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malediction on the curdless land, and bestowed his detriment to the steadiness of his step next morning. At blessing on the hamlet in which such luxuries had been last, however, the play was finished, much about the time obtained for four kreutzers.

when Schiller left the academy (end of 1780); being preAt Ludwigsburg he began to attend the theatre, and sented to the situation of regimental surgeon in Stuttgard, though the performances seem to have been mainly melo- with the salary of eighteen forins a-month. dramatic, they made a deep impression on his mind. Plans His academical friend Scharfenstein (afterwards General of tragedies began to float across his brain; and he would Scharfenstein) has furnished us with a picture of Schiller's shut himself up in his room and rehearse long scenes, first appearance on parade. "How comic was his look ! in which paper-puppets were the performers. But the swaddled in regimentals, made after the old Prussian bent of bis mind continued earnestly religious; and the cut, which was particularly awkward and tasteless in the first of his poems was composed the day before his con- case of the surgeon's uniform; with three stiff pomatumed firmation. It is not extant; but it appears to have ex- rolls of curls on each side of his head, a little military hat pressed the awe and solemnity with which he contem- perched upon his crown, from which a long thick queue plated the sacred service in which he was about to be dangled behind; his long neck imprisoned in a tight engaged.

horse-hair stock; his legs and thighs like cylinders of a In the Ludwigsburg academy, he made considerable pro- uniform periphery; close-fitting pantaloons, sorely begress in his knowledge of the Latin tongue. He finished spotted with shoe-blacking, and in which he moved, being his Latin course in 1772, and prepared to enter upon the unable to bend his knees, like a stork.' nine years' study requisite to qualify him for the church. In re-casting the “Robbers' for the Mannheim theatie, The Duke of Wirtemberg, however, had lately established the fate of the villain Francis, the strange scene between an educational institution near Stuttgard, for which he was Moor and Amelia in the garden, and the death of Amelia anxious to obtain recruits among young men of talent; by the hands of the robber chief, were entirely altered. and by his influential advice Schiller reluctantly entered suicide being substituted in the last case as inore conthe academy as a student of law.

sistent with the traditional laws of stage effect; but In this establishment military discipline reigned su- against this last change Schiller most strongly protested. preme. The students were placed under captains and The piece was produced in 1782; and, in spite of the majors; they were arranged in classes of fifty, according ignorance of the world which it betrays, its power, originto their stature; they marched to dinner and to bed; ality, and wild energy of dialogue, won for it extraordinary ate, drank, prayed, studied, amused themselves, at the

But while it was enthusiastically admired by Ford of command; wore uniforms, stiff collars, long some, in others it excited only terror and aversion. Inqueues of false hair, and other strange attire, which deed a shell thrown into the heart of a peaceful city looked sufficiently comic upon the gaunt figure of Schiller. could scarcely have caused greater consternation than did In short, a mechanical uniformity of thought and action this democratic drama in the quiet little dutchies of Gerseemed to be the perfection aimed at by the duke, a well- many. The poet received from the duke a peremptory meaning but short-sighted military pedant.

order to confine himself to medicine, and the representaThe study of law was distasteful to Schiller : he made tion of the play was prohibited. no progress in it; and at last he was allowed to ex

A new tragedy, however, soon occupied his attention. change it for that of medicine.-Rousseau, Voltaire, This was the · Conspiracy of Fiesco'—and he succeedand other writers of the same class whose works he had ed in imparting to the piece not a little of a southern read in secret, had launched his mind into a career of glow and Italian temperament. But the irksomedark and brooding speculation, and the search into the ness of his position was daily increasing. His studies structure of the human frame seemed to him calculated were distasteful to him; the close restraint was burdento throw light on the mysteries of mind. He chose for some; he had lost the favour of his sovereign; and severe his public thesis, "The connexion of the animal nature measures were threatened in case of future offence. At of man with the spiritual;' a theme which he treated last he resolved to quit the territories of Wirtemberg. in a gloomy and material spirit, yet not without origin- In company with Streicher, a student of music, he set out alite, imagination, and rigour of expression. The state for Mann im, in hopes that he might obtain the situa

of Schiller's mind at this period was comfortless in the tion of stage-poet there. In this he was disappointed; is highest degree: restraint, scepticism, an irksome pre- but a day was fixed for the reading of Fiesco,' in pre

