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verse. To have done so, would denoting that-a person departs out have made the passage say some of a place, or that any thing is taken thing worse than nonsense. The out of another thing." But Parkwhole verse reads thus: “I indeed hurst, another of his authorities, debaptize you with (en) water unto fines it thus: “ek 1, governing a gerepentance: but he that cometh
nitive case, 1.
It denotes motion after me is mightier than I, whose from a place, out of, from ;” and shoes I am not worthy to bear; he according to this definition, the shall baptize you with (en) the Holy words “ek tou hudatos,” in Acts Ghost, and with fire." I need not viii. 39, which are translated “ they tell you what a gross impropriety it came up out of the water,” should would have been to have translated have been rendered, “ they came up the latter clause of this verse thus: from the water.” he shall baptize, (or according to
As for the other preposition apo, Mr. C. immerse) you in the Holy which is used in connexion with Ghost, and in fire. But not only baptism, Mr. C.'s authority, profesdoes this preposition signify in and sor Moor, defines it “ the departure, with, but according to Schleusner, or the distance of one person or and Parkhurst, one of Mr. C.'s high thing from the place of another." authorities, it signifies also at, nigh, This is the word that is used in by; and Mr. J. P. Campbell has de Mark i. 10, where it is said of Jetailed several passages from the sus, that “coming out of (apo) the Septuagint, and nine or ten from water, he saw the heavens opened ;" the New Testament, wherein it and according to Mr. C.'s own aumust necessarily be so understood. thority, should have been translated Mr. C., however, says, p. 154, that “coming from the water he saw the J. P. Campbell “ has found one
heavens opened.” And although it or two passages” only, where en may be used in other senses, yet, may be translated “at;” and his from is its primary meaning, and as reducing twenty instances to one or *Mr. Campbell, of Kentucky, justly two, tells us with what caution his observes, "if apo, when used in quotations from the writings of connexion with baptism, be renderother men are to be received. ed from, then ek, in parallel pas
The observations I have made re sages must mean the same thing; specting the preposition en, are also and eis, and en, conjoined with them applicable to the preposition eis. It in the same description, cannot exsignifies in, into, at, near, towards.
press more than at, or to." p. 53. And although in Mark i. 9, it is But with the doctrine contained translated in, in connexion with in the above quotation, Mr. C. is baptism; and in Acts viii. 39, into; highly displeased, and in the fulyet every reader may see, that in ness of his soul, and the exuberance the first of these places, it may with of his zeal for soundness in the propriety be translated at, and in faith, he charges him and Peter Ed. the second to: and Mr. Campbell, wards, who made the same observaof Kentucky, has detailed in his tion, “with shutting the gates of book, p. 53, no less than nineteen heaven and of hell by their critior twenty passages from the New cisms,” and virtually saying "that
Testament where it must necessa when a person is in the house he is arily signify at, near to, or wards.
only at the door; and when in bed bi The same observations are also
is only at the side of it:” after applicable to the preposition ek. It which he demolishes this monstrous ss equally indefinite in its meaning. doctrine, and refutes these dangerMr. C., indeed, tells us, that Mr. ous criticisms, by the following irMoor, professor of Greek in the resistible argument.
« Excellent University of Glasgow, defines it“as critics-( bigotry! .0 prejudice ! VOL. I.
p. 154, 5.
Not Egyptian darkness was half so from the prepositions connected fatal to Egyptian eyes, as thy sable with it. That although that word sceptre to the eyes of the mind.” is used by Greek writers to signify
“ to wash by immersion,” yet they Now the whole of this powerful use it also to signify to wash by argument is dissipated in a moment, other means:-that although there when the reader reflects that it was have been, and are men distinguishnot the meaning of the prepositions ed for literature, who understand en and eis, as connected with hea it in its first and literal sense when ven and hell, but as connected with used to denote the mode of initiabaptism, that the late Mr. Campbell tion into the church; yet there have alludes to in the above quotation. beer, and are men of as great critiHe does not say that “eis OURA cal acumen and literary attainNON” does not signify into heaven; ments, who contend, that it is not nor that
“ eis GEENNAN” does not used in the New Testament in its signify into hell: but he says that literal, but in a figurative sense; as Bethabara was not a river, but a in consequence of which it has place in the vicinity of Jordan; then changed its meaning from washing
en Bethabara," in John i. 26, by immersion, to washing by pournecessarily means at Bethabara ; so ing water on the subject, in allusion en Jordanee, and eis ton Jordanon, to the pouring out the Spirit as a in Mark i. 5-9, should have been spirit of regeneration; and every translated not in, but at, Jordan, be man of reading knows, that the cause those
have reference number of the latter far exceeds to the same thing the place were that of the former. And certainly John was baptizing: that as “apo if a doctrine is to be established by tou hudatos,” in Matt. iii. 6, ne the meaning of the word that concessarily means “from the water, veys it, it must be by the meaning according to Mr. C.'s own authori that the inspired penmen attach ty, so “ek tou hudatos,” in Acts to it, and not that of Heathen wri. viii. 39, should have been translated ters. So far, then, as we have con“from the water," also, because ducted our review, there has nothing both passages have reference to the appeared to authorize Mr. C. to assituation of the persons baptized. sert so roundly as he has done, that And it now rests upon Mr. C. to baptism is to be administered by prove, if he can, that en, and eis, immersion, and by immersion only, and apo, and ek, when relating to But we are told in the New Testhe same thing in those passages,
tament of different persons being must necessarily have a different baptized at different times, by difmeaning. This would be far more sa ferent baptizers; perhaps an examitisfactory to the public, and honour nation of those passages may shed able to himself, than such tremen farther light on the subject. Te dous apostrophising. Such things this I have no objection, if you are in the present day will not be ac willing to attend me. cepted in the place of argument, The first upon record is the bapmuch less for “a positive precept tism of John, mentioned by all the or precedent” for immersion, in evangelists. Matthew informs us, administering the ordinance of bap that in those days (the reign of Titism.
