tit. 19. 2. Called sui, because they were do7, c. 5, 8 2.
mestic, and even during the life of the faHADBOTE. In Saxon law. A recom-ther were considered, in a certain sense, pense or satisfaction for the violation of owners of the estate, (quodammodo domini holy orders, or violence offered to persons existimantur.) Id. ibid. And called nein holy orders. Cowell. Blount. Per- cessarii, because they became heirs by the haps this word should be written haelbote, operation of law, (The Twelve Tables,) or halibote, from the Sax. halg, holy. whether they would or not, as well in case
HADE. [L. Lat. hada.] In old records. of intestacy as where there was a will. A piece of land; a head of land, or head- Id. ibid. Heinecc. Elem. Jur. Civ. lib. 2, land. Cowell. See Butts, Caput terræ, tit. 19, § 588. See Sui hæredes. Caputia, Headlands.
HÆREDES EXTRANEI. Lat. In HADERÚNGA. L. Lat. and Sax. Ha- the civil law. Extraneous, strange or fortred; ill-will; prejudice, or partiality. LL. eign heirs; those who were not subject to Ethelred. Spelman. Cowell.
the power of the testator. Inst. 2. 19. 3. HÆC. Lat. This; these. Hæc sunt HÆREDIPETA. Lat. In old English instituta quæ Edgarus rex consilio sapien- law. The next heir to lands. LL. Hen. tum suorum instituit ; these are the estab- I. c. 70. Properly, one who endeavored lishments which King Edgar, with the ad- to get the good will of others, in order to
be made their heir; (qui petit hæreditatem;) An inheritance in abeyance or expectaan inheritance seeker. Co. Litt. 88 b. tion; lying waiting, as it were, for the heir
HÆREDITAMENTUM. L. Lat. In to take it up; (donec relevetur in manum old English law. A hereditament, (q. v.) hæredis.) Co. Litt. 342 b. Bract. fol. 84. Spelman.
Fleta, lib. 3, c. 17, § 1. HÆREDITAS, Hereditas. Lat. [from An inheritance or estate left without a hæres, an heir; L. Fr. enheritance.] In legal owner. 2 Bl. Com. 259. civil and old English law. An inheritance; tate of a person deceased, where the owner an estate by succession; an estate trans- left no heirs or legatee to take it, called missible by descent. Heræditas alia cor- also caduca ; an escheated estate. Cod. poralis, alia incorporalis ; one kind of in- 10. 10. 1. 4 Kent's Com. 425. heritance is corporeal, another incorporeal. HÆREDITAS LUCTUOSA. Lat. In Co. Litt. 9. Divisio hæreditatis; the di- the civil law. A sad or mournful inherivision of an inheritance. Inst. 3. 1. 6. tance, or succession; as that of a parent Hereditas occurs in the civil law.
to the estate of a child, which was regarded Inheritance; hereditary succession. He- as disturbing the natural order of mortality, reditas nihil aliud est quam successio in (turbato ordine mortalitatis.) Cod. 6. 25. universum jus quod defunctus habuit, [ha- 9. 4 Kent's Com. 397. buerit ;] inheritance is nothing else than HÆRERE. Lat. To adhere; to be succession to the whole right which the de- close or immediately next to See Hæres. ceased had. Dig. 50. 16. 24. Id. 50. 17. To stop; to go no farther. Qui hæret 62. Bracton has adopted and amplified in litera hæret in cortice. He who stops in this definition of the civil law, in the fol- the letter, stops in the bark, rind or extelowing terms: Hæreditas est successio in rior. Co. Litt. 283 b. He who goes no universum jus quod defunctus antecessor farther than the letter, stops in the mere habuit, ex quacunque causâ acquisitionis, exterior covering of the law, without reachvel successionis, cum seysina sive sine, ing its substance. “ Hæret in litera ; the &c.; inheritance is the succession to objection is hypercritical.” Grier, J. 12 the whole right which the deceased Howard's R. 268. ancestor had, by whatever title of ac- To hesitate; to stick; to be in doubt. quisition, or succession, with seisin or "In hoc dubio, Bromeley, C. J. hærebat.” without, &c. Bract. fol. 62 b. In feodo Dyer, 77. et hæreditate; in fee and inheritance. HÆRES, Heres. Lat. [from hærere, to Bract. fol. 207. Hæreditas ab intestato; adhere, to be close or next to.] In the succession from an intestate. Inst. 2. 9. 7. common law. An heir; he to whom lands,
Bracton contends that the word hæredi- tenements or hereditaments, by the act of tas is not derived from hæres ; but that God and right of blood do descend, of some hæres, on the contrary, is from hæreditas. estate of inheritance. Co. Litt. 7 b. See Hæres dicitur ab hæreditate, et non hæredi- Heir. tas ab hærede. Bract. fol. 62 b, 265. Hæredem Deus facit, non homo. God
Hæreditas nunquam ascendit. Lat. An makes the heir, not man. Co. Litt. 7 b. inheritance never ascends. Glanv. lib. 7, Solus Deus hæredem facit. God alone c. 1. 2 BI. Com. 211. A maxim of feu- makes the heir. Bract. fol. 62 b. See dal origin, and which invariably prevailed Fleta, lib. 6, c. 1, 84. in the law of England down to the passage Hæres est nomen collectivum. Heir is a of the statute 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 106, § 6, collective name or noun. 1 Ventr. 215. by which it was abrogated. 1 Steph. Com. Hæres est nomen juris; filius est nomen 378. Broom's Max. [400.) See Descent. naturæ. Heir is a name or term of law;
HÆREDITAS DAMNOSA. See Dam- son is a name of nature. Bacon's Max. 52, nosa hæreditas.
in reg. 11. HÆREDITAS JACENS. Lat. In Hæres hæredis mei est meus hæres. The civil and common law. A fallen or pros- heir of my heir is my heir. Wharton's trate inheritance; the inheritance of a per
Lex. son deceased, while it lay unacquired by Hæres est aut jure proprietatis ant jyre the heirs; an inheritance before it was en- representationis. An heir is either by tered upon by the heir, (antequam adita right of property, or right of representafuerit ab hærede.) Bract. fol. 160. Id. tion. 3 Co. 40 b. fol. 227.
