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FROM THE APPEARANCES OF DESIGN IN THE UNIVERSE.*

PART I.

this seems to have been the maxim on which the subject

ON THE ARGUMENT FOR THE of this memoir acted. He could not possibly have started in business with less means; we shall see how he contrived

EXISTENCE OF GOD, to get on. When he first opened his Birmingham shop, every thing around him seemed gloomy and disheartening, but he managed to keep up his spirits, and practising his usual rigid economy, he saved during the first year As every part of the universe with which we are ac£20. By degrees his business increased, and he took quainted exhibits evident marks of design, we must of larger premises.

necessity infer, that it sprung from a Wise and IntelliIn the year 1755, Hutton married a young woman, with gent Cause. The inference is obvious and undeniable. whom he had a dowry of £100, and as he had saved £200 It is, indeed, principally upon this argument, that our himself, he was placed in a situation to extend his busi- belief in the existence of God is founded; and as it has ness by adding to it the sale of paper. He had now gained been often placed in a false light by atheists and a good footing upon the road to wealth, and he followed it sceptics, I shall endeavour to vindicate its justness from up with such ardour and industry, that the results were the objections of some able, and chiefly of some late, opposplendid and triumphant. In 1772, Hutton was chosen nents. one of the Commissioners of the Court of Requests, to In order to speak distinctly upon this subject, it is nethe onerous and gratuitous duties of which he devoted cessary to have a precise and accurate notion of what is himself during a period of nineteen years. In the year meant by design, because some persons seem not to have 1776, he purchased a good deal of land, and as he kept given sufficient attention to this matter, and have involved adding to his acres, he became a very extensive landed themselves in perplexity. proprietor in the course of a few years.

In common life we understand distinctly what is meant We have, as yet, only noticed William Hutton as the by design. We say that a man acts with design and poor, miserable, ill-treated, ill-fed, and ill-clad mill- foresight, when his actions tend to bring about some end, boy, wearer, and bookseller, gradually making his way and were performed by him with this view. If a man prothrough all sorts of hardships, to conipetency and sta- pose to make a clock, and adjusts wheels and weights to one tion. We have now to speak of him as an author. In another, so that a motion is produced by means of which the year 1780, at the age of fifty-seven, he published a the hours are pointed out, we say that he acts with design,

History of Birmingham,' which has always been looked and we say that the piece of work which is produced maniupon as a standard book of the kind. He afterwards fests contrivance. Whenever anything is properly adapted wrote and published the following works :-The Journey for producing an end, or answering a purpose, we say it is to London:'The History of Blackpool :' The Battle done with design. It is in this sense that the word design of Bosworth Field, with a Life of Richard III., till he as- has been employed in stating this argument. It has been sumed the regal power :' • The History of Derby :' shown, that important ends are served by means of the * The Barbers, a poem :'• A History of the Roman Wall bodies of which the material world consists, and that their which crosses the island of Britain, from the German revolutions are directed to the accomplishment of certain Ocean to the Irish Sea : describing its ancient appearance valuable purposes. It has also been shown, that the and present state.' For the purpose of producing a cor- fabric and limbs of the human body, and the faculties of rect work on the last-named subject, Hutton, at the age the human mind, are well fitted for those offices which of seventy-eight years, took a journey of six hundred miles they perform. In all these things there are undeniable on foot for the purpose of exploring the wall. In this marks of wisdom and intention. journey he was accompanied by his daughter Catherine, When there appears design or contrivance in anything, who travelled on horseback. She says, in a letter written the question naturally occurs, from what did it proceed? to one of her friends,' that such was the enthusiasm of and the obvious answer is, that it proceeded from a deher father with regard to the wall, that he turned neither signing cause. In this case there is no occasion for any to the right nor to the left except to gratify me with a chain of reasoning. The judgment is formed intuitively, sight of Liverpool. Windermere he saw, and Ullswater and without any intermediate step. That every effect he saw, because they lay under his feet, but nothing must have a cause, is an axiom manifest to every person; could detain him from his grand object. On our return,' and it seems to be equally evident, that every effect that she continues, 'walking through Ashton, a village in exhibits marks of design, must have proceeded from a Lancashire, a dog flew at my father and bit his leg, mak- designing cause. Whatever is well adapted for answering a wound about the size of sixpence. I found him ing an end, must have been adapted by its author and sitting in the inn at Newton, where we had appointed to contriver to answer that purpose. No judgments we can breakfast, deploring the accident and dreading its conse- form appear to be more self-evident than these; and acquences. They were to be dreaded. The leg had got a cordingly they seem to have been formed by the whole of hundred miles to walk in extreme hot weather. I com- mankind, with respect to every subject to which they are forted my father. Now,' said I, ' you will reap the applicable. fruit of your temperance. You have put no strong liquors It may then be laid down as a first principle, founded or high sauces into your leg; you eat but when you are on the constitution of our minds, and standing in need of hungry, and drink but when you are thirsty, and this will no proof whatever, that design, wherever it is observed, enable your leg to carry you home.' The event showed naturally, and therefore necessarily, suggests to us the I was right. . . . When we had got within four days notion of a cause.' The one conception is always conof our journey's end, I could no longer restrain my father. nected with the other. We apply this principle in all the We made forced marches, and if we had had a little common affairs of life. If we behold a ship well built, farther to go the foot would fairly have knocked up the completely rigged, and properly accommodated for conhorse. The pace he went did not even fatigue his shoes. taining a cargo of goods, or for lodging a number of pasHe walked the whole six hundred miles in one pair, and sengers during a long voyage, we never hesitate in proscarcely made a hole in his stockings.'

