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adventurers. They would never choose | put to death by persons placed to intercept
any man they did not know. No law would be necessary to compel them to choose persons resident amongst them; for they would never be prevailed upon to do it, any more than you could prevail upon them to choose a stranger for an apothecary or a man-widwife. It is out of nature to suppose that they would choose any persons, but those esteemed the most amongst their rich and powerful neighbours. What ground, then, is there for the pretended dread of anarchy and confusion, as the fruit of a Parliamentary Reform ?--Petitions are now coming forward for this measure, which, let us hope, will, at last, be adopted. Of one thing I am quite satisfied, and that is, that without a Reform of the Commons' House of Parliament, there is neither permanent peace nor safety for this nation.
Bolley, 21st April, 1813.
PRINCESS OF HANOVER.
Extract from Coxe's Memoirs of Walpole,
him, in the presence of the elector; and tradition still marks the spot where the assassination was committed. Sophia was immediately put under arrest; and though she solemnly protested her innocence; yet circumstances spoke strongly against her.
-George, who never loved his wife, gave implicit credit to the account of her infidelity, as related by his father; consented to her imprisonment, and obtained from the ecclesiastical consistory a divorce, which was passed on the 28th of December, 1694. And even her father, the Duke of Zell, who doated on his only daughter, does not seem to have entertained any doubts of her guilt; for he continued upon the strictest terms of friendship with Ernest Augustus, and his son-in-law. The unfortunate Sophia was confined in the castle of Alden, situated on the small river Aller, in the duchy of Zell. She terminated her mise able existence, after a long captivity of thirty-two years, on the 13th of November, 1726, in the sixty-first year of her age, only seven months before the death of George the First; and she was announced in the Gazette, under the title of the Electress Dowager of Hanover.During her whole confinement, she behaved with no less mildness than dignity; and on receivwith some remarks thereon. ing the sacrament once every week, never "George the First, when Electoral omitted on that awful occasion, making the Prince of Hanover, was married to Sophia most solemn asseverations, that she was Dorothy, only daughter of William Duke not guilty of the crime laid to her charge. of Zell. Sophia, at the time of their mar- Subsequent circumstances have come to riage, was only sixteen years of age, and light, which appear to justify her memory; was a princess of great personal charms and and reports are current at Hanover, that mental endowments; yet her attractions did her character was basely defamed, and that not retain the affections of her husband. she fell a sacrifice to the jealousy and perAfter she had brought him a son and a fidy of the Countess of Platen, favourite daughter, he neglected his amiable consort, mistress of Ernest Augustus. Being enaand attached himself to a favourite mis- moured of Count Konigsmark, who slighted tress. -Such was the situation of Sophia, her overtures, jealousy took possession of when Count Konigsmark, a Swedish noble- her breast: she determined to sacrifice both man, arrived at Hanover. He was a man the lover and the princess to her vengeance, of a good figure, and professed gallantry; and circumstances favoured her design.had been formerly enamoured of Sophia at The prince was absent at the army; Ernest Zell, and was supposed to have made some Augustus was a man of warm passions and impression on her heart. On the sight of violent temper, easily irritated, and when her, his passion, which had been diminish-irritated, incapable of control. Sophia ed by absence, broke out with increasing herself had treated Count Konigsmark with violence; he had the imprudence publicly regard and attention, and the lover was to renew his attentions; and as George was hot-headed, self-sufficient, priding himabsent at the army, made his solicitations self on his personal accomplishments, with redoubled ardour. Information of his and accustomed to succeed in affairs attachment, and of his success, was con- of gallantry. -Those who exculpate veyed to Ernest Augustus; and one even-Sophia, assert either that a common ing, as the Count came out of her apart- visit was construed into an act of crimiment, and was crossing a passage, he was nality; or that the Countess of Platen,
at a late hour summoned Count Konigsmark in the name of the princess, though without her connivance; that on being introduced, Sophia was surprised at his intrusion; that on quitting the apartment, he was discovered by Ernest Augustus, whom the countess had placed in the gallery, and was instantly assassinated by persons whom she had suborned for that purpose. -It is impossible, at this distance of time, to discover and trace the circumstances of this mysterious transaction, on which no person at the Court of Hanover durst at that time deliver his opinion. But the sudden murder of Count Konigsmark may be urged as a corroboration of this statement: for had his guilt, and that of Sophia been unequivocal, would he not have been arrested and brought to a trial for the purpose of proving their connexion, and confronting him with the unfortunate princess?Many persons, of credit at Hanover have not scrupled, since the death of Ernest Augustus and George the First, to express their belief that the imputation cast on Sophia was false and unjust. It is also reported, that her husband having made an offer of reconciliation, she gave this noble and disdainful answer of haughty virtue, unconscious of stain: If what I am accused of is true, I am unworthy of his bed; and if my accusation is false, he is unworthy of me; and I will not accept his offers."
an opportunity, of nobly rebutting the imputation, of proving it as false as hell! Will the historian of the present times have to record that the discovery of a foul and diabolical conspiracy against the life and honour of a princess, the mother of their future sovereign-the hope of England, made no other impression than furnishing conversation for the tea-table? or will he have to record the zeal with which all ranks came forward to protect the innocent, and confound the guilty? Let every man do his duty, and may princes learn from the example, they have no better security for life and honour than those liberties which the real enemies, but pretended friends of royalty, would teach them to despise and trample upon.
