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Council of Nice, II. Action IV. We salute the honourable images ; let them be anathema who do not.—See above, p. 109.

We honourably worship the holy and venerable images, p. 111.

The honour rendered to the image is transmitted to the prototype: and he who worships the figure, worships the substance of that which is represented by it, p. 115.

Council of Trent, Session XXV. The holy Synod commands, moreover, that the images of Christ, of the Virgin Mother of God, and of other saints, be had and retained, especially in the temples, and that due honour and veneration be paid to them, . . . . because the honour which is shown to them is referred to the prototypes, which they represent : so that by the images which we kiss, and before which we uncover our heads, we adore Christ and reverence the saints, whose likeness they bear. As was ordained by the decrees of the Councils, but especially of the second Nicene Synod. .... But


if any one shall teach or think contrary to these decrees let him be anathema, p. 337–339.

The Fathers of the Church anathematized by these decrees are the following :

Irenæus, (see above, p. 343,) who speaks of the use of images in the religious worship of Christians as part of the Carpocratian heresy.

Athenagoras, who represents the heathens as defending their adoration of images on the selfsame ground assigned by the bishops in the deutero-Nicene and Tridentine Councils, namely, that the honour shown to the image is referred to the being represented by it.

έπει τοίνυν φασί τινες εικόνας μεν είναι ταύτας, θεούς δε εφ' οίς αι εικόνες και τας προσόδους ας τούτοις πρoσίασι, και τας θυσίας

' ékeivovs dvapépcosai, kai eis ékeivous yevéolai.—Legatio pro Christianis, $ 18. Edit. Wirceb. p. 140.

CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, who considers the art of imagery to be altogether contrary to true religion.

και γαρ δή και απηγόρευται ημίν ανάφανδον, απάτηλον ορίζεσθαι Téxvnvo yap noLMOEIS, pnoiv o apophins, havtòg duoiwwa.-Cohortatio ad Gentes. Edit. Wirceb. i. p. 104.

TertuLLIAN, who destroys the subtle distinction which the Roman champions attempt to draw between images and idols.

Eldos Græce formam sonat, ab eo per diminutionem cièwlov deductum, æque apud nos formulam fecit : igitur omnis forma vel formula idolum se dici exposcit. Inde idololatria omnis circa omne idolum famulatio et servitus. Then, after citing the second commandment, ne feceritis idolum, neque similitudinem eorum quæ in coelo sunt, he adds, eorum imagines idola, imaginum consecratio idololatria.—De Idololatria, c. 3, 4. Edit. Wirceb. i.

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Minucius Felix, who denies that the Christians worshipped even the cross.

Cruees nec colimus, nec optamus. Vos plane, qui ligneos deos consecratis, cruces ligneas, ut deorum vestrorum partes, forsitan adoratis.-Octav. § 29. Edit. Wirceb. p. 590.

ORIGEN, who considers the use of images to be contrary to the second commandment.

Χριστιανοί δε και Ιουδαίοι (ουκ ανέχονται αγάλματα) δια το Κύριον τον θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις, και αυτό μόνο λατρεύσεις, και δια το .... ου ποιήσεις σεαυτώ είδωλον, ουδε πάν ομοίωμαoỦ Tpookuvňoels auroic.-Contra Celsum, lib. viii. § 62, 66.

LACTANTIUS, who, like Athenagoras, shows that the Roman plea of justification in the use of images, by reference to the prototypes, is merely a repetition of the heathen defence.

“Non ipsa (simulacra) inquiunt, timemus, sed eos, ad quorum imaginem ficta, et quorum nominibus consecrata sunt.”—De Origine Mali, c. 2.

The FatherS IN THE COUNCIL OF ELIBERIS.- Canon 36. “Placuit, picturas in Ecclesia esse non debere ; ne quod colitur et adoratur in parietibus depingatur.”—Conc. i. 974.

EPIPHANIUS, see above, p. 343. Also in his Epistle to John, Bishop of Jerusalem : “Inveni ibi (in Ecclesia apud anabbatha prope Bethel) velum pendens in foribus ejusdem Ecclesiæ tinctum atque depictum, et habens imaginem, quasi Christi, vel sancti cujusdam. Non enim satis memini cujus imago fuerit. Cum ergo hoc vidissem, in Ecclesia contra auctoritatem Scripturarum hominis pendere imaginem, scidi illud, et magis dedi consilium custodibus ejusdem loci, ut pauperem mortuum eo obvolverent et efferrent. . ... Nunc autem misi quod potui reperire, et precor, ut jubeas presbyteros ejusdem loci suscipere velum a latore, quod a nobis missum est ; et deinceps præcipere, in Ecclesia Christi ejusmodi vela, quæ contra religionem nostram veniunt, non appendi."-Edit. Colon. 1682, tom. ii. p. 317.

AMBROSE, A.D. 374. “Ecclesia inanes ideas et vanas nescit simulacrorum figuras : sed veram novit Trinitatis substantiam."- De Fugâ Sæculi, tom. i. JEROME, circ. A.D. 400., in his Commentary on Daniel, chap. 3. Notum tibi sit, rex, quia deos tuos non colimus, et statuam

auream quam erexisti non adoramus) Sive statuam, ut Symmachus : sive imaginem auream, ut cæteri transtulerunt, voluerimus legere, cultores Dei eam adorare non debent. Ergo judices et principes sæculi qui imperatorum statuas adorant, et imagines: hoc se facere intelligant quod tres pueri facere nolentes placuerunt Deo. Et notanda proprietas, deos coli, imaginem adorari dicunt: quod utrumque servis Dei non convenit."-Edit. Basil. 1525. tom. v. 702.

GREGORY THE Great, who allows indeed the use of images by way of memorials, but utterly condemns all such worship as is enjoined by the Councils of Nice and Trent.

“Et quidem zelum vos, ne quid manufactum adorari possit, habuisse laudamus.”—Epist. ad Serenum, ix. 110.

“Et quia eas adorari vetuisses omnino laudamus . . . . adorare vero imagines modis omnibus veta.”—Epist. ad Serenum, ix. 9, In Labbé and Cossart, v. 1370, 434.


Council of Trent, Session IV. They, (the Sacred Books), are these, .... Tobit, Judith .... Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, . . . . Baruch, .... Daniel, .... two of Maccabees, the first and second.

If any one shall not receive these same books entire, with all their parts (that is to say Daniel, with the History of Bel and the Dragon, the story of Susannah, and the Song of the Three Children], as they are wont to be read in the Catholic Church, and in the old Latin Vulgate edition, for sacred and canonical, .... let him be anathema.–See above, p. 161.

The Fathers of the Church anathematized by this decree are the following:

Melito, A.D. 177.--(Who does not receive one of them.) . 'Ακριβώς μαθών τα της παλαιάς διαθήκης βιβλία, υποτάξας έπεμ

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The Compiler of the 85th Canon of the ante-Nicene Code. Circ.

250. The copies of this canon differ from one another, so that it is impossible to speak positively as to its contents, further than this, that all copies exclude Tobit, Baruch, Wisdom of Solomon, and Ecclesiasticus, or Wisdom of Sirach, allowing this last only to be read as something beyond the Testament (έξωθεν). One copy admits Judith, and some admit Maccabees, but this last is not in the oldest collection of these canons, that, namely, of John of Antioch.

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