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cast of his features, that he was soine lowly suitor, who vented by the presence of mind of the Queen herself. had a petition to present, touching misfortunes which he It is recorded that, during the time of Babington's cocould not of himself overcome, or grievances to complain spiracy, she was shown a picture containing the portraits of, which only the sovereign could redress. To judge by of the six conspirators engaged in that famous plot, with his appearance, one would have taken him for not more a motto underneath intimating their common design, and than twenty-five years old, but the deep gloom that over- that their dreadful countenances remained so vividly imshadowed his countenance, threw, like a twilight cloud, pressed upon her memory, that she immediately recogbut an indistinct light over the dial of his years, and led nised one of them, who had approached very near her the inquirer astray as to the precise extent of his age. person, as she was one day walking in her garden. 'She There was, withal, a delicacy in his figure—a slimness in had the intrepidity,' says Miss Aikin, 'to fix a look upon the outline, looking at him cursorily--which was striking- him which daunted him, and afterwards turning to her ly in contrast with the firmness of his tread, and the air captain of the guards, she remarked that she was indeed of determined resolution that seemed to pervade his whole well guarded, not having a single armed man about her character.

at the time. The courage which she exhibited on such At length a flourish of trumpets announced that Eliza- occasions of personal peril to herself was truly remarkbeth had left the palace, and in a few minutes the Queen able. Bacon relates, that the council once represented herself appeared coming down the avenue. On occasions to her the danger in which she stood, by the continual like this, when she walked abroad surrounded by her conspiracies against her life, and acquainted her that a court, she was apparelled most magnificently, her attire man was lately taken, who stood ready in a very dangerbeing of the richest description, 'set off,' as one writer ous and suspicious manner to do the deed; and they remarks, 'with much gold and jewels of inestimable showed her the weapon wherewith he thought to have valuc.' Elizabeth, it is well known, much affected a acted it. And, therefore, they advised her that she stately demeanour and an air of dignity and grandeur, should go less abroad to take the air, weakly attended, and she even descended to the artifice of wearing high as she used. But the Queen answered that she had shoes, that she might seem taller than she really was. rather be dead than put in custody.' As usual, crowds of obsequious attendants waited upon Firm and unmoved stood the stranger in presence of her steps, and busy flatterers surrounded her, pouring in the incensed Queen, who, whether actuated by feelings of “the lep'rous distilment' of their honied words npon her curiosity, or what is more likely, struck by the handsome ever open ears, greedy of adulation. Time had already appearance of the prisoner, resolved to question him hermade a deep impression upon her masculine features, self. Accordingly, she thus proceeded with her interromuch to her chagrin, for she could not bear to be con- gatories :sidered old; but the cares of her tumultuous reign, and Whence come you, young sir, and what is your name the passions of race, envy, and jealousy, suspicion, pride, and quality ?' and anger, which ever agitated her bosom, had left ra- * Those who know me in this realm,' replied the youth, vages behind them of a more marked and enduring cha- and they are but few, call me Anthony Sparke. Those racter. There was nothing that caused deeper mortifi- who do not know me have no need to inquire farther.' cation and annoyance to this imperious sovereign than But I have good need to know both your name and the falling away of her good looks. Miss Lucy Aikin, in your motive for such an unnatural and disloyal act as the her interesting memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, attempted assassination of your sovereign.' relates that the decay of her beauty was an unwelcome "You are no sovereign of mine, proud princess,' said truth, which all the artifices of adulation were unable to the prisoner, with an unflinching steadiness. “My sovedisguise from her secret consciousness. She could never | reign died by your bloody order in the Castle of Fotherinbehold her image in a mirror, during the latter years of gay, and is now with the blessed angels and martyrs in her life, without transports of impotent anger; and this heaven.' circumstance contributed not a little to sour her temper, Even the imperious Elizabeth, haughty as she was, while it rendered the young and lovely the chosen objects quailed beneath this bold and unexpected reply. But, of her malignity.'

