Obrazy na stronie

aside with the remark, 'It proves nothing ;' from which his freed stature reached the sky, voluntarily inclosed it has been inferred that the great astronomer was de his stupendous powers in a laudanum phial, stand a perficient in taste. But, perhaps, his error lay in not per- petual lesson to all youthful aspirants to beware how they ceiving what that marvellous poem did prove; in not per- tamper with such tyrandous enslavers. Burns wrote his ceiving the sublime moral lessons which are scattered earlier and better pieces on the regimen of porridge and over its every page. Probably no new principle is demon- milk. Cowper found in tea a sufficient stimulus to his strated in it; but every book cannot be expected, like the mild but powerful genius. Wordsworth sings of bis lake Principia, to contain a principle such as that of gravita- water with a gusto which seems to intimate that it is his tion. Still who will refuse to admit that Paradise Lost favourite beverage. The leading literary men of the has been of service to the Christian religion, or that the present day, though not all practisers of total abstinence, author has fulfilled his own high purpose, expressed in are sober and regular in their habits. And Milton, the opening invocation ?

stateliest of the sons of men, and only a little lower than * And chiefly thou, o Spirit! that dost prefer,

the angels, found in music an excitement richer and more Before all iemples, the upright heart and pure,

ravishing than was ever extracted from the blood of the Instruct me, for thou know'st; thou from the first

Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread,

What then is genius? It is, to recur to a former er-
Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast abyss,
And mad'st it pregnant; what in me is dark

pression, the musical cry of a strong and loving sonl. It Illumine, what is low, raise and support,

is a voice from the depths of the human spirit. It is the That to the height of this great argument

utterance, native and irresistible, of one possessed' by I may assert eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to men.'

an influence which, like the wind, bloweth where it list

eth, comes he knows not whence, and goes he knows not Neither is the mere expression of passion genias. whither. It is a fainter degree of that prophetic inspira. Genius supposes strong passion. But it is not identical tion which, to the rapt eye of the ancient seer, made the with strong passion, nor yet with its mere expression, future present and the distant near. The man under its else any blackguard or bully might set up pretensions to influence is “a maker,' working out, in imitation of the the gift. It is true that passion often uplifts even the great Demiurgic artist, certain creations of his own; he vile to something like genius, in other words, rouses them is a declarer,' more or less distinctly, of the awful will to express their feelings in the language of the imagina- of the unseen Lawgiver seated within his soul; he is a tion.“ We have heard, indeed, a very competent judge string to an invisible harper-a pen guided by a supersay, that the most powerful eloquence he ever heard was human hand-a trumpet filled with a voice which is as that of an angry carter. But usually passion finds its the sound of many waters. As in the sea-shell, long rude vent in mere gesticulation and blasphemy. It is separated from its native sea, there yet lingers, or seems not thus that the ire of genius bursts forth. Its words to linger, when you apply it to your ear, the distant and come out winged with red lightning and impetuous far-off murmur of the main, and, in the exquisite words rage. They are as beautiful as they are terrible. It is of Landor, thus that when Byron is angry, and 'piles on human

* Pleased, it remembers its august abodes, heads the mountain of his curse,' that 'curse is forgive

And murmurs as the ocean murmurs there,' ness. It is thus that when Burns is indignant at the so, in the soul of genius, there lingers an echo of that pompous pretensions of rank without merit, and wealth which is vast and infinite. Does it appear that we without wisdom, these are the words in which that wrath thus put in a claim in behalf of genius too lofty and vergcomes forth

ing too nearly on the supernatural ? We answer, we are Is there for honest poverty

raising genius up toward prophecy; we are not lowering That hangs his head and a' that,

prophecy down toward genius; we are not ascribing to The coward slave, we pass him by, genius the knowledge of the future, or the supreme

authoWe dare be poor for a' that. What though on hamely fare we dine,

rity possessed by the oracles of God; we are ascribing to Wear bodden gray, and a' that, it only a superior knowledge of the present and the past

, Gi'e fools their silks, and knaves their wine,

and representing it as the bright limit between the highA man's a man for a' that.'

