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and fools, readily derive advantage. For that which speech in words, the same also doth the coloured writing (or painting) preach and command. And it is fitting, and agreeable to reason, and the most ancient tradition, that, for the honour's sake, the images should be derivatively honoured and adored, because they are referred to the principals, like as the book of the Holy Gospels, and the figure of the precious cross. If any man therefore does not worship the image of the Saviour Christ, let him not behold His form when He shall come in the glory of His Father, to be glorified, and to glorify His saints; but let him be estranged from His communion and excellency. In like manner also, we both honour and adore the image of His undefiled mother Mary, the mother of God; (moreover, also, we paint the images of the holy angels, as the Holy Scripture represents them in words ;) and also the images of

cuncti, ex eo quod in promptu est perfruuntur utilitate ; quæ enim in syllabis sermo, hæc et scriptura (alias pictura) quæ in coloribus est prædicat, et commendat; et dignum est, ut secun dum congruentiam rationis, et antiquissimam traditionem, propter honorem, quia ad principalia ipsa referuntur, etiam derivative iconæ honorentur, et adorentur æque ut Sanctorum Sacer Evangeliorum liber, atque typus preciosæ crucis. Si quis ergo non adorat iconam Salvatoris Christi, non videat formam ejus, quando veniet in gloria Paterna glorificari et glorificare sanctos suos ; sed alienus sit a communione ipsius et charitate : similiter autem et imaginem intemeratæ matris ejus, et Dei genitricis Mariæ ; insuper et iconas sanctorum angelorum depingimus, quemadmodum eos figurat verbis divina Scriptura ; sed et laudabilissimorum

the most praiseworthy apostles, of the prophets, martyrs, and holy men, likewise of all saints. And they who do not so, let them be anathema from the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

apostolorum, prophetarum, martyrum, et sanctorum virorum, simul et omnium sanctorum, et honoramus et adoramus. Et qui sic se non habent, anathema sint a Patre, et Filio, et Spiritu Sancto.—Conc. viii. 1127—8.

IX. LATERAN, I., A.D. 1123.

CANON III.(On the Marriage of the Clergy.)

We utterly forbid the company of concubines and wives to the presbyters, the deacons, or sub-deacons, &c.

Canon III. Presbyteris, diaconibus, vel sub-diaconibus, concubinarum et uxorum contubernia penitus interdicimus, &c. — Conc. x. 896.

Canon XXI.-(On the Marriage of the Clergy.)

We entirely forbid the presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, and monks, to keep concubines or to contract marriages, and we adjudge that marriages

Canon XXI. Presbyteris, diaconibus, sub-diaconibus, et monachis concubinas habere, seu matrimonia contrahere, penitus interdicimus; contracted by these sort of persons ought to be separated, and the persons brought to repentance, according to the decision of the sacred canons.

contracta quoque matrimonia ab hujusmodi personis disjungi, et personas ad pænitentiam debere redigi, juxta sacrorum canonum definitionem judicamus.—Conc. x. 899.

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CANON VI.-(On the Marriage of the Clergy.)

Also we decree, that they who being sub-deacons, or above, have contracted marriages, or kept concubines, be deprived of office and ecclesiastical benefice. For since they ought to be, and are called the temple of God, the vessels of the Lord, the tabernacle of the Holy Ghost, it is unmeet that they should serve chamberings and uncleannesses.

Canon VI. Decernimus etiam ut ii, qui in ordine subdiaconatus et supra, uxores duxerint, aut concubinas habuerint, officio atque ecclesiastico beneficio careant. Cum enim ipsi templum Dei, vasa Domini, sacrarium Spiritus Sancti debeant esse et dici, indignum est eos cubilibus et immunditiis deservire.-Conc. x. 1003.

CANON VII.-(On the Marriage of the Clergy.)

Moreover, treading in the footsteps of our predecessors, Gregory the Seventh, Urban, and Paschal, high-priests of Rome, we command that no one hear the masses of those whom he may know to be married or to keep concubines. But that the law of continence, and the cleanness which is pleasing to God, may be extended among ecclesiastical persons, and those in holy orders; we decree, that, as respects bishops, presbyters, deacons, sub-deacons, regular canons, and monks, and professed converts, who have transgressed the holy ordinance, and presumed to join themselves to wives, that they be separated. For we consider that this sort of copulation, which is contrary to ecclesiastical regulation, is not matrimony. Let them also, when respectively separated, perform fitting penance for such excesses.

Canon VII. Ad hæc prædecessorum nostrorum Gregorii Septimi, Urbani, et Paschalis Romanorum pontificum vestigiis inhærentes, præcipimus ut nullus Missas eorum audiat quos uxores vel concubinas habere cognoverit. Ut autem lex continentiæ, et Deo placens munditia in ecclesiasticis personis et sacris ordinibus dilatetur ; Statuimus, quatenus episcopi, presbyteri, diaconi, sub-diaconi, regulares canonici, et monachi atque conversi professi, qui sanctum transgredientes propositum, uxores sibi copulare præsumpserint, separentur. Hujusmodi namque copulationem, quam contra ecclesiasticam regulam constat esse contractam, matrimonium non esse censemus. Qui etiam abinvicem separati, pro tantis excessibus condignam pænitentiam agant. - Conc. X. 1003-4.

FROM THE 7TH ACTION.

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From the Synodical Epistle to Irene and Constantine.

(On Image Worship.)

It is decreed by all means to receive the venerable images of our Lord Jesus Christ, inasmuch as He was a perfect man, and according to all the historical account which is described in the Gospel narration; and of our undefiled Lady, the holy Mother of God, and of the holy angels; (who) appeared as men to those who were worthy of their manifestation; and of all the saints; and (the representations of) their agonistic contests; on tablets and on walls, and on the sacred vessels and vestments, as of old time the holy Catholic Church of God has received, and as has been ordained as well by the holy chief masters of our doctrine, as also by their divine successors, our fathers; and to worship or to salute

ώστε κατά πάντα αποδέχεσθαι τάς σεπτάς εικόνας του κυρίου ημών Ιησού Χριστού, καθο τέλειος άνθρωπος γέγονε, και όσα ιστορικώς κατά την ευαγγελικήν διήγησιν διαγράφονται της τε αχράντου δεσποίνης ημών της αγίας Θεοτόκου, αγίων τε αγγέλων" ως άνθρωποι ενεφανίσθησαν τους αξίοις γενομένους της αυτών εμφανείας και πάντων των αγίων και τους αγωνιστικούς αυτών άθλους έν τε σανίσι και εν τοίχοις, ιεροίς τε σκεύεσι και εσθήσι, καθώς εκ των ανέκαθεν χρόνων η αγία του θεού καθολική εκκλησία παρέλαβε, και έθεσμοθετήθη παρά τε των αγίων πρωτάρχων της ημών διδασκαλίας, και των αυτών διαδόχων θεσπεσίων πατέρων ημών και

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