recovering herself, she exclaimed, As the Queen advanced, her attendants, except a few • Insolent varlet, answerest thou me so! Know that it near her person, gradually spread themselves over the is in my power to doom thee to a similar fate. Be grounds, so that there was nothing to prevent a close ap- guarded in thy words, and answer discreetly to the matproach to her majesty by any one who wished it. Watch- ter concerning which we have thee now in hand.' ing his opportunity, the stranger stepped forward hastily, • Thou canst not,' said the prisoner, with a smile that and his right hand, which, ever since he had first caught had in it more of melancholy than pride; thou canst sight of the Queen, he had held in his bosom, was now not, with all thy power and all thy willingness, inflict a quickly withdrawn with a pistol in it. This alarmed greater punishment than that thou hast caused me al. those who were nearest her majesty, and who had caught ready suffer, even wert thou to doom me to the fate of a glance of the deadly weapon in the hand of a stranger. my unhappy mistress. Nineteen long years of sad captiThey crowded round her august person, with the view of vity, with much foul calumny and accusation heaped upon protecting one who was deemed so dear to Englishmen, her name, and, at the last, an ignominious and most cruel and the very pillar and bulwark of the Protestant re- death--such was her fate, and dost thou boast of it! ligion, not only in ' Britain's Isle,' but throughout Europe. Know that though I appear before thee habited like a The youth, seeing that his design was detected, faltered in man, I am a woman like thyself, and, like thyself too, his purpose, which was evidently to shoot the Queen, and, have been driven by despair to bold and ruthless purposes. in the agitation of the moment, rushing forward im- My name is Margaret Lambrun-Anthony Sparke but petuously, he stumbled and fell, when the pistol flew out my assumed one, with the habit which I wear. For of his hand, and was picked up by one of the bystanders. several years I was the attached and trusted handmaid of He was immediately seized, and, upon being searched, the lamented Mary, Queen of Scots, by thee unjustly another pistol, also loaded, was found concealed in his slain. And her sad fate shall yet trouble thy own debosom, together with a long Spanish dagger, sharpened parting hours, which, come when they do, will fall upon to a point. The Queen, losing nothing of her character- thee with terrible remembrance of all the blood thou istic fortitude, by the great danger which she had just hast unjustly shed. The sufferings and death of my dear escaped, commanded the prisoner to be brought before and murdered mistress are not all I have to mourn; my her. She was not unused to these attacks upon her life, husband-and a better and a kinder never breathed-unwhich, at the instigation of the popish faction, had be able to survive his Queen, whom he had accompanied from come rather frequent, although they were always frustrated. France, and followed till the closing scene of all, gave Some two years before this a similar attempt was made way to pining sorrow, and died, alas! oh! double wo to upon her in the very same place, which was only pre- mé-of grief incurable for her loss.'


She paised for a moment, overcome by her feelings, tone in which it was pronounced--the air of mystery but soon recovering her self-possession, she resumed- which was spread over the adventure—the disposition of

• Deprived thus, through thee, of the two persons whom his soul strengthened the impression : he promised to I loved most dearly in the world, my queen and my compose the requiem. husband, I formed a resolution, at the peril of my life, to The stranger continued, ' Apply to the work all the avenge their death on thee, the sole cause of their being powers of your genius; you labour for a connoisseur in so untimely cut from life. And here I came to execute music.' my intent, in which I have been, by inopportune accident, "So much the better.' prevented.'

• How long do you require ?' The Queen had listened, with some degree of interest, "A month.' to this narrative, but when she found that it was a wo- * Very well, I will return in a month. At what price man who had attempted her life, and that, too, from feel- do you estimate your labour p' ings of love and duty to others rather than of hatred iOne hundred ducats.' to herself, she relented, and addressed the prisoner in The stranger counted the amount on the table and dismore gracious terms than any she had yet used towards appeared. her.

Mozart remained for a few moments absorbed in 'In this guilty attempt, which, fortunately for yourself thought, then asked for pon, ink, and paper, and in spite as well as for me, you have been providentially withheld of his wife's remonstrances began to write with an ardour from accomplishing, are you persuaded that you were only that was insensible to pain and fatigue; he composed doing what you conceived your duty to your mistress, and night and day with an enthusiasm which seemed to inyour love for your husband, imperatively required of crease as he proceeded, till at length he fell motionless foc?

off his scat, owing to extreme fatigue and lassitude: this Nothing but my fealty to them both,' said Margaret, compelled him to suspend his labour for some days. His would have led me to dare such a deed, which, in other wife endeavouring to dispel the sombre ideas which occucircumstances, my soul would have abhorred.'

pied his brain, Mozart said to her hastily, ‘Yes, it is cerBut what think you,' rejoined the Queen, 'it is now tain it is for myself that I am composing this requiemniy duty to do to you?'

it will be for iny own funeral service.' Nothing could Does your Majesty put the question,' asked Lambrun eradicate this idea from his mind; he continued to labour in her turn, 'in the character of a queen, willing to for- at his requiem as Raphael did at the picture of the gire, or in that of a judge, anxious to condemn ?! Transfiguration, equally struck with the idea of his death.

