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man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.
But, I would have you know, that there are several degrees of subjection and subordination. The woman is subject to the man; the man is subject to Christ; and Christ, as Man, is subject to God the Father: and each of these acknowledges a superiority, and headship, in those, to whom they are subject.
XI. 4. Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head.
This being premised, I hold it requisite to admonish you of some indecent fashions, that are used in the congregation, by those of both sexes: for, whereas covering of the head is commonly taken for a sign of subjection, and the uncovering of it a sign of power and superiority, it is contrarily used amongst you: the man, who is the superior, covers his head; and the woman, who is the inferior, uncovers it. Let me therefore tell you; Every man, that prays or prophesies with his head covered, disparages and dishonours himself; and casts off that sign and semblance of superiority, which he should maintain.
XI. 5. But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven.
But, every woman, that taketh upon her publicly to pray or prophesy with her head uncovered, dishonours herself, in doing that which is against natural modesty and decency; for this bare-headedness in women, is no less unfit and uncomely, than if their heads were shaven.
XI. 6. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered.
It is an immodest fashion in the wanton dames of Corinth, that they go abroad in public places, without any veil or covering on their heads: if they will. needs take up this mannish fashion, of going uncovered, let them be shaven also; but if it be a shame for a woman to be shaven, as ye cannot but grant, then let her be covered.
XI. 7. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.
For a man ought not, indeed, to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the superior; and, in this superiority, bears the glorious image of God, having none above him to control and over-rule him: but the woman is but the glorious image of the man, and must acknowledge her inferiority and subjection to him.
XI. 10. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head, because of the angels.
For this cause ought the woman to cover her head, to shew
that she is under the power of her husband; and not to display her immodesty before the face of the very Angels of God, who are, in this indecent carriage, witnesses thereof.
XI. 11. Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord.
Not that the man ought to insult upon the weakness of the woman, and pride himself in his own superiority; but must consider, that God hath matched them together, so as neither of them can have their being without other.
XI. 12. For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.
For, as the woman was first made of the man, so is the man, ever since, conceived and born of the woman; and God is the author and maker of both.
XI. 15. But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her : for the hair is given her for a covering.
But, if a woman have long hair it is a glory to her; for her hair was given to her for a covering: nature itself therein pointing you to that guise and fashion, which is meetest for that sex.
XI. 16. But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.
But, if any man list to be contentious, and will rather stand upon the justification of these unseemly fashions, let it be sufficient answer for him, that we have no such customs of immodesty and indecency; nor any other of the Churches of Christ so as he shall be singular in this his opinion.
XI. 17. Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not, that ye come together, not for the better, but for the worse. But, however I praise you, in a generality of your care and obedience, yet, in this particular, which I am now to write of, I praise you not; that, when ye meet together to celebrate the Lord's Supper, ye come together, so, as ye are rather the worse, than the better for it.
XI. 19. For there must be also heresies among you, that they which are approved may be made manifest among you.
For there must needs, through the wise and holy ordination of God, be schisms, and sects, and factions among you; that, thereupon, there may be an occasion to try the dispositions and resolutions of men, in that those which are true-hearted and conscionable may approve their fidelity in sticking to the truth.
XI. 20. When ye come together therefore into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper.
When ye meet, therefore, in this manner together, ye do not celebrate or eat the Lord's Supper, as ye pretend and profess; but your own, or the feasts of Bacchus rather.
XI. 21. For in eating every one taketh before other his own supper: and one is hungry, and another is drunken.
For, whereas, if ye will needs celebrate the love-feasts, ye ought to meet all together, both rich and poor; and stay one for another, in that love-supper, which you are wont to make immediately before the Eucharist: ye, contrarily, meet together the wealthiest of you, and eat your own good cheer, not expecting your poorer brethren; and so one is hungry, and another is drunken.
XI. 22. What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not?
If ye have a mind to feast yourselves, and make choice of your guests, have ye not your own private houses to eat and drink in? Why do ye defile the Church of God, with these partial and immoderate banquets? Why do ye despise and shame the poor, that have not wherewith to feast with you?