est form of the intellectual and the lowest form of the It is thus that Shakspere represents King Lear, when his divine; we are doing so in consonance with the spirit of soul is injured to madness by his unkind daughters, the olden time, when the names of prophet and of port kneeling down and uttering perhaps the grandest and were the same;' we are doing it in harmony with the most daring words ever spoken by uninspired man. 'Ye beautiful lines in which a modern bard describes the code Heavens ! if ye do love old men—if your sweet sway versation of Coleridge, and his ideas of poetryhallow obedience-if yourselves are old-make it your

• Among the guests, that often staid, cause--avenge me on my daughters.' This is indeed the

A man there came, fuir as a maid, language of passion, but it is of passion sublimed, trans

And Peter noted what he said,

Standing behind his master's chnir. figured, purified of all its dross, approaching in its gran

He was a mighty poet and deur and justice to that wrath on which the sun shall

A subtle-souled psychologist,

All things he seem'd to understand, never go down, and expressing not the malignity of earth

of old or new, at sea or land, but the malison of heaven.'

But his own mind, which was a mist. Far less should genius be confounded with the fumes of

He spoke of poetry, and how physical excitement, though many thus erroneously class

Divine it was a light, a love,

A spirit, which like wind doth blow and confound it. Its fury is not, to use the words of

As it listeth, to and fro; Milton, 'the trencher fury of a rhyming parasite.' It is

A dew rain'd down from God above; not, he says again, to be raised from the fumes of wine,

A power which comes and goes like dream,

And which none can ever trace; but by devout prayer to that Eternal Spirit who can com

Heaven's light on earth, truth's parest beam mand his seraphim to take a live coal from the altar

And, when he ceased, there lay the glean wherewith to touch and purify the lips of his chosen.'

Of those words upon his face.' Genius is a thing too ethereal to be extracted from any Genius, considered intellectually, is original thoaght. narcotic weed, or liquorous distillation, or any such com direct and personal intercourse with the truth and mea, pound of fire and dirt' as oozes from the pierced poppy. ing of things; considered morally, it is love of spiritual Often indeed has this haughty power condescended to beauty; considered critically, it is the spirit of a peculiar

, call in such auxiliaries to its aid, but seldom without eloquent, and musical language. In other words, loss, never without danger, and often with the absolute, makes, it moves, it speaks; it makes new and strikin: slavish, and irremediable subjection of the higher to the conceptions, it moves the affections and passions of the inferior influence. Let the case of Coleridge, who, like the soul, and it speaks, whether in poetry or prose, in a me Genie in the Arabian tale shut up in the iron pot, though lodious, metaphorical, and rhythmical speech. Conces

tion is the fuel, passion the flame, language the light of hollow tree, till after a long search he was discovered and that one grand blaze which we call genius.