In that of a queen, undoubtedly,' replied Elizabeth. Mozart felt his strength gradually decay; his requiem " Then,” said Margaret, your Majesty ought immedi- proceeded slowly; the period he had asked was elapsed. ately to grant me a pardon.'

The stranger returned. • But what security have I,' said the Queen, that you I have found it impossible,' said Mozart, “to keep my will not again attempt my life.'

word.' Madam,' replied Lambrun, an entire and uncon

· Don't let that trouble you,' replied the stranger; ditional pardon would claim my lasting gratitude; but a

“how much longer time do you wish ? farour granted under restraint ceases to be a favour. “A month; the work has inspired me with more inteAnd in exacting any such guarantee, your majesty would rest than I expected it would, and I have extended it be acting the part of a stern and inexorable judge rather much further than I intended.' than that of a good and merciful queen, Alas! princes

*In that case it is necessary to augment your compliare slow to learn that clemency is their truest and safest ment; there are fifty ducats more.' policy.'

“Sir,' said Mozart, still more astonished, 'who are you The justice, as well as the boldness of these remarks, then?' struck Elizabeth, and turning to those about her, among

That has nothing to do with the business; I will rewhom were some members of her council, she exclaimed, turn in a month.' 'I have been thirty years a queen, but do not remember Mozart sent one of his servants after the stranger, to of ever having had such a lecture read to me before.' discover where he went to, but he returned only to inShe then ordered the prisoner to be set at liberty, and form him that he had lost sight of the stranger, and granted her a safe conduct to wherever she wished to go. could not find him again. Poor Mozart took it into his Margaret Lambrun, no longer Anthony Sparke, résumed, head that this stranger was no ordinary being; that he with her woman's clothes, all the better and purer feel- certainly had some connexion with the other world, and ings of a woman's nature; and soon after she retired to that he was sent to advertise him of his approaching end. France, the native country of her husband.

He now laboured with more ardour at his requiem, which he regarded as the most durable monument of his talent.

He fainted away sereral times, and was with difficulty reMOZART'S REQUI E M.

covered. At length the work was finished before the end

of the month. The stranger returned at the time agreed Mozart, the celebrated composer, was much addicted upon— Mozart was no more! All Germany account this

to melancholy, which at length became habitual. He requiem as the chef d'æuvre of the composer. fancied that his life was fast drawing to a close, and he beheld the prospect with horror. One day, being plunged in his melancholy rereries, he heard a carriage stop at his door: a stranger was announced, who desired to speak A shepherd had driven a part of his flock to a neighwith him. He was requested to walk in. He was a inan bouring fair, leaving his dog to watch the remainder durof a certain age, and bad all the appearance of a person ing that day and the next night, expecting to revisit of distinction.

them the following morning. Unfortunately, however, “I am charged,' said the unknown, 'by a person of when at the fair, the shepherd forgot both his dog and rank to come and see you.'

his sheep, and did not return home till the morning of Who is he?' interrupted Mozart.

the third day. His first inquiry was, whether his dog "He does not wish that to be known.'

had been seen? The answer was, 'No.' • Then he must Very well, what is his pleasure ?'

be dead,' replied the shepherd, with a tone and gesture "He has lost a lady who was extremely dear to him, of anguish, for I know he was too faithful to desert his and whose memory will be eternally so. He wishes to charge.' He instantly repaired to the heath. The dog celebrate her loss every year by a solemn service, and he had just sufficient strength remaining to crawl to his wishes you to compose a requiem for this service.' master's feet and express his joy at his return, and alMozart felt deeply affected by this discourse: the grave I most immediately after expired.