sent, and an uncertain future, seem to have reduced his sence of the more distinguished of the performers, Iffland, sensitive spirit at times almost to madness and despair; Beil, Beck, and others. Schiller began to read, and exand to have inspired him with that indignation against pectation was raised to the utmost height. Deep silence established forms which characterizes his earliest plays. prevailed during the first act, but without the least sympOne source of consolation, however, remained open to tom of approbation. At its close, Beil walked quietly him; and in poe ical creation he could for a time forget away. At the end of the second, the whole party disrealities. His first attempts were lyrical, and, we may persed, except Ifiland. Meier, the stage-director, took add, worthless. They are imitative, pompous, and harsh Streicher aside, and asked him gravely whether Schiller in diction ; often false in feeling; and dealing in abstrac- was really the author of the • Robbers; and Schiller himtions. But in the drama he succeeded better. His self, who saw that the reading of his play had acted as a ignorance of real life, it is true, left him exposed to a nunc dimittis on his auditory, made a hasty retreat, learthousand distortions in his portraits of society; but his ing the unlucky drama in the hands of Meier, who progenerous emotions and rebellious energies, at least, he mised to read it through. When they reached their felt he could transfer to some ideal representation. In apartment, after a pause of mortified silence, Schiller painting his Robber Chief, Schiller only drew from him- told Streicher that if his play were not accepted, he would self: those wild bursts of affection, pity, vengeance, en- turn actor himself, as he felt confident no one could dethusiasm, and remorse, had already visited one lonely claim so well as himself. Fortunately he was spared this human heart in his military prison. The play of the exposure of weakness. When Streicher went next morn• kobbers' was written chiefly in the year 1780; it grew ing to reclaim the manuscript, Meier scarcely allowed him into shape under obstacles of every kind; being composed to enter ere he exclaimed that ‘Fiesco' was a mastersecretly, at such hours as he could steal from sleep or the piece, and better adapted for the stage than the 'Robbers;' studies of the academy. Once he had a narrow escape and that the failure had been entirely owing to Schiller's from one of the domiciliary visits of the duke, who, in Swabian accent, and the wretched way in which he demaking his rounds at night, entered the room so hastily, claimed.' that Schiller bad scarcely time to throw the manuscript Meantime dark hints reached Schiller from Stuttgard, under the table, and to replace it by some medical work. that even in Mannheim he was not safe from the disTo enable him to bear these rightly labours, he had pleasure of the duke; and he resolved to seek a tempo. recourse to wine-some:imes, it is insinuated, not without i rary shelter in Frankfort. The faithful Streicher would not forsake his companion; he procured about thirty flo- stir and inagnificence, and from the variety and contrast rins from his mother, and, with this scanty allowance, of character which it displayed, exbibited to great advanthe friends started on foot. The journey was long, and tage Schiller's skill in theatrical composition ; but the to Schiller, unused to such excursions, exhausting. They catastrophe satisfied no one; the poetical interest of the reached Darmstadt after a twelve hours' walk; but early play addressed itself more to the head than the heart. next morning, after a broken night's rest, they again In Court Intrigue and Love' the distorted views of started fer Frankfort. Having walked for some time, how- society conspicuous in the 'Robbers’ are again made unever, Schiller's step became more feeble, and the pale- pleasingly prominent. But the pathos of the scenes beness of his countenance visibly increased. When they tween Ferdinand and Louisa is even now irresistible ; in reached a little wood by the roadside, he declared he was the audience of Mannheim, on the first representation of unable to proceed farther, but would try if, by means of the play, they awakened a tumult of enthusiasm. Schiller a few hours' rest, he could still reach Frankfort that night. was present, and witnessed its success. At the close of He lay down to sleep on the grass under a shadowy thicket, the second act, the audience rose and broke forth into a Streicher sitting near him on the trunk of a felled tree, general shout of approbation. "Schiller was so overand watching with anxiety his unfortunate friend. There powered, that he rose in return and bowed to the public, lay,' says loffineister, the noblest of poets, who was his face and bearing expressive at once of just selfsoon to be the glory of his country, poor, helpless, ex- estimation, gratitude, and satisfaction.' bausted, without home, without prospects. Sleep took Schiller was now chosen a member of the German pity on him-his rest was undisturbed for two hours—his Society, and had the honorary title of councillor conferred strength partially recruited, and, with nightfall, the wan- on him by the Duke of Weimar. His attachment to derers reached Frankfort.'

