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them; for both mean the same thing. For to worship (κυνειν), in the ancient language of Greece, signifies to salute and to love : and the addition of apos indicates an augmentation of affection; as pépw and προσφέρω, κυρώ and προσκυρώ, κυνώ and προσκυνώ, which marks intensity in the salutation and affection. For what a man loves that he also worships, and what he worships that he assuredly loves; which our human carriage towards our friends testifies, and an embrace, which fulfils both. Nor do we learn this merely from ourselves, but we find it written by the ancients in the Holy Scripture. For in the History of Kings, it is written, “ And David arose, and fell on his face to the ground, and worshipped Jonathan :” three times, “ and kissed him.” And what again doth our Lord in the Gospel say of the Pharisees? “They love the uppermost

ταύτας προσκυνείν, ήτοι ασπάζεσθαι ταυτόν γαρ αμφότερα κυνείν γάρ τη ελλαδική αρχαία διαλέκτο το ασπάζεσθαι και το φιλείς σημαίνει και το της προς προθέσεως επίτασίν τινα δηλοί του πόθου, ώσπερ φέρω και προσφέρω, κυρώ και προσκυρώ, κυνώ και προσκυνώ, και εμφαίνει τον ασπασμών και την κατ' επέκτασιν φιλίαν. ο γάρ τις φιλεϊ, και προσκυνεί" και ο προσκυνεί, πάντως και φιλεί, ως μαρτυρεί η ανθρωπίνη σχέσις ή παρ' ημών προς τους φίλους γινομένη, και έντευξις τα δύο αποτελούσα· ου μόνον δε τούτο παρ' ημίν, αλλά και παρά τοις παλαιούς εν τη θεία γραφή εγγεγραμμένον ευρίσκομεν εν γαρ ταις ιστορίαις των βασιλειών γέγραπται· και Δαβίδ ανέστη, και έπεσεν επί πρόσωπον αυτού, και προσεκύνησε τρις τον Ιωνάθαν, και κατεφίλησεν αυτόν. τί δε πάλιν ο κύριος περί των φαρισαίων ευαγγελικώς φησιν ; αγαπώσι τας πρωτοκλισίας εν τοις δείπνοις, και τους ασπασ

XI. LATERAN, III., A.D. 1179.

CANON XVI.-(The fancied convenience of the Church

of greater force than a Christian man's oath.)

.... Nor let our decree be impeded, if perchance some one shall say that he is bound by an oath to preserve the customs of his Church. For those are not to be called oaths, but rather perjuries, which are contrary to the good of the Church, and the appointments of the holy Fathers.

Canon XVI. .... Nec nostram constitutionem impediat, si forte aliquis ad conservandam Ecclesiæ suæ consuetudinem juramento se dicat adstrictum. Non enim dicenda sunt juramenta, sed potius perjuria, quæ contra utilitatem Ecclesiasticam, et sanctorum Patrum veniunt instituta.—Conc. x. 1517.

CANON XXVII.—(On the Treatment of Heretics.)

Although ecclesiastical discipline, as the blessed Leo saith, being content with the judgment of the priests, does not take sanguinary revenge, yet is it assisted by the decrees of Catholic princes, that men

Canon XXVII. Sicut ait beatus Leo, licet ecclesiastica disciplina sacerdotali contenta judicio, cruentas non efficiat ultiones : Catholicorum tamen principum constitutionibus adjuvatur, ut sæpe quærant

may often seek a saving remedy through fear of corporal punishment. On this account, because in Gascony, Alb, and the parts of Tholouse, and other places, the damnable perverseness of the heretics whom some call Cathari, others Patarenes, others Publicans, others by different names, has gained such strength that they no longer practise their wickedness in secret, as at other times, but make open manifestation of their error, and draw over the weak and simple folk to an agreement with them ; we decree to subject them and their defenders and receivers to anathema : and under pain of anathema we forbid that any presume to maintain or support them in his houses or land, or to have any dealings with them. But if they depart in this sin, let not the oblation be made for them (under any pretext of privileges granted to any from us, or on any other ground,) nor let them receive burial among Chris