brought home. However, we have abundant proof that, We come now to speak shortly of the influences and whatever his pranks may have been, he pursued his the pleasures of genius. As it is far from being con- studies vigorously and successfully. At fifteen he was fined to the production of poetry, as it is the soul of all not only fit for the university, but carried chither a true and high philosophy, as it has struck out the sparks classical taste and a stock of learning which would have of all great inventions, as we owe to it not only the Iliad, done honour to a master of arts. He was entered at the Paradise Lost, the Task, the Excursion, the Childe Queen's College, Oxford; but he had not been many Harold, the Waverley Tales, but the telescope, the ma- months there, when, through the kindness of Dr Lanriner's compass, the printing press, the galvanic battery, caster, Dean of Magdalene College, who had been most and the steam-engine, its influences may be said to be favourably impressed with some of his Latin verses, he co-extensive with the family and the history of man. obtained admittance to that institution, then generally Galileo slumbers in death, but astronomers, when gazing reckoned the wealthiest in Europe. on the heavens, still feel as if he were beside them. At Magdalene, Addison resided for ten years. He was Fanst is but a shadow and a name, but his genius still at first one of those scholars who are called demies; but presides over the press, as it is throwing forth its sheets subsequently he was elected a fellow. His college is still replete with truth and eloquence. Watt is now, after a proud of his name; his portrait still hangs in the hall; long life, at rest, but his genius is working the thousand and strangers are still told that his favourite walk was pistons which are plying in the rivers or on the bosom under the elms which fringe the meadow on the banks of of the great deep. So with the yet rarer and stranger the Cherwell. His reputation for learning stood high, genius of philosophers and of poets. The blind bard, who and in one department, the composition of Latin verses, on the Chian strand beheld the Iliad and the Odyssey his power and proficiency were truly astonishing. His rise to the swelling of the voiceful sea,' still, after thou- Latin poems were greatly and justly admired both at Oxsands of years, is listened to with reverence, and the soul ford and Cambridge, long before his name had ever been of Homer is born again in every schoolboy who devours heard by the wits who thronged the coffee-houses round him. Plato, down the dark avenue of centuries, still Drury-Lane theatre. speaks with a tone of authority, and his works, though In his twenty-second year he ventured to appear before seldom read at one time by more than twenty persons in the public as a writer of English verse. He addressed the whole earth, 'yet,' says Emerson, 'for the sake of some complimentary lines to Dryden, who, after many those few persons, they come duly down to us as if God triumphs and many reverses, had at length reached a brought them in his hand.' Shakspeare's dust is in Strat- secure and lonely eminence among the literary men of ford, his genius is shaking the stages of the world. Scott that age. Dryden appears to have been much gratified lies helpless and solitary in Dryburgh ; but his works have by the young scholar's praise, and an interchange of civiliwings, and where the spot so ecret, or the isle so insu- ties and good offices followed. Addison was probably inlated, which they have not visited ? To attempt to pour- troduced by Dryden to Congreve, and certainly presented tray the joys its possessors feel were a presumptuous task. by Congreve to Charles Montagu, then Chancellor of the But who has not felt the pleasures it imparts-the rapture Exchequer, and leader of the Whig party in the Cominto which it sometimes elevates—the self-possession into mons. Addison next published a translation of part of which it sometimes calms—the sublime sorrow, not to be the fourth Georgic, Lines to King William, complimentexchanged for a millenium of common delights, into which ing his Majesty on one of his campaigns, and some other it often melts—the mirth into which it sometimes kindles? pieces, of certainly at the best but negative merit. They Or if you would see the pleasures of genius, as felt in their were, however, received with applause by the public. most ecstatic form, see Burns striding along the banks of Dryden was now engaged with his translation of Virgil, the Nith composing Tam oʻShanter, or rather that poem and obtained from Addison a critical preface to the coming upon him, the tears of joy coursing down his Georgics. In return for this and similar services, the cheeks, and every feature and every tone testifying to the veteran poet, in the postscript to the translation of the truth of the inspiration; or if you would see them in all Æneid, complimented his young friend with great libertheir pensive grandeur, behold the same poet in the cold ality, owning he felt afraid that his own performance September barn-yard, on the eve commemorative of that would not sustain a comparison with the version of the on which his Mary from his soul was torn,' when from fourth Georgic by the most ingenious Mr Addison of the stack-side he eyed the planet which shone above him Oxford.' 'After his bees,' added Dryden, “my latter like another moon, and poured out his impassioned song swarm is scarcely worth the hiving.' * To Mary in Heaven.' One such example is worth a

The time had now arrived when it was necessary for thousand abstract assertions.

Addison to choose a profession. His father anxiously We shall, in our succeeding number, endeavour to re- wished that he should adopt his own, and this he seems fute some of the slanders that have been heaped on genius, to have contemplated himself. Circumstances, however, and also discuss shortly its duties and responsibilities. changed his views. The revolution had altered the whole

system of government. Before that event the press had

been controlled by censors, and the Parliament had sat BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. only two months in eight years; now the press was free,

and Parliament met annually and sat long. At such a JOSEPH ADDISON.

juncture, literary and oratorical talents were in great

demand, and there was danger that a government which JOSEPH Addison was born at Milston, Wilts, on the 1st neglected such talents might be subverted by them. of May, 1672. His father was Dr Launcelot Addison, a Wisely, then, did Montagu and Somers, the Whig leadclergyman of the Church of England of some celebrity, ers, seek to attach such talents to their party by the and who had been remarkable for his attachment to the strongest ties both of interest and gratitude, and amongst exiled family of the Stuarts. Of Joseph's childhood little other men of high promise, they sought to enlist Addison is known. He got the rudiments of his education at the into their ranks; and they were successful. schools of Salisbury and Lichfield, and was then sent to It was in the year 1669, when he had just comthe Charter House, where he first became acquainted with pleted his twenty-seventh year, that his