(Continued from page 608.) cluded the conclusion of a treaty of peace and alliance with Prussia, the ratifications of which have since been exchanged; also the capture of Berlin, where General Wittgenstein has established his quarters since about the 10th instant.-Since that period His Imperial Majesty has visited the King of Prussia at Breslaw; Hamburgh has been occupied by the Russian forces; Lubeck has opened its gates.- -The ene
Pomerania, Mecklenbourg, Lauenbourg, and all the Prussian territory within the Elbe. -Detachments of the Russian army have penetrated to Dresden, which capital they now occupy, Marshal Davoust having retreated across the Elbe, and having de
cent bridge at that place.- A proportion of the Prussian army has passed the Silesian frontier into Lusatia, and is advancing towards Dresden.-Three detach
Unfortunate as was the fate of this un-my has been entirely driven from Swedish happy princess, it is but doing justice to the memory of George the First-the first prince of the house of Hanover that reigned in these Kingdoms, to state, that he was neither suspected at the time, nor by any circumstances that have since come to light, of being privy to, or in any manner acces-stroyed some of the arches of the magnifisary to the plot, of which his consort became the victim. This unfortunate princess had no public to appeal to-no public to overawe and thwart the malice of her enemies; in a word Hanover was not Eng-ments of the division under General Wittland. It is impossible to contrast the fate genstein have by this time crossed the Elbe; of this princess, with that of another ami- one in the centre under Major-General able princess of our own times, without a Dornberg, who is moving upon Hanover, just and manly consciousness of the supe- with Major-General Tettenborn upon his rior weight and authority belonging to pub-right in the direction of Bremen, and Malic opinion in our country. No person of the court of Hanover durst at that time deliver his opinion. Persons are not wanting who would wish to see the people of this country equally silent-they are accused by what should be as grave, as it is high authority, of having an appetite for scandal-this curse of the times! They have
jor-General Czchernicheff upon his left in the direction of Brunswick. -Lord Walpole is the bearer of the present dispatches; his Lordship proceeds by Berlin, and I have no doubt but that he will find it perfectly easy to take his departure from Cuxhaven.
I have already stated that the Prussian army is in the best state of preparation;
nothing can exceed the condition of that part which was assembled at Breslaw on the Emperor's arrival, and it is impossible to exaggerate the enthusiasm which has been exhibited by all ranks of persons throughout the Prussian dominions; or the demonstrations of joy with which the Emperor was received.The King of Prussia has made an excursion to Berlin, where he was to see General De York. The inhabitants in Saxony have every where received the Russian forces with expressions of cordiality not inferior to those of the Prussians: the same has occurred in Mecklenbourg.Your Lordship will see by the printed reports, the manner in which General Tetternborn and his detachment were received at Hamburgh: the same zeal was manifested at Lauenbourg, where, in a moment, the French arms were destroyed.The Baltic ports, and that of Hamburgh, have been opened by proclamations. - The blockade of Dantzic by land continues, as stated in my last dispatch, but the navigation of the Baltic having opened, Captain Acklon lost no time in detaching some of His Majesty's ships under his command, by which that place is now closely blockaded by sea; these vessels having already captured two ships which attempted to come in with supplies. The sickness with which the French have infected every place they have entered during their retreat, rages in Dantzic, and numbers of the garrison, as well as of the inhabitants, are stated to have perished by it.Spandau is besieged. The Russian reinforcements continue to arrive upon the frontier, and numbers of convalescents daily join the ranks of their respective regiments. I have the honour to be, &c.
Lord Viscount Castlereagh, &c. &c. &c.
Siluation of the French Armies in the North, March 30, 1813.
the fortress.- -The garrison of Spandaw had also burned every thing which could operate against the defence of the place.