XI. 24. Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. See Matt. xxvi. verse 26. XI. 25. This cup is the new testament in my blood: &c. See Matthew xxvi. verse 28.
XI. 27. Shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. Shall be guilty of a horrible profanation of that sacred body and blood of Christ, which is in this Sacrament exhibited and tendered unto him.
XI. 29. Eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.
Eateth and drinketh just judgment and condemnation to himself, in not considering the greatness of this mystery, and making no difference betwixt this sacred bread, which is sacramentally the body of Christ, and the other common and ordinary bread.
XI. 30. For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep.
For these abuses of this Holy Sacrament, the hand of God hath been upon many of you; so as many of you are afflicted with divers kinds of diseases, and many of you are stricken with death itself.
XI. 31. For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged.
Be ye therefore warned hereby, and look carefully into your own hearts, and accuse and censure yourselves for these enormities; that so ye may escape the judgments of diseases and death, which else God will inflict upon you.
XI. 32. But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world.
But when we are thus stricken with sickness and death, we are chastened mercifully, by the Lord, on purpose that we may escape that eternal condemnation, which befals the wicked of the world.
XII. 1. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant.
Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant of the nature and differences thereof, that ye may know how to value them, in yourselves and in others.
XII. 3. Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.
Ye find this a manifest difference betwixt you and those infidels, from whom ye are severed; ye Christians have the Spirit of God; they want it: and, for a trial of both, know, that whosoever speaks evil of the name of Christ, that man certainly hath not the Spirit of God, but is still an infidel; and, contrarily, no man can acknowledge and profess Christ to be the Lord, and stand out for the maintenance of this truth, but by the Holy Ghost, if not regenerating, yet at least illuminating and informing him therein.
XII. 4. Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit.
Now there are diversities of gifts distributed to men in the Church; but there is only one and the same Spirit, that bestows them upon men.
XII. 5. And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord.
And there are differences of services and functions in the Church; but one and the same Lord, to whom they are directed.
XII. 6. And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.
And there are diversities of operations, in the execution of those services, and in miraculous works therein wrought; but it is the same God, which worketh all in all.
XII. 7. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.
But these several gifts, by which the power of God's Spirit is manifested to men, are given to every man, not for his own behoof, but for the profit of others.
XII. 8. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another, the word of knowledge by the same Spirit.
For to one is given the power of understanding and unfolding the great mysteries of speculative divinity; to another, the right skill of practical cases; and all by one and the same Spirit.
XII. 12. So also is Christ.
So also is it with Christ and his Church: he is the Head; they are the several Members; and all make up but one mystical and complete Body.
XII. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
This oneness of ours may well be seen in those Sacraments, which are common to God's Church: for, by one and the same Spirit of God, working with and by the outward elements, are we baptized into the communion of one and the same Church; whether we be Jews or Gentiles, bond or free; and are all made partakers of the same Sacramental Cup, and therein of the same blood of Christ, by the working of the same Spirit. XII. 14. For the body is not one member, but many.
For the body doth not consist of one member alone, but of many several limbs and parts.
XII. 23. And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness.
We do not despise the least or worst part of the body; yea, rather, by how much more meanness or shame there is in any part, so much more careful are we to deck it and dress it with more costly and comely ornaments.
XII. 24. For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked.
But God hath given us that natural instinct and inclination, so to regard the frame and temper of these bodies of ours, as to give more honour to and to take more care of those parts, which are the most despicable.
XII. 27. Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.
Now, ye are that Spiritual Body, whereof Christ is the Head; and are the several and particular limbs and members of that Body.
XII. 28. And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.
And God hath set and appointed men in several ranks and degrees in his Church; first, Apostles; then, secondly, Prophets, both such, as by revelation foretell future things, and such as can wisely and skilfully interpret the Scriptures; thirdly, pastors and teachers, &c. those, that are helpers to the sick and poor; those, that are skilful in government; those, that are endued with diversities of tongues.
XII. 31. But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way.
Amongst all these, affect ye most those gifts, which may make most for the edification of the Church; and regard not