course of life was Mr, afterwards Sir Richard Steele. The anecdotes which finally determined. Both the great chiefs of the ministry are popularly related about his boyish tricks, do not cor- were kindly disposed towards him; and he already was, respond with the gentleness of his character in riper years. what he continued through life, a firm though a moderate There is one tradition that he was a leader in a barring- Whig. The wish of the young poet's great friends was out; and another, that he ran away from school and bid to employ him in the service of the Crown abroad. But himself in a wood, where he fed on berries and slept in a an intimate knowledge of French, which Addison did not possess, being indispensable to a diplomatist, it was ever, the judgment of the many was overruled by that of thought desirable that he should pass some time on the the few; and, before the book was reprinted, it was so Continent; and, his own means not being such as would eagerly sought that it sold for five times the original enable him to travel

, a pension of £300 annually was pro- price. His Travels were followed by the lively opera cured for him. Accordingly, in the summer of 1669, he of ‘Rosamond.' This piece was badly set to music, and proceeded to France, where he remained till December, therefore failed on the stage; but it completely succeeded 1770, when, probably foresceing that the peace with Eng- in print, and is indeed excellent of its kind. Some years land could not be of long duration, he set off for Italy. after his death, 'Rosamond' was set to new music by Genoa, still ruled by her own Doge, and by the nobles Dr Arne, and was performed with complete success. whose names were inscribed on her book of gold; Milan, Several passages retained their popularity even to the with its magnificent Gothic cathedral; and Venice, then latter part of the reign of George II. the gayest spot in Europe, were in turn visited ; and at At the new elections in 1705, the Whigs obtained a last our traveller reached Rome, where he remained in- majority in the Commons, and a change in consequence specting those masterpieces of ancient and modern art took place in the ministry. Somers and Halifax were which are collected in the city so long the mistress of the sworn of the Council, and Addison was made Under Secreworld, during those hot and sickly months when, even in tary of State. In the following year, Halifax was apthe Augustan age, all who could, fled from mad dogs and pointed to carry the decorations of the order of the Garter streets black with funerals, to gather the first figs of the to the Electoral Prince of Hanover, and Addison accomseason in the country. Naples, with its lovely bay and panied him on this honourable mission. In 1708 he was awful mountain, attracted Addison for some time, and returned to Parliament for Malmsbury; but the House might have done so longer, had the adjacent long-buried of Commons was not the field for him. The bashfulness wonders of past ages been then revealed to his classic of his nature made his wit and eloquence useless in deeye; but a fárm-house still stood on the theatre of Her- bate: he once rose, but could not overcome his diffidence, culaneum, and rows of vines grew over the streets of and ever after remained silent. Many will probably think Pompeii; nay, the very temples of Pæstum, though not it strange that his failure as a speaker should have had hidden from the eye of man by any great convulsion of no unfavourable effect on his success as a politician. But nature, were still unknown to even artists and antiquaries. during the interval which elapsed from the time when At Florence, Addison spent some days with the Duke of the censorship of the press ceased and the time wben parShrewsbury, who, cloyed with the pleasures of ambition liamentary proceedings began to be freely reported, liteand impatient of its pains, fearing both parties and loving rary talents were, to a public man, of much more importneither, had determined to hide, in an Italian retreat, ance, and oratorical talents of much less, than they are talents and accomplishments which, had they been united now. At present, the best way of giving rapid and wide with fixed principles and well-regulated courage, might publicity to a statement, is to introduce it in a speech have made him the foremost man of his age.