-Upon the Elbe, on the 17th, an arch of the bridge of Dresden was blown up, and General Durutte had taken a position upon the left bank. The Saxons had marched round Torgaw.-The Viceroy had left Leipzic, and had, on the 21st, his head-quarters at Magdeburg. General Lapoype commanded the bridge and fortress at Wittenberg, which was armed and provisioned for several months, and was given up to him in good condition.Arrived at Magdeburg, the Viceroy on the 22d instant, sent Gen. Lauriston upon the right bank of the Elbe. Gen. Maison had marched to Mockern, and pushed forward his posts upon Bug and Zuzar: he found only some pulks of light troops, which he overthrew, and of which he took or killed about sixty men.- -On the 12th, General Saint Cyr, commanding the 32d military division, judged it advisable to repass to the left bank of the Elbe, and leave Hamburgh to the National Guards. From the 15th to the 20th, different insurrections broke out in the department of the mouths of the Elbe and the Ems.General Morand, who occupied Swedish Pomerania, having been informed of the evacuation of Berlin, retreated upon Hamburgh. He passed the Elbe at Zolunpesche, and on the 17th effected his junction with General Carra St. Cyr. Two hundred of the enemy's light troops having overtaken his rear-guard, he caused them to be charged, and killed some men. General Morand took post upon the left bank, and General St. Cyr marched upon Bremen.On the 24th, General St. Cyr dispatched two moveable columns, to march against the batteries of Carlsbourg and Blexen, of which some smugglers, assisted by the peasantry, and some English disembarkations, had taken possession. These columns routed the enemy, and retook the batteries. The Chiefs were taken. and shot. The English who disembarked were but about an hundred. We were only able to take forty prisoners from them.
The garrison of Dantzic dislodged the enemy from all the heights of Oliva, in the -The Viceroy had collected all his beginning of March.The garrison of army, 100,000 strong and 300 pieces of Thorn and Modelen were in the best state. cannon, round Magdeburg, manoeuvring The corps which blockaded Zamose had re- upon the two banks. The General of Brimoved to a distance. Upon the Oder, gade, Montbrun, who with a brigade of cathe fortresses of Stettin, Custrin, and Glo- valry occupied Stundal, having learned that gaw, were not besieged. The enemy still the enemy had passed the Lower Elbe in kept without cannon shot of them. The boats, near Verden, marched thither on the garrison of Stettin had burnt all the sub-28th, dispersed the enemy's light troops, urbs, and prepared all the ground round and entered Verden at full gallop. The
jesty the Emperor and King, the Prince Arch Chancellor has caused to be inserted in the Registers of the Senate, the letters patent signed in the Elysian Palace, on the 30th of March last, by which the Emperor confers on her Majesty the Empress and Queen, Maria Louisa, the title of Regent.
Speech of His Serene Highness the Prince Arch Chancellor, President of the Senate, in the Silling of April 1.
Gentlemen,-His Majesty the Emperor and King will put himself at the head of his armies.-The Emperor wishes to give his August Partner a double proof of his
he has caused the letters patent to be expe-It is for these motives that dited, which I am charged to communicate to you.Therefore, Gentlemen, the Empress will assist at the Councils, where the greatest interests of the State will be discussed. She will have the Regency of the Empire until the moment when victory will return the Emperor to our wishes.His Majesty could not make a disposition more consistent with the public good, nor which would be more agreeable to his people.
4th Polish Lancers made a successful charge, in which they killed about 50 Cossacks and took 12. The enemy hastened to gain the right bank of the Elbe. Three large boats were sunk, and some smaller ones shivered to pieces; they were laden with about 60 horses, and a similar number of men. We succeeded in saving 17 cavaliers, among whom were two officers, one an Aid-deCamp to General Domberg, who commanded this column.- -It appears that a corps of 1,000 horse, 2,000 infantry, and six pieces of cannon, have marched from the side of Brunswick, to excite a revolt in Hanover and the kingdom of Westphalia. The King of Westphalia has set out in pur-confidence. suit of this corps, and other columus dispatched by the Viceroy will fall upon its rear Fifteen thousand of the enemy's light troops on the 27th passed the Elbe near Dresden, in small boats. General Durutte marched against them. The Saxons had left this point undefended, by collecting round Torgaw. The Prince of Moskwa, with his head-quarters and corps d'armée, on the 26th arrived at Wurtsburgh; his advanced guard debouched from the mountains of the Thurenge. The Duke of Ragusa had on the 22d March his headquarters at Hanaur. His divisions were collecting there.On the 30th March the advanced guard of the Corps of Observation of Italy had arrived at Augsburg. All the corps crossed the Tyrol.- -On the 27th, General Vandamme arrived in person at Bremen. Dumonceau and Dufour's divisions had already passed the Wesel. Independently of the army of the Viceroy, of the armies of the Mein, and of the corps of the King of Westphalia, there will be in the first fifteen days of April near 50,000 men in the 32d military division, in order to make a severe example of the insurrections which have troubled that division. Count Bentinck, Mayor of Varel, had the infamy of putting himself at the head of the insurgents. His estates shall be confiscated, and he will have for his consummate treason, the certain ruin of his family. During the whole month of March there has been no affair. In all the skirmishes, of which that of the 28th (at Verden) was much the most considerable, the French army has always had the advantage.