berius, emperor of Ro And now what is the result of John the Baptist, preaching in the this part of the review? This wilderness of Judea”_"and there that nothing perfectly decisive re went out to him Jerusalem, and all specting the mode of administering Judea, and the region round about baptism, can be legitimately in Jordan, and were baptized of him ferred from tlee word baptizo; nor in (or at) Jordan, confessing their
sins.". The question now is, why || Jordan was far preferable for bapdid John choose the banks of the tizing by immersion. Jordan for preaching and baptizing ? But there is another circumstance The Baptist answer, or rather hy that militates strongly against the pothesis is, that he might have a suf Baptist hypothesis. It is this. Both ficient depth of water forimmersing. Matthew and Mark tell us, “ that But another may be assigned. It Jerusalem, and all Judea, and the was foretold of John that he should region round about Jordan went out confine his ministry to the wilder to John's baptism, and were bapness. “In those days came John tized of him." What the exact the Baptist preaching in the wilder population of Judea was at that
What now distinguishes a time, I will not precisely say. But wilderness from other places! This Josephus, their own historian, tells that the soil is sterile, and desti us, that seventy years afterwards, tute of springs of water. Jordan 1,350,000 of them were cut off in ran through this wilderness, and the their wars with the Romans, as hypothesis that John chose the
many more led captive, besides banks of Jordan for the purpose of those that escaped, which probably obtaining a sufficient supply of wa amounted to more than one third of ter for the vast multitudes that re the whole population. We may sorted to his ministry, is, for any therefore say, that there were four thing that hath yet appeared, just or five millions of inhabitants in Juas good, and as probable as that of dea, in the days of John the Baptist. the Baptists. This hypothesis is We will also suppose that only one considerably strengthened by what million of them were baptized by is said of him, John iii. 23, “ that he him, although the words of the evanwas baptizing at Ænon, near Salim, gelists intimate that the greatest because there was much water number were.
It is the opinion of there.” This translation does not the best chronologists, that John did exactly express the meaning of the not exercise his ministry longer original. The Greek words are, than eighteen months, and at far"polla hudata,” which, although thest not longer than two years. I sometimes used to denote rivers, as would now ask any thinking person rivers are a collection of springs, if it was possible for him to baptize yet every linguist knows, that many one million, or near one million of springs of water, are their literal persons, in that space of time, by and primary meaning. It is not immersion. But it was practicable pretended that there was, or is any by affusion, and upon the supposiriver at Ænon, and Robinson, the tion that a number of them stood Baptist historian, dextrous as he is before him in ranks, and that he at evading every argument that fa poured the water upon them from vours baptism by affusion, cannot his hand, or from some suitable ves. tell, after all his research, whether
sel.* Ænon was a natural spring, an ar
But this is not all. John tells us tificial réservoir, or a cavernous temple of the sun. Schleusner, however, tells us that the word signifies
* Robinson, the Baptist historian, p. 32,
Bendt, ed, tells us that John baptized but a fountain, and that it was not far
very few persons. What reason does he from Jordan; and this circumstance
assign for this assertion in opposition to the added to the description "polla express declaration of the evangelists to hudata,” or many springs of water, the contrary? His own ipse dixit. What
could induce him to such a bold measure? is a proof that John chose it for the
He saw the force of the argument I have purpose I have mentioned; for on
mentioned above, and had no other way of the Baptist hypothesis, the river evading it.