made in Parliament. It was not so in the reign of Anne. It was while at Geneva, in 1702, that Addison learned In those days the effect of the most brilliant oratory Fas that a partial change of ministry had taken place in Eng- entirely confined to the members present; and yet the land, and that the Earl of Manchester had become Secre- great object, in a country governed by parliaments, was tary of State. Manchester exerted himself to serve his to influence the masses. The pen, therefore, was a young friend. It was thought advisable that an English more formidable political instrument than the tongue ; agent should be near the person of Eugene in Italy, and and, though St John was certainly, in Anne's reign, the in Addison was the man selected. He was preparing to best Tory, and Cowper probably the best Whig speaker, enter on his honourable functions, when all his prospects it may well be doubted whether the former did so much were darkened by the death of William III., and the con- for the Tories as Swift, or the latter for the Whigs as sequent dismissal of the Whigs by Anne. His hopes of Addison. When these things are duly considered, Addiemployment in the public service were thus for a time son's success ceases to be matter of surprise. blasted ; his pension was stopped ; and he was compelled But though Addison failed as a debater in Parliament, to support himself by his own exertions. He obtained a those who enjoyed the privilege of bearing his familiar situation as tutor to a young English traveller, and ap- conversation declared with one voice that it was superior pears to have rambled with his pupil over great part of even to his writings. This, however, was never displayed Switzerland and Germany. It was at this time he wrote to crowds or strangers. As soon as he entered a large his learned treatise on Medals,' though it was not pub- company his lips were sealed. None who met him only lished till after his death. From Germany he repaired in great assemblies would have believed that he was the to Holland, where he received the melancholy notice of same man who had often kept a few friends listening and his father's death. After passing some months in the laughing round a table from the time when the play United Provinces, he returned, about the close of the year ended till the clock of St Paul's, in Covent Garden, struck 1703, to England, where he was cordially received by four. This timidity led Addison into a very serious his friends, and introduced by them to the Kit-Cat Club fault. He found that wine broke the spell which lay on -a society in which were collected all the various talents his fine intellect, and was therefore too easily seduced and accomplishments of the Whig party,

into convivial excess. Such excess was in that age reAddison was, for some time after his return from garded, even by grave men, as a most venial one. But the Continent, hard pressed by pecuniary difficulties; and even the dust-speck dims the diamond, and almost all the shortly after the great battle fought at Blenheim on the biographers of Addison have said something about this 13th August, 1704, we find him occupying a garret up failing. Of any other statesman or writer of Queen Anne's three pairs of stairs, over a small shop in the Haymarket. reign, we should no more think of saying that he some In this humble lodging he was surprised one morning by times took too much wine, than that he wore a long wig a visit from no less a person than the Right Honourable and a sword. Henry Boyle, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, who At the close of 1708, Wharton became Lord-Lieutenant came with a request from the Lord-Treasurer Godolphin, of Ireland, and appointed Addison Chief Secretary. Addithat Addison would write a poem in commemoration of son was consequently under the necessity of quitting LaMarlborough's great victory. He willingly undertook the don for Dublin. Besides the chief secretaryship, which task, and wrote the · Campaign;' and so pleased was the was then worth about £2000 a-year, he obtained a patent minister with his production, that he immediately ap- appointing him keeper of the Irish records for life, with pointed him to a commissionership, worth about £200 a salary of £300 or £400 a-year. He was elected for the a-year.

borough of Cavan in the summer of 1709; and in the Soon after the 'Campaign,' Addison published a Nar- journals of two sessions his name frequently occurs. rative of his Travels in Italy. The first effect produced Some of the entries indicate that he so far overcame bis by this narrative was disappointment. In time, how- timidity as to-make speeches.

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While he was in Ireland, an event occurred to which three-sevenths of it was Addison's; and though it is he owes his high and permanent rank among British dangerous to select where there is so much that deserves writers. His friend Steele determined to start a new the highest praise, a person who wishes to form a just literary periodical, and, accordingly, in April, 1709, it notion of Addison's powers, would do well to read at one was announced that Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire, astrologer sitting, the two Visits to the Abbey, the Visit to the Ex-an entirely imaginary person—was about to publish change, the Journal of the retired Citizen, the Vision of a paper called the Tatler. Addison had not been con- Mirza, the Transmigration of Pug the Monkey, and the sulted about this scheme; but as soon as he heard of it, Death of Sir Roger de Coverley.* he determined to give it his assistance. In his early con- At the close of 1712, the 'Spectator' ceased to appear. tributions his peculiar powers were not fully developed ; It was felt that the short-faced gentleman and his club yet from the first his superiority to all his coadjutors had been long enough before the town; and, to supply was apparent. Some of his later "Tatlers' are fully the vacuum, the Guardian’ was started in March, 1713. equal to anything that he ever wrote. Among the por- At this time Addison was busy finishing his · Cato,' the traits we most admire Toni Folio, Ned Softly, and the first four acts of which had been lying in his desk since political upholsterer. The proceedings of the Court of his return from Italy, and he did not contribute to the Honour, the Thermometer of Zeal, the story of the Guardian' till sixty-six numbers had appeared. By Frozen Words, the Memoirs of the Shilling, are excellent that time its fate was sealed. It lingered on, however, specimens of that ingenious and lively species of fiction in till the following September, when it was given up. which Addison excelled.