Charlotte Von Wollzogen still continued ; and in his last Schiller's circumstances were now extremely embar-letter to Madame Wollzogen (7th June, 1784) he saysrassed; and he wrote to Baron Dalberg, who then super

. Could I but take you at your word, and be indeed your intended the direction of the Mannheim theatre, implor- son! Your Charlotte would not indeed be rich, but asing him, in a deeply touching letter, to assist him in dis- suredly she would be happy.' No notice, however, was charging a debt of two hundred florins which he had left taken of the hint; and the feeling on the part of Schiller behind in Stuttgard, and for which his creditor had now himself seems gradually to have declined-owing, probecome clamorous. Would Dalberg, he wrote, but ad- bably, to his increasing acquaintance with the interesting vance him a hundred florins on the credit of the repre- and accomplished daughter of the bookseller Schwan, the sentation of . Fiesco,' or purchase it at what he thought fair one whom he has idealized as the 'Laura' of his its value, it would set his mind at rest. The baron was poems. Why this second passion also came to a premarich and powerful, and he knew and professed to pity his ture conclusion, cannot be ascertained - probably the condition, so that Schiller looked forward with confidence lady's parents were opposed to it, as Schisler was still to the wished-for answer. It came at last, and dashed in delicate health, and without any secure establishment his hopes to the ground : Fiesco' must be completely in life. The parties seem to have been sincerely atrecast before the baron could venture to advance the money. tached, and though they did not marry, they did not Having sketched out the general plan of a new drama, cease to be friends. Court Intrigue and Love,' Schiller turned to · Fiesco, In March, 1785, Schiller removed to Leipsic; his completed the required alterations, which cost him as situation at Mannheim having become disagreeable to much toil as the original composition of the play, and him, in consequence of the actors having taken offence at sent it to Dalberg. The answer, however, was still un- some of his criticisms which appeared in the . Thalia'-a satisfactory, and nothing remained but to offer the re- periodical which Schiller had originated. From Leipsic be jected drama for the press. A louis d'or per sheet was the proceeded in summer to Dresden, where he remained till price offered for it-Schiller and his friend had scarcely June, 1787; and it was during his residence there that he a farthing left-insignificant though it was, the offer was completed his beautiful play. Don Carlos. This play indiaccepted, and for eleven louis d'or “ Fiesco' was trans-cates a sounder tone of spirit, and a purer taste; and we perferred to the publisher.

ceive in it the dawn of that temperance in sentiment and But new anxieties arose. His threatened apprehension, expression which the knowledge of life, the study of history, at the instance of the grand duke, now assumed the ap- and tho pursuit of critical and philosophical inquiries, had pearance of immediate danger, and again his place of forced upon him. In the 'Robbers' and its companions residence niust be shifted. Madame Wollzogen, with we breathe heavily as in a thunder-laden atmosphere; but whose sons he had become acquainted at the academy of in Don Carlos' we emerge into a region of purer air, Stuttgard, now most kindly offered to the persecuted and genial bursts of sunshine break in about us, though poet å home at her seat of Bauerbach, near Meiningen, the tempest may still be seen lingering on the outskirts where he arrived in November, 1782. The quiet of of the horizon.- -From the completion of Don Carlos' Bauerbach at first tranquillized him; and here his third in 1786, to the formation of the first idea of Wallentragedy was completed." But the dreary winter, and the stein,' about 1791, the whole turn of Schiller's mind was solitude of the place, appear to have soon affected his critical, sceptical, or historical. To this period belongs spirits. In addition to these came an unfortunate ro- the 'Geister Seher' (spirit seer)—a fragment, but a most mantic attachment to the daughter of his patroness, Char- interesting and powerful one. We own we do not regret lotte Von Wollzogen, which threatened to disturb the that the romance is incomplete; that the mind of the kindly relations subsisting between the poet and the reader is left to fill up the unfinished sketch with its own family. At this juncture Dalberg, having ascertained fancies, and to regard with strange awe that marked and that the Duke of Wirtemberg had forgotten or forgiven omnipresent Russian Armenian, whose stonelike aspect Schiller's flight, offered him an engagement for a year as petrifies Venetian Sbirri and Sicilian impostors—whose dramatic poet at Mannheim. In September, 1783, Schil- secret agency sets in motion cardinals, inquisitors, nobleler entered upon his new office, undertaking to furnish men, members of the Bucentauro, and valets-de-chambre the theatre with three pieces, viz. :—Fiesco,' • Court –who haunts St Mark's Place, to convey, at the distan Intrigue and Love,' and Don Carlos.' A salary of three of a thousand miles, the messages of death, and whose hundred florins a-year, and one night's receipts of each recollection Byron could not help