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A WORD TO BACHELORS. A negro from Montezerat, or Marigalente, where the If you intend to marry—if you think your happiness IIiberno Celtic is spoken by all classes, happened to be will be increased, and your interest advanced by matrion the wharf at Philadelphia, when a number of Irish mony, be sure and look where you're going. emigrants were landed; and seeing one of them with a self in union with no woman who is selfish, for she will wife and four children, he stepped forward to assist the sacrifice you—with no one who is fickle, for she will be family on shore. The Irishman, in his native tongue, come estranged-have nought to do with a proud one, for expressed his surprise at the civility of the negro, who, she will despise you—nor with an extravagant one, for she understanding what had been said, replied in Irish that will ruin you. Leave a coquette to the fools that flutter he need not be astonished, for that he was ' a bit of an around her; let her own fireside accommodate a scold, Irishman himself. The Irishman, surprised to hear a and tlee from a woman who loves scandal, as you would black man speak his native dialect, with the usual ra- flee from the evil one. pidity of Irish fancy, imagined that he was really an İrishman, but that the climate had changed his fair com

HOME. plexion. If I may be so bold, my dear honey,' said he, may I ask how long you have been in this country ?'

Tunt is not home, where, day by day, The negro man, who had only come hither on a royage,

I wear the busy hours away:

That is not home, where lonely night said he had been in Philadelphia only about four months.

Prepares me for the toils of light. Poor Pat turned round to his wife and children, and look

'Tis hope, anıljor, and memory, give ing as if for the last time on their rosy cheeks, conclud

A home in which the heart can live. ing that in four months they must also change their com

These walls no ling'ring hopes endere,

No for remeinbruce chains me here; plexion, exclaimed, “O merciful powers! Biddy, did you

Cherrless I hear the lonely sighhear that? He has not been more than four months in

Eliza, ncel I tell thee why?

'Tis where thou art is home to me, this country, and he is already almost as black as jet.'

And hone without the cannot be.

There are who strangely love to roam,

And find in willest launts their home ;
A female singer, who was in high favour with a Ger-

And some in halls of Iorilly state, man Prince, had to sing one of Hadyn's compositions.

Who yet are homeless, (lesolatp.

The warrior's home is tential plain, At the rehearsal, she and the conductor differed as to

The sulor's on the story main, the time in which it should be sung. It was agreed that

The miden's in her lover of rest, the composer should be referred to; who, when the con

The infant's on his mother's breast;

And where thou art is home to ine, ductor waited on him, asked if the lady was handsome!

And home without thee cannot be. * Very,' was the reply ; and a special farourite with the

There is no lome in balls of pride; duke.' " Then she is right,' said Hadyn, with a signifi

They are too high, aux coll, and wide.

No home is by the water:r fo:ini; cant lot at the poor disconcerted professor, who, in all

Tig not in place-it hath no bound. probability, had lie gained his point, would have lost his

It is a circling atmosphere, place, and this Ilaydn well knew.

Investing all the bait holds dear

A law of strange nitretive fore,

That holiis the forlings in their course.

It is a presence unde tineri, A west country man, who had occasion to provide him

O'ershadowing the concions mind, self with a pair of new shoes, took the measure of his

Wher love and sluty sweetly blend own foot to a nicety, intending to send a boy to the shoe

To consecrate the name of friend.

Where'er thou art is home to me, maker's, about three miles distant, to fetch him the shoes.

And home without thee cannot be Something, however, occurred to prevent the boy from

My love, forgive the anxious sighgoing, and the man resolved to go himself. He accord

I hear ihe moments ruling by,

Ani think that life is fleeting fact, ingly set off for the cordiner's, and was about half-way

That youth with us will soon be past. on his road, when he suddenly stopped short, scratched

Oh! when will time, consenting, give his head, and muttered to himself, Confound it! I've

The home in which my heart can lire ?

There shall the past and future meet, forgot the measure !' Back he went to procure it, and

Anil ver our conch, in union sheet, then proceeded to his original destination, where he

Extend their cherub wings, and slower learned with astonishment, from the man of awls, that

Bright influence on the present hour. his foot would answer better than the measure !