nouncing, that it must have been the workmanship of a Up to the age of eighty-five, Hutton continued his skilful carpenter. If we look at a palace adorned with all the career as an author. He still enjoyed at that great age the use of his faculties and health. He had now retired * This essay, in which the argument for the existence of a God to his country seat and set up his carriage, enjoying him- is stated and illustrated in a very clear and forcible manner, is self in agricultural and intellectual pursuits. His last philosophical subjects by Professor Arthur, the successor of the years were indeed all happiness and sunshine, if the celebrated Dr Reid, in the ethical chair of Glasgow College. At a morning of his life, as he observes, was gloomy and lower- time when, unhappily, attempts are making to subvert this funda ing. At the age of ninety, this exemplary man sunk mental article of all religion, its republication may not be without elegant ornaments of architecture, and conveniently dis- are fitted to one another, how regularly its motions are posed for the accomodation of its inhabitants, and for directed, and how beneficial every part of it is to living exbibiting to spectators their splendour and magnificence, creatures, without declaring that it is the workmanship of we cannot entertain the slightest doubt of its having been a wise being. The bodies of animals are infinitely better contrived by an architect, and executed by the hands of constructed, and are also much more complex, than the artists adequate to such a noble piece of workmanship. best machine of human contrivance; and if no person If we were going through a deseri, and saw a wretched ever thought a watch was formed without intention, can hovel erected, though we observed no vestige of living any person imagine that animal bodies were produced

its advantages. Part II. of the essay will appear in the next numinto the arms of death from the exhaustion of old age. ber of the INSTRUCTOR.