Cato' being now completed, Addison gave it to the During the session of Parliament which commenced in managers of Drury Lane, without stipulating for any adNovember, 1709, and which the impeachment of Sache- vantage to himself. They, therefore, thought themselves verell has made memorable, Addison resided in London. bound to spare no cost in scenery and dresses. The proThe • Tatler' was now more popular than any periodical logue was written by Pope; the hero was excellently had ever been ; and his connexion with it was generally played by Booth; Steele undertook to pack a house. The known. It was not known, however, that almost every boxes were in a blaze with the stars of the Opposition good thing in the Tatler' was from his pen. The truth peers. The pit was crowded with friendly listeners from is, that the fifty or sixty numbers, which we owe to him, the Inns of Court and the literary coffeehouses; and Sir were not merely the best, but so decidedly so, that any Gilbert Heathcote, governor of the bank, was at the head five of them are more valuable than all the two hundred of a powerful body of auxiliaries from the city. But these numbers in which he had no share.

precautions were quite superfluous. The Tories regarded He required, at this time, all the solace which he could Addison with no unkindly feelings. Accordingly, every derive from literary success. The trial of Sacheverell shout that was raised by the members of the Kit-Cat, was produced an outbreak of public feeling scarcely less vio- re-echoed by the High Churchmen of the October; and lent than those which we can ourselves remember in the curtain at length fell amidst thunders of unanimous 1820 and in 1831. The Queen dissolved Parliament; applause. This was in April; and in April, a hundred the Tories carried it among the new members six to one; and thirty years ago, the London season was thought to and the Whig ministry were turned out. None suffered be far advanced. During a whole month, however, Cato' more in the general wreck than Addison. He had just was performed to overflowing houses, and brought into sustained some heavy pecuniary losses, of the nature of the treasury of the theatre twice the gains of an ordinary which we are imperfectly informed, when his secretary- spring. ship was taken from him. He had reason to believe he In the following year, Addison conceived the idea of should also be deprived of the Irish office which he held adding an eighth volume to the ‘Spectator.' In June, by patent. He had just resigned his fellowship. It 1714, the first number of the new series appeared, and seems probable he had already raised his eyes to a great during about six months three papers were published lady, and that he had been 'permitted to hope ;' but Mr weekly, containing perhaps the finest essays, both serious Addison the chief secretary, and Mr Addison the ingeni- and playful, in the English language. ous writer, were, in her ladyship's opinion, two very dif- The accession of George I. again turned the tables, ferent persons. All these calamities, however, could not and the Whigs were restored to power. Sunderland was disturb his serene cheerfulness; and he told his friends appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and Addison again that he had lost at once his fortune, his place, his fellow- went to Dublin as Chief Secretary. But he soon returned ship, and his mistress, that be must think of turning to London, relinquishing his secretaryship for a seat at tutor again, and yet that his spirits were as good as ever.

the Board of Trade. In the same year, 1715, his comedy The new ministry suffered Steele to retain his place in of the • Drummer' was produced, but not with any great the Stamp Office, on an implied understanding that he success. Towards the close, too, of the same year, and should not be active against the government. Isaac while the rebellion was still raging in Scotland, he pubBickerstaff

, accordingly, became silent upon politics, and lished the first number of the Freeholder,' a paper enthe article of news altogether disappeared from the Tat- titled to the first place among his political works. ler's' pages. Indeed it had completely changed its cha- In August, 1716, Addison married the Countess Dowager racter; and Steele resolved to bring it to a close, and of Warwick, by whom he had one daughter, who died, commence a daily periodical. On the 2d of January, unmarried, in 1797; and early the following year he was 1711, appeared the last Tatler. On the 1st of March appointed Secretary of State. But, alas ! scarcely had ho following, appeared the first of an incomparable series of entered the Cabinet when his health began to fail. From papers by an imaginary spectator. The Spectator' him- one serious attack he recovered in autumn; but a relapse self was conceived and drawn by Addison, and the por- soon took place, which incapacitated him from dischargtrait, no doubt, was meant to be in some features a like- ing the duties of his post. Accordingly, he resigned, and dess of the painter. The others were first sketched by was succeeded by his friend Craggs; who, had he lived, Steele. Four of the club, the templar, the clergyman, would probably have been the most formidable of all the the soldier, and the merchant, were uninteresting figures, rivals of Walpole. fit only for a background. But the other two, an old Rest of mind and body partially re-established his country baronet and an old town rake, though not deline- health ; but the fatal complaint soon returned. He bore ated with a very delicate pencil, had some good strokes. up long and manfully: but at length he abandoned all Addison took the rude outlines into his own hand, and hope, dismissed his physicians, and calmly resigned himretouched and coloured them, and was in truth the creator self to die. His works he intrusted to the care of Tickell; of the Sir Roger De Coverley and the Will Honeycomb and dodicated them, a few days before his death, to Craggs, with whom we are all familiar. The success of the "Spectator" was immense; the demand for some par. the first seven volumes the eighth must be considered as a sepa