On! when shall Israel's mystic guide,

The pillar' cloud, onr stops decide,

Then, resting, spread its guariliun shale

To bless the home which lote has naile ? This man, the son of an innkeeper, without fortune or

Daily, my love, shell thenee arise

Our hearts' united sacrifice; connexion, of very moderate attainments, trained in the

And home indeed a home will be, ordinary manner of an humble youth, sent to college

Thus consecrate and shared with thee. without any preconcerted plan, without having carefully furnished himself with auxiliaries, without any strong

LITERATU'RE. fancy of his own importance, without seizing on any The study of literature nourishes youth, entertains nld striking public occasion, in a period and country of set- age-adorns prosperity, solaces adversity—is delightful tled order, and of so much knowledge and civilisation as at home, unobtrusive abroad-deserts us not by day nor would, in ordinary speculation, be accounted sufficient to by night, in journeying nor in retirement. secure the community against any very violent effect of

PARTING. novelty and enthusiasm-under all these circumstances, this plain, undesigning young man came forth. And with

The moment of parting is perhaps the first moment what message did he come, and how did he deliver it ? | that we feel how dear and how useful we have been to He came with no splendid rhetoric from the schools ; he each other. The natural reserves of the heart are broken, dazzled the eyes of the crowd with no jewels from the and the moved spirit speaks as it feels. plundered shrines of antiquity; he spoke to them from

A COMPARISON. ‘no magnificent churches, nor amid the soothing and en- It is with narrow-souled people as with narrow-necked. trancing illumination of gorgeous windows. A table, a bottles—the less they have in them, the more noise they wall, a stair, a tub, a green hill-side, a grassy mound near make in pouring it out. a churchyard--these were the pulpits from which he launched those thunderbolts of invective and exhortation Printed and published by JAMES HOGG, 122 Nicolson Street, with which, it is no poetical amplification to say, in the

Edinburgh; to whom all communications are to be address }

Solil also by J.JOHNSTONE, Edinburgh; J.M.Leon, Glasov; altered words of Aristophanes, he lightened over England. M-COMB, Belfast; G. & R. Kino, Aberdeen; R. Walk R. Dup- Review of Foster's Essays in Fraser's Magazine. dee; R. GROOMBRIDGE & Soxs, London; and all Booksellers.

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Bird thou never wert


sigh-and from the pine, a deep, lingering, and most

musical sound, well called by a poet, an old and solemn The musical faculty is not peculiar to man. It abounds harmony.' So much for the music of nature. We will in the cries and carollings of many of the inferior tribes. only allude to the beautiful fancy of the ancients, that There is music of the most melting and plaintive sort in from the motions of the heavenly orbs there issued the the notes wherewith the bird whose 'little household soft floating of an ethereal and immortal melody, which hath been stolen, fills and saddens all the grove with the gross ear of man hears not, but which is audible to melodies of deepest pathos.' There is a higher and higher and holier spirits; and that thus literally do harsher harmony in the scream of the cloud-cleaving the morning stars sing together. We now know this to eagle, who goes up singing his own wild song through the be but a fancy, though a fancy of the finest and most blue ether, and over the arch of the rainbow. There is poetical kind. We now say rather with Addison in his cheerful and elevating music in the note of the lark, beautiful hymnrising aloft in the dewy dawn and screwing the fresh

• What though in solemn silence all morning air, which the poet thus apostrophises :

Move round the dark terrestrial ball ?

What though no real voice, nor sound,
Hail to thee, blythe spirit--

Amidst their radient orbs be found ?

In Reason's ear they all rejoice,
That from heaven, or near it,

And utter forth a glorious voice;
Pourest thy full heart

For ever singing, as they shine,
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art!

* The hand that made us is divine.''
Higher still and higher

Artificial music is divided into two kinds-instrumental
Through the air thou springest;
Like a cloud of fire

and vocal. We are all acquainted with the common kind The blue deep thou wingest; And singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest.'

of instruments from which, by cunning fingers, the soul There is music, who needs to be told, in the note of the of music is extracted—the sweet-toned flute, which sounds nightingale, called by Milton most musical, most me

so finely across a lake or river, in the still evenings of lancholy bird,' which trills her soft and tender lays as if summer ; the spirit-stirring and car-piercing fife; the to soothe the evening for her grief at the departure of deep reverberating drum—the trumpet, with its long

and swelling blast; the piano, with its soft, mellow, and the sun. There is music of the boldest and most masculine kind in the roar of the lion coming up, vast and awakening notes; the lute, with its tender and amorous

trembling vibrations; the violin, with its cheerful and hollow, upon the wind of the wilderness, and affrighting descant; the harp, consecrated as that instrument which the far off caravan on its solitary way. What a harmony there is in the varied voices of inanimate creation—what once vibrated to the hands of David, as he sang on the a fine pause in the hush of evening-what a sweet tenor plains of Bethlehem, or poured out his eloquent plaint in the lapse of a stream, which, to the sleeping woods