near it, we would inmediately ascribe it to in- without an artist ? telligent beings, and conclude, without further reflection, If we take into consideration the provision that is made that men hed once been there. Aristippus the philoso- for the support of animal life, the instinct with which pher was shipwrecked upon an island; and he, along with every creature is furnished, its appetites and its passions his fellow-sufferers, were walking on the shore, deploring adapted to its manner of life, we observe still more and their miserable fate, and not doubting but they would more reason for drawing the same conclusion. The fasoon be attacked and destroyed by barbarians, or torn to culties which man possesses, the powers of understanding pieces by wild beasts. While they were in this situation, and of action, and his capacity for discerning what is fair the philosopher made a discovery which dispelled his own and beautiful, and of prosecuting what is lionourable and fears; and by means of which he was enabled to rouse proper, must obtain from every candid mind an acknowthe drooping spirits of his companions. He perceived ledgment that this lord of the lower world must hare certain mathematical figures scratched upon the sand of been formed by the hand of wonderful intelligence. He the sea-shore. The judgment which he formed was cer- that planted the ear, shall he not hear? Ile that formed tain, and it was immediate. “Let us take courage, my the eye, shall he not see? He that teachieth man knowledge, friends,' said he, for I discern the vestiges of civilized shall he not know?' The judgment in this case is as men.' He never imagined that regular figures, adapted natural and necessary as in any other whatever. It flows to the demonstration of abstract truths, could have been from a principle in our constitution, and it has been accidentally formed by the foot of a sea-fowl; nor even formed in all ages. that they could have been drawn by the hand of savages. These judgments which we form concerning causes, In these suppositions there would have been no probability. from observing their effects, must be founded upon an He instantaneously judged that they must have been original principle in our constitution. They are universal

, constructed by men who had made progress in know- and yet nobody assigns a reason for them. They are ledge and mental improvement; and who, of consequence, evidently not conclusions from reasoning. It is impossible must have attained to gentle and polished manners. If to point out any intermediate steps by which they are we hear a tune well played, we never imagine that the proved, and nobody has attempted it. No man can gire sound is produced without the efforts of a musician; and any argument by which it can be shown, that a matheif we read an excellent poem, we are immediately con- matical figure must be the work of an intelligent being, vinced that it is the work of a good poet. We never and could not be the work of a fowl or of a quadruped. We imagine that letters accidentally thrown down, could form judge indeed in this manner, but we can assign no reason themselves into an Iliad or an Eneid. We do not even for our judgment, any more than we can assign any reason imagine that a person of small abilities could have ar- why we judge that two and two make four. Neither did ranged words, or contrived incidents, so as to have formed we learn to judge in this manner by experience. From works of such distinguished merit. We are naturally led experience we can acquire knowledge only concerning to assign a cause adequate to the effect, and to ascribe contingent truth or matters of fact, which may be, or poems of such beauty and grandeur to minds of a supe- may not be, without any absurdity. We can never learn rior order. In our connexions with men, in the same from experience any knowledge concerning necessary manner, we observe their words and their actions. We truths which must be, and which it involves an absurdity consider these as effects proceeding from an internal to suppose not to be. We may learn from experience cause. We judge of the cause from the effects which we that bodies gravitate. This is not a necessary truth; it observe; and we conclude, that he who acts and speaks is only contingent, and depends on the will of the Creator ; with prudence and discernment, must possess faculties and if he had pleased, body might have had opposite procorresponding to his behaviour.

perties, or might not have existed. But we cannot learn All these judgments proceed from our constitution. from experience that the whole is equal to all its parts. We are so made that we naturally form them, just in the This is a necessary truth, and necessarily flows from the same manner as we pronounce snow to be white; or as notions we have of a whole and of its parts. It must be we infer the existence of a substance from discerning its true; and it is impossible, and involves absurdity, to qualities. The whole of mankind form similar judg- think otherwise. Now, our judgments concerning the ments, and they do it intuitively. They use no argument connexion of effects and causes, are judgments concerne ! on such subjects, and they can use none. They employ ing necessary truths. We do not judge that the conno intermediate steps, as in a chain of reasoning; and do nexion may take place, but that it must take place. These not arrive at their conclusion by adjusting premises to judgments, therefore, are of such a nature, as experience one another.