associating with the City play, was to be allowed him; the copyright of the plays of the Sea. The.Geister Seher' was the first work of to remain with himself.

its class, and it remains the best. Scarcely were matters arranged, when a fever, then From Dresden, Schiller removed to Weimar, where he raging in the town, assailed him. He suffered long and became acquainted with Goëthe and Wieland. With severely, and only recorered after several relapses. At Wieland he was soon on terms of friendship; but on his last, however, ‘Fiesco' and Court Intrigue and Love' first introduction to Goëthe, each party felt disappointed were finally prepared for the stage. “Fiesco,' from its I with the other—both lived, however, to alter this impression. While at Dresden, he might generally be seen Schiller died at the age of forty-five; unequalled in rambling about the romantic environs of the town, or German literature save by one-Goëthe. But one repushing a boat against the stream of the Elbe, particularly mark is forced upon us by the association of their names: in stormy weather, or joining in the evening some of the Goëthe rarely seeks to enlist our sympathies on the side numerous parties to which his genius and his amiable of virtue or moral courage; while Schiller viewed his dispositions procured him ready access; but in Weimar, genius as a sacred trust lent him for a time, to be exexcepting an occasional solitary walk, he confined himself pended only on themes that might support, instruct, or chiefly to his apartment.

elevate his fellow-men. He has found his reward. He On a visit to Bauerbach, Schiller became attached to is eminently the favourite poet of his countrywomen. Charlotte Von Lengefeld, and in her he found his com- With the gentler portion of creation-with all who have

panion for life. She had a graceful form and mould of preserved the heart unstained, and the affections une features, with mild and expressive eyes; had a talent for chilled and unperverted—he will always be so; for he

drawing and poetry, and her temperament was lively and speaks to the best feelings of their nature, in words and sensitive. Through the friendly offices of Goëthe, Schil- images elevated as the deeds which he loved to paint, ler was appointed professor of history at Jena, in 1789; chaste and noble as the fancy from which they sprung. and in 1790, the lovers, after three years' probation, were united. A serene contentment now displaced his former restless and turbulent emotions; and when he first felt

SKETCHES OP MODERN HISTORY. the joy of being a father his delight was almost childish.

The two works which best display Schiller's talents as EDWARD THE THIRD AND HIS a historian are, The Revolt of the Netherlands' and the

FRENCII WARS. History of the Thirty Years' War.' The first is unfinished; but few works display a rarer combination of

(Continued from page 279.) the elements of historical excellence-breathing, along The town and port of Calais, as every one knows, is with its philosophic breadth of view, the warmth and situated on the narrowest part of the channel which sepacolouring of poetry. The Thirty Years' War, though a rates France and England, and immediately opposite the noble work, is overlaid with distinctions and balancings rival port of Dover, both towns being within sight of each of opinion—with speculation and generalization; and other in clear weather. At the early period to which our with the exception of some graphic and striking descrip- narrative relates, Calais was a place of greater consetions, the philosophical unduly predominates over the quence than it is at present. Not only in the strength poetical.

of its fortifications and the extent of its trade, but also in In 1791, his historical labours were cut short by a the intelligence and bravery of its inhabitants, it justly dangerous illness. He was now repaying, with fearful aspired to a bigh rank among the cities of France. To interest, the drafts he had made upon his health by noc- an invading English army it was virtually the key of the turnal studies. A pulmonary attack reduced him to the French kingdom; and when, therefore, Edward sat down brink of the grave, and from its effects he never entirely deliberately to effect its capture, bis adversary felt that the recovered. Some time after this his love of poetry re- loss of this important post would inflict on hinn a niore severe turned ; and abandoning the sentimental lyric, his muse blow than even the disaster of Cressy. Accordingly he was poured forth its treasures in those noble narrative ballads not inactive. While endeavouring to succour the besieged