, from the roof of his palace, in the city of the Great King; all night, singeth a quiet tune'—what a shrill treble in the guitar, with its light and airy music, transporting our the higher notes of the gale singing through the shrouds thoughts to the groves of Italy, or to the cork-tree forests -and what a tremendous bass in the voice of the thunder, of Spain, to the evening lattices of Madrid, or the moonspeaking from his black orchestra to the echoing heavens! lit waters of Venice; the Pan's-pipe, interesting because Mrs Hemans asked Sir Walter Scott if he had not ob- probably the first musical instrument ever invented by served that every tree gives out its peculiar sound to man, tuned by him as he sat of old in the solitary wilthe wind ? He said he had, and suggested that something derness; the Highland bagpipe, with its thrilling sound, inight be done, by the union of music and poetry, to imi- heard often with indescribable emotion on the morning tate those voices of trees, giving a different measure and

of a battle-day, when stile to the oak, the pine, the willow. Diversities in

"Wild and high, the Cameron's gathering rose,

The war-nole of Lochiel, which Allyn hills this respect may be noticed among the trees of the wood Have heard—and heard, too, have their Saxon foes; and the garden. From the willow comes a kind of dry and last, not least, the majestic organ, with its awful hissing eery sound-from the oak, a strong sturdy rustle, volume of sound. But far above thesc, or all other inas if the old king of the forest, over whom centuries had struments of music, is that glorious instrument first inpassed, yielded his head reluctantly to the force of a blast, vented and tuned by Deity himself. We mean the human born and dying that very moment from the sycamore voice, with its melting cadences, its guttural sounds, its with its large leaves, a calm full murmur, as if the tree high clear melody, which, whether it swells or sinks, were one vast hive of bees (and, indeed, so often it is) — awakens to rapture or lulls to repose-whether it be from the yew tree, a funereal wail, as if each leaf were a grave or gay-whether it issue from the deep pipe of man, or from the softer breast of woman-has something of a sentence, there was a distinct rhythm and a varied in it sweeter, more noble, natural, and various, than all music. In the tomb of Osymandyas, near Thebes, musical the music of the grove, than all the melodies of birds and instruments have been found; and it has hence been conbees, and murmuring of summer waters; or than all the cluded that the Egyptians were acquainted with music sounds which art has extracted from cold and lifeless in- two thousand years before Christ. From them, possibly, struments.

the Hebrews derived their music. Many beautiful fables The origin of music, as of all the arts, is obscure in the are told by the Greeks concerning the origin and history mist of ages. In its simplest form, indeed, it must have of music in their lovely land. By it, they said, Orpheus been as early as the human voice, the tones and cadences tamed the wildest beasts of the desert; and as his lyre of which, as expressive of joy or sorrow, love or fear, are sounded, the lurid crest of the serpent fell, the mane of all musical. This natural expression of emotions by the lion ceased to bristle, the eye of the tiger ceased to sounds would lead to a repetition of these sounds, and glare; which was probably an allegorical form of exhence, by and by, would arise that artificial division of pressing the power of the art in softening the most ferolines which we call rhythm, a love of which is one of the cious of human natures. By it, they said, Amphion made most general principles of the human soul; for it will the very stones of his projected city arise and form thembe found to pervade all tribes, all ages, all classes. It selves into shapely and stately buildings; and by it, they alleviates labour and cheers the heart.' Man becomes said, Arion, cast into the sea, compelled a dolphin to bear a rhythmist, long before he knows it. Witness the him on its back in safety to the shore. These, of course, regular strokes of the oar, the smith's hammer, the were fables ; but they were fables which proved that the thrasher's flail, and the dances of the rudest nations. power and charms of music were, even at that early age, Music, indeed, and dancing are at first always connected, fully appreciated. till, by and by, the song is separated from the dance, From the sixth century before Christ, music seems to and instruments, which originally served only to accom- have been studied scientifically. The celebrated Pytha- li pany the

