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Latin, but is not translated in p. 189. of the English.

The English Catechism occupies on the whole 212 pages, and the Latin 182. In accounting for this difference we must remember the 24 pages, which are occupied by the dissertation upon idolatry: but even in parts, where the translation is close and literal, the natural idiom of the English is more diffuse than that of the Latin.

Beside the peculiar division of the Commandments, which is followed in these Catechisms, we may notice the very strong and decided expression in p. 39. of the Latin, "Quando autem Ethnicos "et impios parentes haberemus, et sine baptismo "moreremur, in æternum damnaremur." The English translation is equally forcible; "If we "should have heathen parentes and dye without


baptisme, we should be damned everlastingly." p. 51. It is also worthy of remark, that the Latin Catechism makes mention of three sacraments, p. 156: and the passage is closely translated in the English, p. 183. The first sacrament is "Bap"tism," the second is "Absolution or the Author"itie of the Kayes," and the third is "The Com"munion or the Lord's Supper." Concerning the second of these sacraments, it may be observed that the Sermon on the Keys is well worthy of being read, as representing the sentiments of the Lutherans of those days on the subject of Absolution. The doctrine contained in it did not appear unsound to Dr. Hickes, who reprinted it with

great commendation in his Preface to "The di"vine Right of Episcopacy asserted," which was published in 1708: but it is evident, that Dr. Hickes was not aware of the English Catechism being a translation from the Latin: and in republishing this Sermon on the Keys, he thought that he was giving to the reader an original composition of Cranmer's.

We have still to mention the most remarkable part of the Catechism with respect to the doctrine. It has been stated above, that Cranmer published a" Defence of the true and catholike doctrine of "the Sacrament," in 1550; to which Gardiner wrote an answer in 1551. In summing up the "divers disadvantages and hindrances," which Cranmer had to encounter, he says, "Firste the preiudice and sentence, given as it were by his



oune mouthe against himselfe, now in the boke "called the Catechisme in his name set forth." Cranmer replied to Gardiner's book by another, which bore this title: "An Auns were by the Re"verend father in God Thomas Archbyshop of



Canterbury Primate of all England and Metro

politane, unto a craftie and sophisticall cavil"lation, devised by Stephen Gardiner, London "1550k" in which the whole of Gardiner's book

i Page 2. In Cranmer's Answer to Gardiner, (1580) this passage is given at p. 6.

It was reprinted in folio by John Day, with a life of Cranmer, some of his letters, and his answer to the preface of Dr. Richard Smith, in 1580.


is quoted, and each quotation is followed by a separate refutation. In reply to the remark given above concerning the Catechism, he says, "As "concerning the Catechisme by me set forth, I "have answered in my fourth booke the 8 chap"ter, that ignorant men for lack of judgement "and exercise in olde authors, mistake my said "Catechisme1." In this passage he refers to his Defence of the Sacrament, where he had said, "And in a Catechisme by me translated and set "furth, I used like maner of speeche, saiying, that "with our bodily mouthes we receyve the body "and bloud of Christ. Which my saying divers


ignorant persones (not used to reade olde aun"cient authors, nor acquainted with their phrase "and maner of speeche) dyd carpe and repre"hende, for lacke of good understandyng "."


It was the object of Gardiner to shew, that Cranmer had held different doctrines in his Catechism and in his Defence: and in the passage, of which I quoted the beginning at p. v, vi. he continues, "In which Catechisme they be accompted "for no true Christian men that denye the pre"sence of Christes body in the sacrament. The "wordes really and substancially be not express

ed, as they be in Bucer, but the word (truely ") "is there and as Bucer sayth, that is substan1 Page 6, ed. 1580. m Defence, p. 100.

n See the English Catechism, p. 208. of this edition. We may observe however that here it is,

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we receyve trewly the "bodye and bloud of Christ :" but in the Latin, p. 177, it is, "quod vere corpus et sanguis ejus sit.”


cially "." So again, "We receave in the sacra"ment the body of Christ with our mouthe, and "such speache other use, as a booke set forth in "the archbishoppe of Cantorburies name called a "Catechisme, willeth children to be taught that they receave with their bodily mouth the body " and bloud of Christ P, whiche I allege because it "shall appeare it is a teachyng set forth among



us of late as hath been also and is by the booke "of comen prayer beyng the most true Catholique "doctrine of the substance of the sacrament, in “that it is there so Catholiquely spoken of, whiche "booke this auctor doth after specially allow, how


soever all the summe of his teachyng doth im"prove it in that point 9." When Gardiner made the other allusion to the Catechism, which has been quoted at p. vi. Cranmer replied, " And as "for the Catechisme of Germany by me translated "into English, to this I have aunswered before, " and truth it is, that eyther you understand not "the phrase of the old authors of the church, or "els of purpose you will not understand me. But "hereunto you shall have a more full aunswer, "when I come to the proper place thereof in the "4th part of my booke"."

In the passage here referred to he is noticing a more specific attack, which Gardiner made upon the Catechism: "But with such matter he filleth

Page 5. or p. 13. of Cranmer's Answer.

P See p. 208. of the English Catechism.
4 Page 17. or p. 52. of Cranmer's Answer.
Page 198.

"his leaves forgettyng himselfe maketh mention "of the catechisme by him translate, thoriginall "whereof, confuteth these two partes of this booke "in few words being prynted in germany, where"in besides the matter wryten, is set forth in pic"tur the maner of the ministring of this sacrament, where is the altare with candel light set "forth, the priest apparelled after the old sort, "and the man to receive kneling barehed and



holdyng up his handes, whiles the priest mynis"treth the host to his mouth, a matter as clere "contrarye to the matter of this booke as is light " and darknesse, which nowe this auctor would "colour with speaches of auctors, in a booke


wryten to instructe rude children, which is as "sclendre an excuse as ever was harde, and none "atal where thoriginall is loked on "."

The picture, to which Gardiner alludes in this passage, will be found in p. 174 of the Latin Catechism; and the Protestant reader will scarcely observe any thing which could justly have called for these remarks. Cranmer replies to them as follows: "And as concerning the Catechisme, I have "sufficiently answered in my former booke. But "in this place may apeare to them that have any "judgement, what pithy arguments you make, "and what dexteritie you have in gathering of "authors myndes, that would gather my mynd "and make an argument here of a picture, ney"ther put in my booke, nor by me deuised, but "invented by some fond paynter or carver, which



Page 85, 86; or p. 236 of Cranmer's Answer.

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