Paris, April 4.-On Thursday, April 1, the Senate assembled at three o'clock, under the Presidency of his Serene Highness the Prince, Arch Chancellor of the Empire. In conformity with the orders of his Ma
to it, and preserve in their records this act The Senate will give their applause of the Sovereign will.. high importance ought likewise, Gentlemen, Other objects of to fix Minister of Foreign Affairs will inform you your attention.. -A report from the of the alteration that has taken place in our political relations, by the defection of one of the Northern Powers.has embraced is a sad consequence of the -The part she character which the steps of that Cabinet has taken for a long time past.This circumstance imposes on the nation the obligation of making a grand effort, the means whereto will be found in the projects which are going to be proposed for your deliberation.
Senate will perceive of what great import-At a moment of such interest, the ance it is to develope the resources of France; to cause the enemy to feel its full weight; to convince him of the inutility of his projects; and, finally, to reduce him to desire sincerely that peace, which the Emperor's triumphant hand has so frequently offered him, but which would not be worthy of his Majesty, unless it ensured the repose of Europe, and the free commerce of all
Napoleon, by the Grace of God, Empe-
Rhine, Mediator of the Helvetic Confederation, &c. &c.
To whomsoever these presents may come, greeting.
Paris, April 5.-Yesterday, (Sunday, the 4th of April), the Empress received a Deputation from the Senate, composed of thirty Senators, when the President of the Senate presented-to her Majesty the followaddress:
Madame His Majesty, on the eve of setting out to command his armies, has confided to your Imperial Majesty and Queen, the Regency of his Empire. He could not have granted to his people a greater consolation in his absence." -The Senate, Madame, experiences a lively satisfaction in thinking it shall see its walls adorned with all the brilliant virtues with which your Majesty embellishes the throne.
of its devotion. It adds, Madame, that of its inviolable fidelity to the greatest of Monarchs and his dynasty, as the homage the most dear to your Majesty's heart, and the most worthy of the grand daughter of Blanche and Maria Theresa, of the mother of the King of Rome, and of the august spouse of Napoleon.
Being willing to give to our well beloved spouse, the Empress and Queen, Maria Louisa, some marks of the high confidence that we repose in her, we have resolved to invest her, and we do by these presents accordingly invest her with the right of assisting ing at the Cabinet Councils whenever such shall be convoked, during our reign, for consideration of the most important affairs of the State, and considering that it is our intention immediately to place ourself at the head of our armies to liberate the territories of our allies, we have likewise resolved to confer, and we accordingly do, by these presents, confer on our well beloved Spouse, the Empress and Queen, the title of Regent, to exercise the functions thereof, in confor-It offers you the tribute of its respect and mity with our orders and instructions, such as we have caused to be inserted in our book of State, intending that information of the said orders and instructions, shall be given to the Princes, Grand Dignitaries, and to our Ministers; and that the Empress shall, in no case whatsoever, depart from their tenor in the exercise of her function as Regent.We will that the Empress Regent shall, in our name, preside in the Senate, the Council of State, the Council of Minis-loved ters, and the Privy Council, especially for the examination of addresses for pardon, on which we authorize her to give sentence after having heard the Members of the Privy Council. But in all cases it is not our intention that, by reason of the Presidency conferred on the Empress Regent, she should either authorize by her signature the presentation of any Senatus Consultum, or proclaim any law of the State; in this respect we refer to the orders and instructions above-mentioned.We direct our Cousin, the Prince Arch-Chancellor of the Empire, to communicate these present letters patent to the Senate, which will cause them to be entered in their registers, and to our Grand Judge, the Minister of Justice, who will cause them to be published in the bulletin of the laws, and send them to our Imperial Courts, of Law to be there read, published, and transcribed into their registers.
Given at our Elysian Palace, on the 30th day of March, 1813, and the 9th year of our reign.
(Signed:) By order of the Emperor, the Minister Secretary of State.
Signed) Gount DARU.
The Empress replied in these terms:-
husband, knows what love and affection my heart contains for France. The proofs of devotion which the nation daily gives us, increase the good opinion which I had of the character and grandeur of our nation.My heart is much oppressed at seeing that happy peace distant which alone can render me content. The Emperor is lively affected at the numerous sacrifices which he is obliged to demand of his people; but since the enemy, in place of giving peace to the world, will impose shameful conditions upon us, and every where preaches civil war, treason, and disobedience, it is necessary the Emperor should have recourse to his always victorious arms, to confound his enemies, and save civilized Europe and its Sovereigns from the anarchy with which they are threatened.I am truly affected with the sentiments which' you express in the name of the Senate.
Paris, April 4. Conservative Senate.-Sitting of April 1st. The Sitting was opened at three o'clock. in the afternoon, under the Presidency of His Serene Highness the Prince Arch-Chancellor of the Empire. His Excellency the