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thirty canons, in one of which, seventh, they revived the old Eustathian heresy, forbidding people to attend the ministrations of the married clergy. Conc. x. 999—1012.

XI. Lateran, 3. A.D. 1179.

The Romans give the style and authority of a General Council, the eleventh in their list, to the Synod of 300 Bishops convened in the Lateran Church at Rome, by Pope Alexander III. in the year 1179. They met, partly to make decrees concerning the election to the Papacy, determining that an election by not less than two-thirds of the College of Cardinals (x) should hold good; and partly to oppose the exertions of the Cathari, Patarcues, and Albigenses, whose religious opinions were beginning to spread extensively. The Roman writers speak of Eastern Bishops being present at this council (Y); but it should be understood that these were not members of the Eastern patriarchates, but of the Roman Schism (z) in those dioceses; where, as at present, in England and Ireland, they had schismatically intruded in opposition to the canonical Bishops who were in possession of the Sees. The Council passed twenty-seven canons. Conc. x. 1503—1534.


XII. Lateran, 4. A.D. 1215.

The 12th Council to which the Romans ascribe the authority of a General one, was composed of 412 bishops, among whom, according to the Roman accounts, there were present, the patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem, and representatives of those of Antioch and Alexandria. It was assembled in the Lateran Church in the year 1215. It would appear that the chief objects for which it was assembled, were to endeavour to promote a reconciliation between the Greek and Roman Churches; or, in other words, to bring the Greeks under the Roman yoke; and also to put a further check upon the Waldenses and Albigenses. Notwithstanding all the noise which it has made in the world, there is every reason to believe that nothing was really transacted at it. Matthew Paris (AA), Platina (BB), and Nauclerus, as cited by Bishop Taylor (cc), and Du Pin(DD), as cited by Collier, all agree that the seventy canons which pass by the name of the canons of the 4th Lateran Council, were not passed at it: that they were all drawn up by the Pope, who read them to the council, wbich determined nothing concerning them. Bishop Taylor says that the first who published them under the name of the Lateran Council, was Johannes Cochlæus, A. D. 1538. It does not appear that, if anything was transacted at the council, it was ever received by the Greek Church. For the history of the council see Conc. xi. 117–119.

XIII. Lyons, 1. A.D. 1245.

The Romans account as their 13th General Council, a synod of 140 bishops, assembled at Lyons, in France, under Innocent IV., in the year 1245. They met chiefly for the purpose of excommunicating the Emperor Frederic (EE), who had rendered himself obnoxious to the Roman Pontiff. They also made seventeen canons, none of which, however, bear upon the present subject.-Conc. xi. 633–674.

XIV. Lyons, 2. A.D. 1274.

The 14th General Council, according to the Romans, is that of 500 bishops, assembled at Lyons, in the year 1274, under Gregory X. The Pope alleged three causes for summoning it. 1st, To send relief to the Holy Land; 2, to endeavour to bring the Greeks under the Roman yoke; 3, to rectify discipline, especially in the election of Popes.

The Roman writers boast much of the success of the Roman Pontiff in the second point, the Greek deputies having acquiesced in all his demands. But their triumph is without cause; for these deputies were not representatives of the Greek Church, but merely of the Greek Emperor, Michael Palæologus, whose political affairs made him desire to purchase peace with Rome, on almost any terms. The Patriarch of Constantinople, Joseph, would neither come to the council nor send a representative to it; and after the agreement between the Pope and the Greek Emperor's deputies, he persisted in refusing to come into it. For which cause he was deposed by the Emperor, and another, John, a favourer of the Latins, intruded into his See. Under John things were managed more to the Emperor's mind, and, in 1277, a Council at Constantinople, for the time, established the Papal dominion. The intruder did not long enjoy his dignity; he found things so uncomfortable that he resigned his Patriarchate, after holding it seven years, in the year 1282, when Joseph was restored. In which year the short-lived agreement between the Pope and the Greek Emperor, came to an end; the Emperor forbidding the Pope to be prayed for (FF), at Constantinople, and the Pope (Martin IV.), excommunicating the Emperor (GG). The Roman writers talk of the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Antioch being present at this Council; but these are to be understood as was observed before, of the Schismatical Roman Bishops, whom the Crusaders had appointed in those places, in direct violation of the canons. See Le Quier, Oriens Christ. i. 285–288.—Conc. xi. 937—998. ibid. ibid. 1032. Mosheim, iii. pp. 183, 184.

XV. Vienne, A.D. 1311.

The Romans reckon as their fifteenth General Council, a Synod of 300 bishops who were convened at Vienne, in France, in the year 1311, by Clement V., for the suppression of the Knights Templars; and to check the fanatical Beguards. There is nothing worthy of notice, as connected with the present work, among the transactions which took place there.Conc. xi. 1537, &c.

AquileiaPerpignan-Pisa, A.D. 1409.

The style of a General Council was assumed by each of the synods of Aquileia, Perpignan, and Pisa, which assembled in the year 1409. That of Aquileia was under Gregory XII., and that of Perpignan under Benedict XIII, the two rival popes. The third, namely that at Pisa, was assembled by a portion of the college of cardinals without any ecclesiastical sanction but their own. They summoned the rival popes before them, and, upon their not appearing, passed sentence upon them declaring them to be notorious heretics(nn), and disturbers of the peace of the Church, and deposing them both from the Papal dignity, a compliment which Gregory and his synod at Aquileia were not slow in returning (11), after which they elected another to that office by the name of Alexander the Fifth. Thus there were three rival Popes instead of two. Some writers call the Synod of Pisa the sixteenth General Council (KK). Conc. xi. 2102—2140.

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