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homines salutare remedium, dum corporale super se metuunt evenire supplicium. Ea propter, quia in Gasconia, Albegesio, et partibus Tolosanis et aliis locis, ita hæreticorum, quos alii Catharon, alii Patrinos, alii Publicanos, alii aliis nominibus vocant, invaluit damnata perversitas ut jam non in occulto, sicut aliqui, nequitiam suam exerceant, sed suum errorem publicè manifestent, et ad suum consensum simplices attrahant et infirmos ; eos, et defensores eorum et receptores, anathemati decernimus subjacere : et sub anathemati prohibemus, ne quis eos in domibus, vel in terra sua tenere, vel fovere, vel negotiationem cum eis exercere præsumat. Si autem in hoc peccato decesserint, non sub nostrorum privilegiorum cuilibet indultorum obtentu, nec sub aliacumque occasione, aut oblatio fiat pro eis, aut inter Christianos tians. In like manner we decree concerning the Brabançons and the people of Aragon, Navarre, the Basque provinces, and other ruffians, who exercise such cruelty against the Christians, that they pay no respect to churches nor monasteries, nor spare widows and girls, old men and boys, nor any age or sex, but after the manner of heathens waste and destroy every thing; that they who have conducted them, or kept and supported them in the districts where they have so furiously conducted themselves, be publicly denounced throughout the churches on Sundays and other holy days, and be considered bound by the same sentence and penalty as the forementioned heretics, nor be admitted to the communion of the Church, until they have abjured that pestilent company and heresy. And let all persons whatsoever who are bound to them by any agreement, know that they are released from all debt of fidelity or courtesy, or any manner of service, so

recipiant sepulturam. De Brabantionibus, et Aragonensibus, Navariis, Bascolis, Coterellis et Triaverdinis, qui tantam in Christianos immanitatem exercent, ut nec ecclesiis nec monasteriis deferant, non viduis et pupillis, non senibus et pueris, nec cuidam parcant ætati aut sexui, sed more paganorum omnia per dant et vastent; similiter constituimus, ut qui eos conduxerint vel tenuerint, vel foverint per regiones in quibus taliter debacchantur, in Dominicis et aliis solemnibus diebus per ecclesias publicè denuntientur, et eadem omnino sententia et pæna cum prædictis hæreticis habeantur adstricti, nec ad communionem recipiantur ecclesiæ, nisi societate illa pestifera et hæresi abjuratis. Relaxatos autem se noverint a debito fidelitatis et hominii long as they persist in such iniquity. Moreover, we enjoin them, and all others of the faithful, that for the remission of their sins, they manfully oppose such disasters, and with force of arms defend the Christian people against them. And let their goods be confiscated, and let it be free for princes to subject such persons to slavery. And whosoever shall there depart this life in true repentance, let them not doubt that they will obtain pardon of their sins, and the fruit of eternal reward. We also out of the divine mercy, and relying on the authority of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, grant to the faithful Christians who have taken arms against them, and at the advice of the bishops or other prelates, have contended to drive them out, a relaxation for two years from enjoined penance: or if they have made a longer stay there, we leave it to the discre

ac totius obsequii, donec in tanta iniquitate permanserint, quicumque illis aliquo (pacto) tenentur annexi. Ipsis autem, cunctisque fidelibus in remissionem peccatorum injungimus, ut tantis cladibus se viriliter opponant, et contra eos armis populum Christianum tueantur. Confiscenturque eorum bona, et liberum sit principibus hujusmodi homines subjicere servituti. Qui autem in vera pænitentia ibi decesserint, et peccatorum indulgentiam, et fructum mercedis æternæ se non dubitent percepturos. Nos etiam de misericordia Dei, et beatorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli auctoritate confisi, fidelibus Christianis qui contra eos arma susceperint, et ad episcoporum seu aliorum prælatorum consilium, ad eos decertando expugnandos, biennium de poenitentia injuncta relaxamus : aut si longiorem ibi moram habuerint, episcoporum discretioni, quibus hujus rei (cura) fuerit injuncta,

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