he has left us, and which will be the admiration of all city, he sought also to create such confusion in England { La

time. He had erected a little study in the garden of as would distract its monarch's attention. David Bruce his country-house at Jena; and here he frequently was now established on the throne of his father in Scotsat absorbed in thought during the greater part of the land, and adhered to the alliance of France. In an evil night. From a neighbouring house, which overlooked hour for himself he was induced, by the representations the garden, he might be heard earnestly reciting some of his ally, to undertake that disastrous inroad into Engpassage he had written-walking swiftly up and down his land which resulted in the battle of Nevil's Cross, where chamber-then suddenly throwing himself down into his his army was utterly routed by inferior numbers, and he chair and writing; and recruiting his strength occasion- himself made prisoner and carried to London. Nearly ally from a flask of Rhenish or Champagne, which was at the same time Charles de Blois, the rival claimant for always placed beside his desk. Here . Wallenstein,' with the dutchy of Brittany, fell into the hands of the English, difficulty and labour hard,' grew into a shape of compact and was confined in the Tower of London, as his adverand finished beauty. Criticism on this production is need- sary, De Montford, had long been in the Tower of the less. It has taken its place as the greatest drama which Louvre. has appeared in Europe since the time of Shakspeare; These occurrences failed to distract the attention of the combining, in a remarkable degree, ideality of conception English monarch from his enterprise. He continued to with natural reality; and the youthful glow of enthusi- press on the siege, or rather blockade, with great vigour; astic feeling with the wise and thoughtful spirit of one while the inhabitants and garrison, on their part, undisorer whom years and experience had passed—and not in mayed by the power and threats of their formidable advain.

versary, defended the city with unflinching resolution. In 1799, Schiller removed from Jena to the milder Edward had surrounded it on the land side by lines of climate of Weimar. • William Tell' was his next play— intrenchment, and at sea a strong squadron blocked up and it was his last. In grandeur it approaches his . Wal- the harbour ; but seeing the great strength of the place, lenstein,' and in its pictures of Switzerland, and its simple he wisely resolved not to waste the lives of his soldiers inhabitants, it is inimitable.

in assaults, but to reduce it by the slow but sure operaIn 1804, he was seized in Berlin, where he had been tion of famine. John de Vienne, the governor, deterwitnessing the representation of his William Tell,' with mined to rid himself of such as, in the merciless language a violent attack of his former malady; and though he of war, are called useless mouths,' drove a number of the partially recovered, a relapse, in the spring of 1805, poor inhabitants of both sexes and all ages into the Engproved fatal. He had been delirious in the morning of lish lines, where, to the credit of the national humanity, the day on which he died (9th May), but, about four they were well treated, and provided with money to carry o'clock, he fell into a soft sleep, from which he awoke in them elsewhere. But the hopes of the garrison began to

the full possession of his senses. Some one inquiring how fail, when, in the words of a letter written by them to she felt, his answer was— Calmer and calmer! Once he Philip about this time, imploring succour, they had eaten

up with a gleam of animation, and said — Many their horses, their dogs, and all unclean animals, and nothings are growing plain and clear to me. Soon after he thing remained for them but to devour one another. sank again into a slumber, which gradually deepened into Their sovereign was not unmindful of the condition of his the sleep of death.

gallant and devoted subjects, and was now bent on mak

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ing one grand effort to save the city. Unfurling the and Cerdagne, with the town of Montpelier, from the

Oriflamme,' the sacred banner of France, only to be king of Arragon. These acquisitions in some measure used against the infidels, he summoned the crown vassals compensated to John, his son and successor, for the losses from all parts, and in July, 1317, marched to the relief in the wars with England ; nor was the latter indisposed of Calais at the head of an immense force. He had the to listen to the proposal of Edward, when, wearied of his mortification, however, to find the only two approaches French wars, and turning a wistful eye to the conquest of to the English lines so well fortified and defended by the Scotland, he offered to forego for ever his pretensions to Earl of Derby and Sir Walter Manny, that after some the crown, on condition of receiving the absolute soveineffectual manauvres he was forced to retreat and leave reignty of Guienne,* Calais, and other lands, which bad the town to its fate. The faithful garrison now offered been held as fiefs by former kings of England. But the to capitulate ; but Edward, enraged at their obstinate pride of the French people revolted at a proposal deemed defence, and also remembering, it is said, their many by them dishonourable; and after their king had compiracies committed on the English, rejected all terms mitted his honour, and promised at the congress of short of unconditional surrender. Yielding at length to Guisnes to accede to Edward's proposition, he found himthe entreaties of Sir Walter Manny and the other Eng- self once more compelled to renew this disastrous conlish captains, who admired the heroism of the men of test, from which his unhappy country had already Calais, I will not be alone against you all,' said the king; suffered unparalleled calamities.