cannot suggest. If we judge in this manner in the ordinary transactions Some persons, unwilling to admit that the world sprung of life, it is surely to be expected that we should judge in from a designing cause, hare pretended that everything the same manner with respect to the design and contriv- sprung from chance, or from absolute necessity. That ance discernible in the fabric of the universe. If a ma- the world arose from accident, was strongly urged by the thematical figure be scratched upon the sand, we instan- ancient Epicurcans; and that it sprung froin necessity, or taneously ascribe it to a designing cause, and acknowledge absolute and undirected fate, has been insisted upon by that he who formed it was a mañ acquainted with certain some speculative atheists and sceptics, both in ancient and abstract truths. If we observe a building or an elegant modern times. It is, howerer, to be remarked, that contrivance, we ascribe them to an artist. If we see well these are only forms of expression, without any clear and directed conduct, we conclude that he who performed it distinct meaning. Chance and absolute necessity are is a prudent agent. Can we then behold the regularity words expressing certain abstract notions; and neither and order of the universe, the subserviency of every part the notions, nor the terms that denote them, can possibly to the rest, the excellent adjustment of means to ends, be the causes of anything whatever. They are not active and the invariable succession of revolutions, without pro- beings, capable of accomplishing any end. In comnica nouncing immediately that there must be an intelligent language we attribute many things to chance. If a die cause that produced them? It is impossible to behold be thrown, we say it depends upon chance what side the planetary system, to consider how nicely its parts I may turn up; and, if we draw a prize in a lottery, v

ascribe our success to chance. We do not, however, any blind cause, ny whatever name it may be called, ever mean that these effects were produced by no cause, but produce a being endued with life, sensation, intelligence, only that we are ignorant of the cause that produced them. and the power of voluntary action ? Can that which has There are mechanical causes, which determine what side itself no design or understanding, produce a wise and inof a die will cast up, as certainly as any thing else; and, telligent mind? The suppositiou is absurd. It is supposing if we could adjust perfectly the degree of force with which an effect to be produced by an inadequate cause; which it is thrown, and the particular direction, together with is precisely the same thing as to suppose it produced by the nature of the surface on which it passes, we could tell no cause at all. It is strange that such an opinion should precisely what side would appear. This, however, we have ever been embraced by philosophers, the folly of cannot do; and because the event depends on circum- which is manifest even to a child. An infant, if its bells stances which we cannot foresee, we ascribe it to a cause on its rattle be taken away, never dreams that they were of which we are ignorant; and to such uncertain and un- taken away by nobody, but immediately judges that they determined causes, we give the name of chance; not were removed by some person or other. Even a dog, if meaning that there is no cause, but that we cannot ascer- a stone be thrown at him, never imagines that the pain tain it.

he feels arose without a cause. He either flies from the Again, when all things are ascribed to necessity, if place, that he may be exposed to no further sufferings, or those who use the term have any meaning at all, they he turns with resentment to defend himself. If an incannot mean that they sprung from no cause; they habitant of Terra del Fuego, or Lapland, who had nerer must only mean that the cause, whatever it was, acted seen an army, nor knew the use of fire-arms, were necessarily, and not from choice. They must conceive brought to see a regiment reviewed, would be imagine the first cause to hare been actuated by some involun- that all their orderly motions and evolutions were the tary force, as a machine is moved by weights and springs, effects of blind chance? Would he not immediately perso that the effect must necessarily be produced; and ceive that they arose from design and premeditation ? cannot mean that there was no cause. If we ascribe, The motions of a single buman body are much more rethen, every thing to chance, we do not exclude a cause; gular, and more various, than those of a large body of we only say we do not know what that cause is. If we soldiers upon a field-day. Why then imagine that these ascribe everything to necessity, we also admit a cause, motions are carried on without design ? What then shall though a different one from what is admitted by those we say of the regularity observable in the whole human who acknowledge design. The only question then is, race, in inferior animals, in plants, in unorganised matwhether the cause admitted be a designing cause or not? | ter, and through the whole extent of the universe ? Or,

That the universe must have proceeded from a design- what shall we say of the intelligence of that man, who ing cause, and could not possibly have proceeded from a seriously believes that the whole is produced without a cause without design and intelligence, by whatever name designing cause ? it may be dersominated, whether it be called chance, or necessity, or fate, is exceedingly obvious. Nothing beautiful, regular, and orderly, ever proceeded, or can