* Nos. 26, 329, 69, 317, 159, 343, 517. These numbers are all in ticular numbers, it is said, exceeded 20,000. About I rate work.

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in a letter written with all the sweet and graceful elo- with the treasure contained in the coffer, on the precise quence of a Saturday's 'Spectator.' His last moments spot where the animal happened to stop. Asses are selwere perfectly serene. When he found his end approach- dom intrusted with such important missions, being, as ing, he sent for his step-son, the young Earl of Warwick, every honest cadger knows to his cost, a stiff-necked and whom he was most anxious to reclaim from irregular habits unruly generation. The ass of Cawdor, however, prored and irreligious opinions, and grasping him by the hand, himself to be an excellent arbiter, and a lover of the he gazed on him for a moment with a mild yet solemn picturesque. He made the tour of a fine level holm, look, ‘See,' he said, “in what peace a Christian can die!' girt with wood and water, and having paced the boundHe expired on the 17th of June, 1719, having just entered aries of the castle round three large hawthorn trees, he his forty-eighth year.

stopped at the centre one, conscious, no doubt, of having His body lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber, and discharged his duty to his master. The latter was so was borne thence to the Abbey at dead of night. The well satisfied with the taste and discretion of his surveyor, choir sung a funeral hymn. Bishop Atterbury met the that he built the tower round the third hawthorn tree, corpse, and led the procession, by torchlight, round the enclosing the precious stem; and there it still remains, shrine of Saint Edward and the graves of the Plantage- after the lapse of above three centuries, a memento of the nets, to the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. On the north sagacious animal and his employer. side of that chapel, in the vault of the house of Albe- The building thus singularly begun is a strong feudal marle, the coffin of Addison lies next to the coffin of structure, guarded with moat, drawbridge, and battleMontagu!

ments, and bosomed high in tufted trees.' The walls As a writer of the English language, Addison has no are above eight feet in thickness, and the different niches superior. A fertility of fancy-a matchless delicacy of and embrasures of such gigantic dimensions that they satire-a gentleness and light-heartedness which had in might serve for the accommodation of a whole gipsy enit no alloy of bitterness—these were among his most pro- canıpment. The massive walls, dark passages, and narminent characteristics. His piety was sincere and ardent. row winding staircases, strongly remind the visiter of His services to the true religion, a defence of the evi- times happily long gone by, when might too often usurped dences of which he wrote, have been duly appreciated. the place of right, and a successful foray or vanquished As a sacred poet, too, his name has long been dear to the enemy was more esteemed than a clear conscience. church. The beautiful hymn which opens thus, · When There are some old family portraits in the castle, and one all thy mercies, oh, my God!' if deficient in its advert- of the apartments is hung with tapestry, worked by Lady ence to the main object of Christian gratitude, is still a Henrietta Stuart, in the sixteenth century, with ber fine burst of piety. While that other sublime ode, com- own hands. Among the paintings is a good likeness of mencing “The spacious firmament on high,' is almost Montrose, and some female portraits, evidently by a without a match among similar compositions.