Sir Walter, let six of the notable burgesses come forth, John was forty years of age when he ascended the naked in their shirts, bare-legged, with halters round throne of France, and might have possessed a large stock their necks, and the keys of the town and castle in their of that dear-bought wisdom which forms one of the chief hands. On these I will work my will, and the rest I will compensations of adversity. We have already indicated the take to my mercy.' This cruel condition filled the un- character of the son when speaking of the father, whose fortunate citizens with despair; when six of the principal vindictiveness he inherited in an eminent degree, though burghers stood forward, and nobly offered themselves as it was united, at the same time, to much that was noble victims on behalf of their townsmen. Entering the pre- and chivalrous. His reign, however, like that of Phil p, sence of the conqueror, they fell on their knees before began with an act of unmitigated injustice. On the bare hirn, presented the ke;s of their city, and begged for suspicion that they had intelligence with the English, he mercy,

The spectacle of such unparalleled devotion put the Constable D'Eu and several other nobles to death, melted the hearts of the rude soldiers, and all present and then conferred the office of Constable, with the earlshed tears of admiration and pity. The king alone con- dom of Angoulême, on one of his favourites. This act tinued inexorable, and ordered them to instant execution ; brought on him the resentment of Charles the Bad, king nor could all the eloquence of Sir Walter Manny, who of Navarre, one of the most able, though unprincipled appealed to the native generosity of his sovereign, and sovereigns of his time, who expected the earldom would represented the irreparable injury his reputation would have been bestowed on himself. Not long after, the new sustain from such an action, alter his resolution. At this Constable was murdered in his bed by order of this prince moment Queen Philippa, lately arrived from England (who was subsequently made prisoner by the French with reinforcements, fell at her husband's feet, and im- monarch, and confined in the Chateau Gaillard). Still the plored him, ' in the name of the Son of the Holy Mary, truce with Edward continued, though a kind of warfare that he would have mercy on those six men.' For a mo- was constantly carried on by the soldiers of both nations, ment the king hesitated; but generosity and love had who were perpetually engaged in skirmishes with each triumphed, and he replied, ' Dame, I wish you had been other. The inhabitants of every town and village were somewhere else; but I cannot refuse you—I put them at also obliged to keep themselves well arined and conyour disposal.'

stantly on the watch, that they might protect themselves Next day the king and queen entered the town, where from the insults of the two contending parties, as well as ber majesty was shortly delivered of a daughter, hence from a fierce banditti, consisting of numbers of disbanded called Margaret of Calais. They soon after sailed for soldiers. These miscreants, united in bands, and call. ingland, Edward having first agreed to a truce with ing themselves free con panies, roved over the country at Philip, which was gradually prolonged for six years, and pleasure, committing fearful ravages. They even threatwhich left him in possession of Calais and of certain con- ened the town of Avignon, where the Pope then resided, quests made by the Larl of Derby in the south. In fact, and obliged his holiness to purchase his safety by a large the resources of the rivals were fairly exhausted; and sum of money. But the captivity of his ally, the King of though the spoils of France had enriched many of the Navarre, was regarded by Edward, as John probably in. English adventurers, the parliament became less and less tended, in the light of a violation of the truce; and both willing to naintain a war of which the nation had got parties henceforth prepared for the re-commencement of thoroughly tired. As if in mockery of the carnage of hostilities. men, too, a dreadful pestilence, called the black death, Profiting by his position as Duke of Guienne, with which now ravaged Europe. From the heart of China this dignity he had lately been invested, the Black Prince, in terrible visitation, sweeping across the desert of Cobi 1355, opened the campaign in the south of France, with and the wilds of Tartary, found its way through Egypt, an army of sixty thousand men, mostly consisting of Gas. the Levant, Greece, Italy, Germany, France, and at cons. Making a circuit from Bourdeaux, he invaded length embraced the western coasts of England, destroy; and ravaged the country as far as Toulouse, plundered ing its hundreds of thousands, and turning towns and and burned the cities of Carcassonne and Narbonne, cities into sepulchres. It appeared in London in No. and returned in safety, loaded with booty, to Bourvember, 1318, and there committed the most frightful deaux. A similar movement in the north, made by ravages. According to some historians, one-balf the po- his father, was abruptly terminated by the intelligence pulation of England was swept away, and the dreadful that the Scotch had invaded England, retaken their tofa malady was equally fatal to the cattle. We shall after- of Berwick, and were determined to make a struggle for wards have occasion to notice the deplorable condition to the liberation of their captive prince. Instantly returnwhich famine, pestilence, foreign war, and internal anarchy ing to Britain, Edward collected an immense force, and had reduced France.