song, become also the object of a separate art. goras invented an instrument for the mathematical Some suppose that music began with a desire to imitate determination of sounds, and added an eighth chord to the songs of birds, the voices of animals, or the other the harp. The Romans were principally fond of martial ordinary sounds of nature. According to this theory, music; as might have been expected from their warlike primeval man, walking in the woody wildernesses of the tastes. Under the Emperors, music became cultivated as world's young day, and hearing every grove, every bush, an object of luxury. We have all heard of Nero fiddling every s'ream, and every meadow, vocal with the low of while Rome was burning; and when he perished by the cows, the bleat of sheep, the hum of bees, the buzz of in- justest doom, which him, the world's destroyer, e'er desects, the song of birds, the voice of breezes, the mur- stroyed,' five hundred musicians were dismissed. Permuring of streams, the pattering of rain-drops, the fine haps, though this would lessen the romance of the story, waves of melody chasing each other over the summit of it was one of these ó whose hand, unseen, strewed flowers the everlasting woods, became ashamed of remaining upon his tomb. The early Christians employed religious silent amid such a congregation of song, and began to songs in their assemblies; and we hear of our blessed imitate as he best could the melodies by which he was Lord himself singing a hymn ere going out to the surrounded. Be this as it may, music at length was in- Mount of Olive3. Holy songs, especially, were sung at vented. Surely in an auspicious hour--surely on one of the Lord's supper and at their love feasts. In the fourth the white days of earth's dark pilgrimage-on one of century, regular psalms were introduced, which were those days which seem to have lost their way to us from sung from notes, by persons appointed for that purpose. a loftier region--when the air is balmy, the sky cloud- | The mode of singing in the primitive churches was some less, the sunshine asleep as with excess of gladness, a times in solo, sometimes alternately, and sometimes by light breeze warbling over the landscape, and whispering a chorus of the whole assembly. In the fourth century, some happy and unutterable tidings in every cowslip's precentors were appointed to lead the praises of the ear-nay, surely, rather in that golden age of the world, church. Schools appropriated to singing were instituted of which the tradition only remains, when the heavens somewhat later, and only in a few places. Choirs were were nearer, the skies clearer, the clouds more gorgeous, gradually introduced in Italy, and contributed greatly the fat of the earth richer, the foam of the sea brighter, to the splendour at least of religious worship. Italy, than in our degenerate days—when in our groves were indeed, has always been the land of music. Luther, the still seen the shadows of angels, and on our mountains first reformer, was an enthusiastic musician ; and we owe the footsteps of God --surely then, and not later, was to him that fine solemn strain called “Old Hundred.' Our music born. So far as respects the known history of the readers are familiar with the names of the great musical art, we must consider the rise of vocal and instrumental composers of later times. Haydn, Handel, Beethoven, music as coeval. Perhaps the first instrument invented, and Mozart, were among the principal of these. Hanas we hinted before, was the pipe of the shepherd, who del's great piece, the Messiah,' produced, when sung had heard the wind whistle among the reeds. It is in London, at the close of the last century, a prodigious probable that while warriors early began to utter their effect; and it was fine to see old George the Third standwar-cry and sing their war-song, that shepherds first ing up at its celebration, amid a crowded assembly of his cultivated music as an art. According to Scripture, subjects, and bursting into tears. Robert Hall witnessed Jubal, the son of Lamech, played on musical instruments this with much emotion, and said it seemed a national even before the deluge. He was the father of those who testimony to the truth of Christianity. Of Mozart, the handle the harp and organ,' which proves, not that those great German composer, singular stories are told. His instruments bore much resemblance to what we now de sensibility to the finest differences of tones was so exquinominate by the terms harp and organ, but that musical site as often to cause him much pain. The sound of the instruments of some sort were then found out, and the trumpet, on one occasion, so affected him that he fell to art of music cultivated. We find afterwards that, among the ground, pale, lifeless, and convulsed. He was the the Hebrews, the character of poet and singer was united most absent, careless, and childish of men, till seated at in the same individual. One of the oldest songs with in- his piano, when he seemed to become inspired, and he strumental accompaniments is that which Miriam, the sat on its stool as on a throne. In later times, we have sister of Moses, sung after the passage of the Red Sea. all heard of Madame Catalani, from whose chest a perAt the time of David and Solomon, music had reached fect ocean of sound seemed to issue; of Miss Stephens; its highest perfection among the Hebrews, and part of of Paganini, with his one marvellous string; and of their religious service consisted in chanting solemn Braham, and Wilson, and last, not least, of Templeton. psalms, with instrumental accompaniments. In the struc- The late Dr Andrew Thomson of Edinburgh, who reture of Scripture poetry itself, in a certain parallelism sembled Luther in his lion-like character and courage, or repetition of the main idea in the different members | resembled him also in his strong attachment to music.

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