JAMES HALDEN. proceed, from an undesigning cause. Suppose matter to JAMES HALDEN had been successful and was still prosperhave existed originally of itself, and to have been endued ing in business, when he wooed and married Helen Gray, with motion from eternity; and suppose that motion to old John Gray, ber father, had been a steady, industrious hare been continued without diminution; there is no doubt man, and by the sweat of his brow he had brought up a but these materials, continually agitated, would, in the family of eleven children, and given them the best educacourse of millions of ages, have assumed various forms; tion that his circumstances could afford. His excellent but there is no probability that ever these forms would wife was a thrifty, managing woman, and was one of those have been regular, and much less that there should be whose children rise up to call them blessed. As the regularity in all their revolutions, mutual connexions, and family grew up, both sons and daughters were put out to dependencies. Did ever chance form a machine so regular earn their bread at some useful employment, and they as a watch? Throw the different wheels, and springs, and vied with each other in acts of kindness to their honoured pinions, of which a watch is composed, into one vessel, and and respected parents. For sereral years before Helen, keep the whole in motion for ages, and after all, neither who was the youngest, was married, the father, who was the whole, nor any part of them, will ever be properly advancing in years, was persuaded by his dutiful children placed and adjusted. Take a case that has often been to retire from the employment at which he had wrought put in handling this argument. Suppose a triangular so long—he had been a customer weaver-and to occupy prism, with three unequal sides, and a scabbard perfectly himself in the dressing of his garden and other odd jobs adapted to it, to be both set in motion through empty by which he would have sufficient exercise. space; grant both of them the power of altering their James Halden had not been so fortunate in early life. motions, and of flying up and down in every possible He was left an orphan at the age of three years, and had direction, it is infinity to one that they will never meet. no relation except a rich maiden aunt, who showed no Supposing they did' meet, it is still infinity to one kindness, and paid no attention to her only brother's that they do not meet in that one particular direction only child. Elizabeth Robertson, a young woman who in which the prism will enter its scabbard. If chance, had been the early friend and intimate companion of his then, cannot effectuate those simple adjustments, tó mother, could not think of sceing 'the sweet pet,' as she which the design of a child is equal, how can it be called him, left to the mercy of strangers; and although imagined that it should adjust the innumerable parts she had to depend on her own industry for her mainteand resolutions in the universe ? There is not the nance, she yet resolved to take charge of the orphan boy. slightest shadow of probability to justify such a sup- Her friends endeavoured to dissuade her from this mad position. Even though chance should sometimes have project, as she had enough to do to provide for herself; stumbled upon a regular form, after a variety of trials, but her resolution could not be shaken. She said she in the way that Epicurus imagined men, and animals, would get up an hour or two earlier in the morning, and and regetables to have been fashioned-these forms would live on the humblest fare, in order to provide for the boy again have been immediately destroyed, in the same whom God had cast upon her affection. She had taken manner that the monstro:s appearances that had existed him to her home asleep on the night his mother died, before them, in infinite multitudes, were destroyed, in and when he awoke he cried for his mammy. She told consequence of the motion and changes of situation which, him he could not see his mammy again; and he cried the upon that supposition, are always going on among the more; but after he had received from her many good particles of matter. If chance never could arrange un- things, he became more attached to her, and taking hold organised matter into those beautiful and regular forms of her gown on the third day he had been with her, and with which we sce it invested, could it, or necessity, or drawing her to a neighbour who had just entered, said,

6

wi' ye.'