having bought from Edward Baliol, for 5000 marks and In 1350 King Philip was seized with an illness which a yearly annuity of £2000, his pretended rights to the terminated his life in the 57th year of his age and 23d of Scottish crown, he resolved to prevent all annoyance fa his reign. Shortly before he had obtained from the dau- the future by the conquest of the country. With these phin of Vienne the investiture of his territories, on dition that the prince-royal of France should ever after

* Edward was of right hereditary duke of Guienne: but if John assume the title of dauphin. He inherited Maine and

were the lawful sovereign of France, then Edward was his fassal Anjou from his mother, and he had purchased Roussillon for that dutchy


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parchments in his chest, for which he had given a great which, terrified at the mere sight of the green jackets, deal nuore than their value, seeing that in the estimation and probably desirous to save the dauphin and his of the Scottish nation, Baliol had no rights wbatever, he brothers, set the example of flight, and the whole divicrossed the Tweed, ravaged the Lothians, and burned sion almost instantly dispersed in shameful disorder. Haddington and Edinburgh. But this inroad, long after- Edward, with his knights and men-at-arms, who had wards known in the north as the burnt Candlemas,' ended as yet done nothing but look on, perceiving what had like most former invasions in retreat for want of pro- happened, instantly raised the shout--St George for visions; and it seems to have so thoroughly damped the Guienne !' and dashed with irresistible impetuosity across ambition of the English monarch, that he ever after the open moor on which the enemy had been posted. wards abandoned all hopes of Scottish conquest, and even The Constable of France stood firm with some squadrons failed to reinforce his son in France. The latter, accord- of horse ; but the German cavalry were soon put io fight, ingly, so late as the following Jure, took the tield with and the entire division under the Duke of Orleans Hed 1.tile more than fourteen thousand men, designing, ap- without striking a blow. With a valour which had been parently, to repeat the plundering expedition of the pre- but poorly seconded by his troops and officers, John cunceding year, Traversing the country with great ra- tinued to fight with desperate resolution ; and when nearly pidity, he overran the Agenois, Limousin, and Auvergne, all had forsaken him, his youngest son Philip, a boy of and penetrated into Berri, in the very heart of the sixteen, fought by his side. At length, finding that the country, burning, destroying, and plundering. Mean- day was irretrievably lost, the unfortunate monarch surwhile John had collected a numerous army, at the head of rendered to a knight named De Morbec; and soon after which he was rapidly advancing; but so exasperated were he and the young prince were led by the Earl of Warwick the peasantry at the outrages committed by the English, into the presence of the conqueror, by whom they were that not a man could be got to give them information as received with all that chivalrous courtesy for which he to the enemy's march. Accordingly, on the 17th Septem- was remarkable. Next day the prince conveyed his ber, the English van came suddenly on the rear of the prisoners to Bourdeaus, where they remained till the French army at a village two leagues from Poitiers; and following spring, when they were conducted in triumph to soon after the prince's scouts brought intelligence that London, and were detained there four years. . the neighbouring country swarmed with the enemy, and Thus, by a wonderful stroke of fortune, Edward now that his retreat to Gascóny was cut off. “Then God help held as prisoners in bis capital the two opponents against us,' said the youthful warrior, we must now consider how whom he had so long contended; while their unhappy we may best fight them.'