According to Lord Coke, the words
hæreditas and hæres are both derived from law, scarcely corresponds with the “heir” hærendo, (adhering,) that is, from closely of the common law, or rather it is used in resting upon; for he who is heir hæret, senses which do not at all belong to the (adheres, that is, to the ancestor;) or he is latter word. Thus, in the civil law, a perso called from hærendo, because the inhe- son was said to be appointed, instituted ritance hæret, adheres to him. (Hæreditas (institutus) or made (factus) an hæres by et hæres dicuntur ab hærendo, quod est another. Inst. 2. 14. But the maxim of arcte insidendo, nam qui hæres est, hæret; the common law has always been that no vel dicitur ab hærendo, quia hæreditas sibi man can make an heir. Hæredem Deus hæret.) Co. Litt. 7 b. This idea of the facit, non homo. The term hæres had, in close connection between heir and ancestor some of its applications, nearly or quite the is carried still farther in the following sense of the modern "devisee,” and in others maxims:
that of “executor,"
trustee." Thus, it Hæres est alter ipse, et filius est pars pa was an essential formality in making a testris. An heir is another self, and a son is tamert, that some person should appart of the father. 3 Co. 12 b, Harbert's pointed heir, (hæres,) to whose faith it
should be committed that he should conHæres est eadem persona cum antecessore. vey the inheritance to another person ; (ut An heir is the same person with his ances- aliquis hæres instituatur, ejusque fidei comtor. Co. Litt. 22. Branch's Princ. See mittatur ut eam hæreditatem alio restituat.) Nov. 48, c. 1, $1.
Inst. 2. 23. 2. Hæres est pars antecessoris. An heir is HÆRES ASTRARIUS. L. Lat. In a part of the ancestor. Id. ibid. So said, old English law. An heir in actual possesbecause the ancestor, during his life, bears sion. See Astrarius. in his body (in judgment of law) all his HÆRES DE FACTO. L. Lat. In old heirs. Id. ibid.
English law. Heir from fact; that is, from HÆRES. Lat. In feudal law. An the deed or act of his ancestor, without, or heir. Nomen hæredis, in prima investitura against right. Applied to an heir whose expressum, tantum ad descendentes ex cor- title originated in the wrongful act, such as pore primi vasalli extenditur; et non ad the disseisin of his ancestor. Bract. fol. collaterales, nisi ex corpore primi vasalli 172. An heir in fact, as distinguished sive stipitis descendant; the name of heir, from an heir de jure, or by law. See De expressed in the first investiture, extends facto. only to the descendants of the body of the HÆRES EX ASSE. Lat. In the civil first feudatory; and not to collaterals, un- law. An heir to the whole estate; a sole less they descend from the body of the heir. Inst. 2. 23. 9. See As. first feudatory, or stock (of descent.) HÆRES EXTRANEUS. Lat. In the Craig, Jus. Feud. lib. 1, tit. 9, § 36. 2 civil law. A strange or foreign heir; one Bl. Com. 221. Hence an heir is said pro- who was not subject to the power of the perly to mean a son. Calv. Lex. Id. de testator, or person who made him heir. Verb. Feudal.
Inst. 2. 19, 3. Qui testatoris juri subjecti HÆRES, (more commonly HERES.) non sunt, extranei hæredes appellantur. Lat. In the civil law. An heir; one whó Id. ibid. succeeds to the whole right or estate of the HÆRES FACTUS. Lat. In the civil testator; (successor in universum jus quod law. An heir made by will; a testamendefunctus habuit.) Heinecc. Elem. Jur. tary heir; the person created universal sucCiv. lib. 2, tit. 14. Calv. Lex. Dig. 50. cessor by will. Story's Conflict of Laws, 16. 24. Id. 50. 17. 62. Id. 50. 17. 128. $ 507. 3 Bl. Com. 224. Otherwise called 1. Heredis appellatio non solum ad proxi- hæres ex testamento, and hæres institutus. mum heredem, sed et ad ulteriores refertur; Inst. 2. 9. 7. Id. 2. 14. Hæredes facti. nam et heredis heres, et deinceps, heredis 3 P. Wms. 22. appellatione continetur; the appellation of Applied by Blackstone to an heir to the heir belongs not only to the next heir, but crown, where the inheritance is under a to more remote persons also; for the heir particular settlement. 1 Bl. Com. 196. of an heir, and so on in succession, is in- HÆRES FIDUCIARIUS. Lat. In cluded in the term heir. Dig. 50. 16. 65. the civil law. A fiduciary heir, or heir in See Id. 50. 16. 170.
trust; a person constituted heir to an es*** The term hæres or heres in the civil | tate by will, in trust for the benefit of an