My mammy's awa' wa’; this is my mammy noo.' She his hat and went out. When Helen was left alone and took him in her arms and cried, “Yes, my sweet pet, l'll reflected on what had passed, she felt keenly, for she had be your mammy;' and a mother she was to him, training never seen her husband in the same state before, and the him according to the best of her ability. She sent him bitterness to her was, that she herself had been the cause to the village school in good time, and it was there he of it. She thought thus, • Well, I have certainly done first met with Helen Gray. They learned the alphabet something to merit my husband's displeasure, as I have together, and were removed from class to class together, seen his friend so seldom, and he has known him so long. till Jamés was taken from the school. James and Helen The impressions he has made on my mind must certainly had a liking for each other, even in these early years, and be false; I will therefore receive him and think of bim they were often pulling and grinning at each other, and in all time coming as a wife should do of her husband's inat the same time helping cach other forward in their timate friend.' lessons. One day when James was knitting stockings She had resolved thus when the front door bell rang, beside Elizabeth, Farmer Aitken popped in upon them and knowing James's step in the lobby, she laid down her and engaged James to herd his cows. At this James was seam, and held out her hand to him as he entered the parmuch delighted ; and as he was to be at his post next day, lour. He smiled and shook her hand heartily, and they Elizabeth that evening gave him many suitable advices, sat down together. She asked him if he was willing to to which he promised to attend. He continued to herd forgive her for what she had said. for nine months to the entire satisfaction of his master, "Oh yes, Helen,' said he, “I frankly forgive you ; but I and he always employed himself knitting stockings when am astonished at your prejudices, and I cannot underthe cows were quietly grazing.

stand how you entertain such thoughts about John Simpson. One day, a few months after he had commenced herd- For my own part, I must say that I never met with a ing, a gentleman passed him, and asked if he knew where kinder or better fellow.' Mr Ross, the grocer, lived. James told what part of the • I must confess, James,' said Helen, 'that I never ervillage he would find his place of business, and where his perienced any other thing from him but kindness; still, house was.

forgive me for saying it, I cannot so easily shake off the * But, my boy,' said the gentleman,' I never was in the impressions that I first received of him.' village before, and I know nothing about the place; will I am confident, Helen, that the more you know him, you come and show me the house, and here is sixpence the more you will admire and like him, that is, if you will for you.

allow yourself.' James had been knitting all the time he spoke to the 'I promise you, James, to do all that lies in my power ; gentleman, but when he saw the sixpence, he stopped, and I hope it will turn out as you predict.' and was about to put forth his hand to receive the gift, Matters now went smoothly on, till Mary, who was a when all at once he drew hack, and said, 'Na, na, sir, romping but an affectionate girl, had arrived at the age I canna gae wi'ye: the kye would maybe gang into the of six years. Mr Simpson was, if possible, a greater friend corn, an' if the maister kent I had left them, what would of Mr Halden's than ever he had been, and he was also he say? Na, sir, I canna tak’ it-I canna gang; but gae a great favourite of little Mary's. She talked of no one in to auld Mrs Tamson's at the toon end, and she'll gang so much as Uncle Simpson, as she called him. Helen

had still her own ideas of him, but they were closely Now, I think you might come yourself,' said the gentle- locked up in her bosom. was about this time that Mr man; 'you will not be long, and the cows are far from the Simpson entered Mr Halden's office one day, and asked corn, and your master may never know.'

him

if he would oblige him by putting his name to a bill. • Ay, sir; but maister telt me I was never to leave the Four thousand five hundred pounds—what is this for?' kye; and my mither says that though he doesna see, God "I will be up to drink tea with you to-night, and I will aye sees, so I'll no gang.'

then tell you all about it; but I am in great haste just now, Well, you are a good boy; there is the sixpence, and I as the gentleman who waits for the bill must be off with hope to see you again.' the first mail for London. I have made a large bargain, and

1 This gentleman was Mr Reid, a barley merchant. He I expect, nay, I am sure, that I will be able to advance inquired after James, and heard such good tidings of him the money by this day week.' that he sent for him soon after, employed him as errand- • Well, John, it is only for you that I would put my name boy, and in the course of time he was receiving a large to a bill for sucu an amount; and besides, you owe me a salary. He commenced business for himself, and strove good deal of money already.' to repay Elizabeth Robertson for what she had done to Having got James Halden's name to the bill, he put him; and before she died she was amply rewarded for the it into his pocket-book, saying, “Since you have kindly sacrifices she had made in behalf of the orphan boy. obliged me so far, I will make you to share handsomely James was a pushing, active lad, and bade fair to be a in my profits. Adieu, till we meet again at the tea-table.' wealthy man. He had a well-filled purse when he thought When James went home to dinner, he told Mary and her ! to take unto himself a wife; and Helen Gray, whom alone mamma that Uncle Simpson was to spend the evening he had ever loved, was chosen to share in his prosperity. with them, and that he would bring with him good nefs.