kingdoms, bleeding from incessant war, torn with anarchy, On the following morning, which was Sunday, John and blighted by pestilence and famine, seemed utterly drew out his troops in order of battle, to the amount of and irretrievably prostrated. The condition of France, in sixty thousand horse alone, while the infantry were al- particular, now governed by the dauphin, was the most most innumerable. The whole force of the Black Prince, miserable that can possibly be conceived. A foreign on the other hand, did not exceed ten thousand men, only enemy traversed the kingdom, the king was a prisoner, a small number of whom were English. His position, the capital was in sedition, the restless Charles of however, was admirably chosen, among hedges, vineyards, Navarre took arms against the central authority. The and bushes ; and his troops were so accustomed to victory wretched peasantry, who had survived the pestilence of under his experienced leadership, that they viewed the 1348, and the famines by which it was preceded, felt fearful odds opposed to them without dismay. Just as themselves more than ever the prey of remorseless banthe battle was about to commence, a legate from the Pope, ditti, or the grinding avarice and cold blooded oppression the Cardinal Talleyrand, arrived on the field, and im- of their feudal lords ; and these people broke out into a plored the French king to avoid the carnage which must dreadful insurrection called the Jacquerie, from the cant inevitably ensue, by offering terms to his brave opponent. phrase Jacques bon Homme, applied to men of their class. Passing over to the English camp, the Cardinal pressed This outbreak was distinguished by all those circumon the prince the danger of his position, and proposed to stances of horror which commonly mark the insurrecendeavour to obtain from Philip such terms as would save tions of an exasperated and unenlightened populace, the honour of Edward and his army. But the French equalled only in the exterminating cruelty by which king, confident in his overwhelming numerical superiority, it was suppressed. And yet, even at this moment of demanded the unconditional surrender of his adversary, triumphant elevation, the English monarch might have and a hundred of his best knights; and as this was a con- perceived the utter hopelessness of the schemes which dition to which the English would not consent, the bene- through life had dazzled his imagination. As far as Scotvolent churchman found all his pacific endeavours vain, land was concerned, we have seen that this was the case. though he spent the whole Sunday in riding from the one The very poverty of the country, not less than the hardicamp to the other. “Then,' said the prince, with mar- hood and unyielding valour of the people, rendered its tial resignation, may God defend the right!' and, re- conquest as impracticable, as ever; and he therefore calling to memory the triumph of his father at Cressy, wisely agreed to a treaty in 1357, whereby, for a ransom of and his own great exploits, he prepared for the conflict of a hundred thousand marks, David was allowed to return the morrow with a composed and even cheerful coun- to his kingdom. But even as to France it was apparent tenance.

that the very rastness of the object mocked his resources, The French were in three divisions. In the first were and proved that though he might overrun the territory the king's three sons, the Dauphin, the Duke of Anjou, by his armies, he could never ihoroughly conquer it, or and the Duke of Berri; the second was led by the Duke hope to wear the crown in opposition to the unsubdued of Orleans; Philip with his youngest and favourite son repugnance of the people. Accordingly, after various commanded the third. After some preliminary con- negotiations, and one more fruitless inroad in the autumn fusion, ominously resembling the disorder at Cressy, the of 1359, Edward finally agreed to the peace of Bretigny, attack was begun by a chosen band of horsemen, followed which was concluded on the 8th of May, 1360. By this by some German auxiliaries; but these were received with celebrated treaty, besides three millions of gold crowns as so deadly a flight of arrows from the woods and hedges, a ransom for their monarch, the French ceded all that they were soon brought to a stand, and at last com- Guienne, Gascony, Poitou, Saintonge, Limousin, and pelled to flee, leaving the way choked up with their dead | Angoumois, together with Ponthieu and Calais, in full and wounded. Of the two marshals of France who led on sovereignty to Edward, the sole concession demanded in this attack, one was killed, and the other wounded and return being the renunciation of his claim to the crown taken prisoner. After this success, the English became of France. This treaty Edward seems to have conthe assailants. Six hundred bowmen, making a circuit, cluded honestly, and resolved to keep faithfully. That suddenly showed themselves in the tank and rear of the within ten years after, when age had laid its heavy hand division containing the young princes, the vilicers of on the conqueror, and his gallant son was slowly expiring

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