coarse imitator of the style of Sir Peter Lely. On the It is strange that neither his opulent widow nor any roof of the castle is a small recess, called Lovat's Hole, of his powerful friends should have thought of placing being the spot where the arch-traitor of the Forty-five' even a simple tablet, inscribed with his name, on the concealed himself for some time after the defeat at walls of the Abbey. It was not till three generations had | Culloden. laughed and wept over his pages that the omission was supplied by the public veneration. At length, in our On digging lately in a field near Cawdor, a human skeleton was own time, his image appeared in Poet's Corner; and found with a rope round its neck, which was supposed to be the truly was such a mark of respect due to the unsullied Highlands, who was hanged some centuries ago by order of the

mortal remains of Callum Beg, a notorious cattle lifler of the statesman, to the accomplished scholar, to the master of laird, and buried, as tradition avers, in the very spot where the pure English eloquence, to the consummate painter of life relics have been found. The name of Callum Beg will be familiar and manners, but, above all, to the great satirist, who and applied it to the hopeful page of Fergus Mac Ivor, but the

to most persons, as Sir Walter Scott has adopted the cognomen, so well knew how to use ridicule without abusing it, who, exploits of the doughty mountaineer survive only among a fe* without inflicting a wound, effected a great social reform, lovers of legendary lore. If tradition may be believed, Callum Beg and who reconciled wit and virtue, after a long and dis- occasions, interfered on behalf of his retainer, when the latter had astrous separation, during which wit had been led astray the misfortune to endanger his life or liberty by forays ou the neighby profligacy, and virtue by fanaticism.

bouring estates. One day Callum was brought into the presence of his feudal superior, having been caught with a fang on him, which proved to be a good fat sheep. The laird had a hantering

kindness for Callum, and knew not well how to act. At length he CAWDOR CASTLE-MACBETH- ordered the thief and the evie to be both put into the donjon-krep

of the castle, at the same time giving directions that the people SUPERSTITION.

should be amply regaled on bread and ale. While the latter were

indulging in this repast, the laird slipped out and inquired of (sl. It was in the sunny and leafy month of June that I lum if he had got a knife. Being answered in the affirmative, first rambled over that portion of the north countrie' Then,' said he, I shall send you customers for the wether.' Cal lying east of Inverness, where the wilder features of lụm took the hint, and killed the sheep, and cutting it into small

pieces, threw them out of a small aperture in the dungeon, con the Higbland landscape are softened by cultivation. structed rather for air than light, at the outside of which a pack of Near the town of Nairn stands the ancient residence dogs were assembled, who quickly devoured the whole. Time having of the Earl of Cawdor, one of the most entire baronial been allowed for the accomplishment of this feat, the lair) took his

chair of state, and summoned that obdurate thief, Callum Bee, piles in the kingdom, and the situation of which is no

into his presence, together with the fang and the witnesses. The less beautiful than striking and singular. The tower door of the cell was opened, and Callum produced, but not a res is built partly on a rock, its surface serving as a floor tige of the sheep could be found. Upon the hint the justice spaketo the lower apartments, and in the midst is an old ingly setting the prisoner free. Callum, however, was not always hawthorn tree, springing from the rock, and shooting so fortunato. On one occasion he fell into the hands of the laird its leafless spiral stem from the vault into the interior of of Kilrarock, and was committed to durance vile. His natural the Luilding. According to popular tradition this singu- Callum was placed-for it is well known that before the abolition

chief, the laird of Cawdor, hearing of the jeopanly in wluch lar appearance is thus explained :-A certain Thane of of heritable jurisdiction, after the defeat of the Stuarts, our lairds Cawdor, a chief of the fourteenth century, whilst meditat- and barons possessed the right of pit and gallows, and were by ing the erection of the castle, was told in a dream to mansion of his neighbouring proprietor, on the first day of the bene

no means scrupulous in the use of them-repaired to the ancient build it round a hawthorn tree, on the bank of the brook; year, and seated himself on the great stair in front of the castle and believing the suggestion to proceed from some

The usual greetings having passed, the laird of Cawdor was invited guardian power, he obeyed it. Another version of the into the house, but replied that he had a new year's gift to ask, and

unless it were granted he would not enter the house or partake of story, however, gives a less poetical origin to the site his neighbour's hospitality, I shall grant you every favour in my of the tower. It is said that the Thane, being in doubt power,' replied Kilravock, but the life of Callam Beg. – That, where to erect his building, loaded an ass with an iron replied the other, “is the very request I came to make, and being coffer full of gold, and resolved to build his mansion departed, and Callum Beg was hanged.

denied, it is unnecessary for me to stay.' The laird accordingly

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