They were married four years, when they became the Mary clapped her hands with joy, but Mrs Halden tried happy parents of a little daughter, who was named Mary. I to smother a sigh. When he returned home at six o'clock,

There was one drawback to Mrs Halden's happiness, there was a card lying for him. He opened it, and read and it was occasioned by her husband's most intimate thus :—'My dear James—When I returned from your acquaintance. James and he had been long companions, office, there was a letter put into my hands from my and they had lodged together for nearly two years before sister-in-law, stating that iny brother was not expected his marriage. Mrs IIalden never felt at home in his to live many hours, and urging me to come off immecompany, for she thought there was something about him diately and see him. I hope to return on Monday, when that spoke of insincerity. She twice hinted her suspi- I will see you. I would have called upon you, but I am cions to her husband, and once expressed a wish that he just going off. Yours sincerely, John Simpson.'—He would keep company with him as little as possible. He gave the card to Helen, and turning to Mary, he said, stared at her when she uttered this, and said some things - Just so, Mary, and uncle is not to be with us to-night.' to her unusually severe, and among the rest, told her Oh, how is uncle so naughty, to say he would come! he had never interfered with her and her acquaintances, and then not to come? But, papa, Mrs Jeffrey said a great neither was she to interfere with him and his; that John many bad things about him to-day to mamma ; and bad Simpson had been long a tried friend to him, and he felt I not been such a little girl, I would have told her she assured that the one would submit to any sacrifice for the was very naughty to say so.' sake of the other, so he would be obliged to her never again • What, Helen, have you been hearing anything of to let'such a wish escape her lips-saying which he lifted him?'

* There are some idle rumours going of his gambling afraid to make a will lest they should die the sooner, and and drinking, which, when I heard, I said that that should where will her riches go?' never be repeated again.'

"Oh, Helen! I see what you mean, but don't depend • You were right, Helen, for that is all nonsense.

I upon that.' have seen him almost every night for many weeks, and • Well, time will work wonders. My advice would be, you know that he has refused to taste spirits in this house to sell our furniture and raise the two hundred pounds. for months.'

What is over will set you afloat again to do business in a Although James took his friend's part just now, he small way, and you will be no worse than you were fifteen trembled lest there should be any truth in the report, and years ago, although you should get some situation till we he would fain have told his wife of what he had that day rallied a little. To be sure, you have got a wife and child done, but could not muster courage, and he thought it would now, but your wife will do something for herself.' perhaps be better to say nothing of it till he saw what Sell our furniture, Helen! how can you think of that ? Monday did. Strange reports were atloat concerning Mr What would we do?". Simpson, which might hare made him afraid; still he • We would do well enough. We could keep as much could not allow himself to believe them. Monday came, as would furnish a parlour and kitchen; and there will and with it a letter from Mr Simpson, bearing the Glasgow be a good deal over and above two hundred pounds when post-mark, and stating that his brother died a few minutes we sell the rest; and then we shall owe no man anything. after his arrival, and that he would not return till after No doubt, it will be a great downcome to us to go from the funeral, which was to take place on Friday, and he this house to a small one, but I will be far happier there intended to bring his sister-in-law and her two children than I would be to live in splendid poverty as many do.' with him. James now began to be somewhat anxious Time, which tarries for no man, rolled on, and the about his friend's non-appearance, and especially as he 26th of April arrived. About the middle of the day, a had never before heard him say that he had a brother, stout elderly gentleman entered the office, and, presentand knew not where he was to be found. Creditors began ing the bill, said, “You are Mr Halden, I suppose ? to get alarmed about his absence, and at the reports that • Yes, sir, I am.' were abroad regarding him, and they came to Mr Hal- You will know this signature then ?' den to see whether or not he knew anything of him. He 'I am sorry, sir, to say that I know it too well; it will told them of the communications he had had from him, bring me and mine to beggary.' and their fears were in some measure quieted. Mr Hal- *I am sorry for your case, sir, but you might have den would have followed him, but could gather nothing known Simpson better.' from his letters as to where he was, and he lived for When the gentleman heard that the money was all several days in the utmost anxiety. He wished to say ready for him but two hundred pounds, he said, “What nothing of it just now, lest he should have cause to regret am I to do for it?' it afterwards, and all that his wife had ever said of him • I can raise it in no other way than by selling my rose up vividly to his remembrance, and haunted him furniture, and that will drive me to the door.' night and day. He strove to conceal from her what was • It is a hard case, but I cannot help it.' working within, but she was too keen an observer for It was agreed that the remainder would be paid that that, and guessed what was the cause of his inward day week. sufferings, although she knew not how much he was The gentleman had no sooner left than Mr Jeffrey the involved. Friday, Saturday, Sabbath, Monday, Tuesday, banker came and offered Mr Halden the loan of the two came and went, still John Simpson had not returned, hundred pounds; but he refused to take it, and told him neither was there any letter from him. Mr Halden now what they thought of doing. Mr Jeffrey was much resolved at all hazards to communicate the tidings to his against this, and urged him to accept of the money. After wife, and it was with a heavy heart and trembling step consulting with Helen, James expressed his gratitude for he proceeded home. When he entered the house, Helen the generous offer, but still refused to accept of it, as he was singing a cheerful air, and Mary, who had seen her knew not if ever he would be able to pay it. Mr Jeffrey, para from the window, ran to meet him with open arms, on his way home, met with a Mr Wilson, who he knew and clasped them round his legs. Oh, it was a terrible was about to furnish a house, and told him of Mr Halthought to him how he was to mar the joy of such a happy den's intention of selling his furniture. Mr Wilson went household; but it must be told. His erst words were, immediately to Mr Halden, purchased the best of his * Helen, we are all ruined !' and he hid his face in his furniture at a good price, which he paid the day followhands and burst into tears. She took hold of him, say-ing, and thus Mr Halden was enabled to pay the bill. ing, "What is wrong, James, let me know the worst p' They took a house with two apartments at the outskirts and in a short time all was told. Her feelings may be of the town, and they were snugly settled in it by Whitbetter imagined than described, for she was not prepared sunday. for this; but when she bethought herself, she urged him When James reflected on what had occurred during the without delay to speak with others of the creditors, and last four months, he could not but admire the manner in make immediate search for him. This was done, and he which his wife had conducted herself in all the scenes was traced to Glasgow, but all other endeavours to trace through which she had to pass. She exhibited a strength him farther were unavailing.

of mind which was truly praiseworthy. Never did a murMr Halden not only lost money with Simpson, he lost muring word escape her lips, nor did she once refer to her also with several others whom he had been the means of own suspicions of his friend. In his presence, she always bringing down; but he could have stood all this had it appeared cheerful, ay, more so than ever she had been. not been the bill, and he trembled for the 26th of April. When they sat down together in their new dwelling, After investigating his affairs, James found that he could James was mourning over his misfortunes, when Helen advance all the money excepting two hundred pounds, interrupted him by saying, “James, let us be thankful. and for the loan of that he resolved to go to his aunt, who We enjoy good health, and all that we have, little as it had several times visited them in her carriage in the may be, we can call our own. No man can say to us you days of their prosperity. Helen thought he might spare owe me a shilling.' his pains, but he said he would get no less than he had. • Helen,' said he, 'my grief is that it was with my own He went, and was shown into the drawing-room, but the hand I brought you to this, and servant returned, saying that Miss Halden could not see • Come now, James,' said Helen, don't repine; I him just now. He came home and wrote a letter to her, shared with you in your prosperity, I am as willing to fairly stating his circumstances; and all that he received share with you in your adversity. Show me that you can from her was a most abusive letter in return. Helen said be happy with your wife and child in any circumstances.' when he received it, “Well, well, James, never mind; They had still many valuable articles in their possesyour aunt, poor body, is one of those persons who are sion, of which they did not dispose, and James had now a

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