that his baptism was figurative of be baptized in the name of Jesus the baptism “ with the Holy Ghost Christ for the remission of sins.” and with fire;” and which the
apos They complied; and as many as retles experienced on the day of Pen ceived the word gladly were baptecost, when “there appeared unto tized; "and the same day there them cloven tongues, like as of fire, were added unto them about three and sat upon each of them. And they thousand souls." were all filled with the Holy Ghost, I have said in my second letter, and began to speak with other that none but the twelve apostles tongues as the Spirit gave them ut had authority at that time to admiterance.” Acts ii. 3, 4. But this as nister the ordinance of baptism; foretold by the prophet Joel, is and as all this happened in the space styled “a pouring out the Spirit on of seven or eight hours, that there all flesh;” and had John's baptism was not time for the twelve aposbeen administered by immersion, it tles to baptize three thousand percould not have been a proper figure sons by immersion, though practiof this extraordinary “baptism with cable by affusion. To this it may the Holy Ghost and with fire.” And be objected, that the seventy discito this I would just add, that admit. ples of whom we read in the gospel ting it could be incontrovertibly by John, were no doubt present, and proved, that John's baptism was ad had a right to baptize as well as the ministered by immersion, yet it twelve apostles. Be it so—but would not thence follow that Chris where, was the water for the imtian baptism was to be administered mersion of three thousand persons, in the same manner. John's bap many of whom must, even accord. tism belonged not to the Christian, ing to this hypothesis, be immersed but the Jewish dispensation of at the same point of time. Some tell grace; but the certain mode of ad. us in the brook Kidron; but this ministering Christian baptism is to brook was very small, and dry a conbe sought for from an examination of siderable part of the year. Others the baptisms recorded under that tell us, that they could have been dispensation. This I shall also now baptized in the Molten sea of the attempt.
temple. But is it at all probable The first of these that occurs, is that the chief priests, who had the the baptism of the three thousand oversight and command of the temon the day of Pentecost, recorded ple, would suffer them to pollute it, in the second chapter of the Acts of by administering an ordinance of the Apostles. The scene is laid in the abhorred Nazarene? Besides; Jerusalem. The followers of Christ, there is not the least intimation in amounting to 120, men and women, the sacred history, that they rewere assembled in one place agree moved from the place where they ably to his orders. According to his had at first assembled; and all could promise, the Holy Ghost in the form be done where they were, and withof cloven tongues, as of fire, fell, or out confusion, and with a few quarts was poured out upon them, and they of water, if done by affusion. From spake with tongues as the Spirit these few suggestions, and other cirgave
them utterance. When this cumstances that will naturally ocwas noised abroad, the multitude
cur to the reader, he will draw his came together. Peter preached to own inference, whether these three them. They were deeply convinced thousand were baptized by immerof their guilt in crucifying the Son sion, or by affusion, or pouring waof God as an impostor; “and said ter on the head of the subject. to Peter, and the rest of the apos The baptism of the Samaritans tles, men and brethren, what shall and of the Eunuch of the queen of we do?" Peter exhorted them “ to Ethiopia, present themselves next
for examination. There is nothing head of the person to be baptized, said of the manner of the baptism of
would not be considered as efficathe Samaritans; but of the Eunuch cious as immersing the whole body it is said, “they went down into the in the purifying element: nor are water, both Philip and the Eunuch, evidences wanting in the present and he baptized him. And when day of the deleterious effect of that they were come up out of the water, opinion. In the dark ages of Popery the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip this opinion “grew with its growth, away that he saw him no more." and strengthened with its strength,"
Mr. C. tells us, p. 131, as a proof and infected almost all the churches I suppose of baptism by immersion, of Christendom, and the Anglican that King James I. of England,“ by church with the rest; nor did it lose whose authority the present version ground until the revival of learning of the scriptures was made, pro at the æra of the reformation. King hibited the translators from trans James, though somewhat pedantic, lating into English baptisma and was yet a learned man, being edubaptizo,' where these words respect cated by the celebrated GEORGE ed the rite; but ordered them to BUCHANNAN. He knew the imposing adopt those words as they had been idea of immersion in baptism was adopted by the Vulgate.” 6 And the prevailing idea in England; and that had the translators been at therefore gave the orders mentioned liberty, instead of the command be by Mr. C., rightly judging, that the baptized every one of you, it would light of increasing literature, and have read be dipped every one of
'the cultivation of Biblical criticism you—and instead of he baptized would, in due time, settle the meanhim, it would have read, he im ing of the words baptisma, and bapmersed him.”
tizo, in the New Testament. Nor What Mr. C. says is true history.
was he mistaken. The vote given The depraved heart of man is not forty years afterwards in the strongly opposed to the simplicity Westminster Assembly, alluded to of the gospel, and the simplicity of by Mr. C. in the following page, is its ordinances. Hence then, not a proof how much ground the doconly new rites have been added to trine of immersion had lost in that those instituted by Christ, but ad space of time, by the increase ditions made to those he has ap of sound literature. The translapointed. This was the case with tors obeyed the king; but who is the ordinance of baptism. In the there acquainted with the Greek days of Tertullian, if not before, an language, and who has read the idea began to prevail from some un New Testament in that language, guarded, and perhaps hyperbolical but must have seen that not an opexpressions of that father, and from portunity offered itself of transhis mistaking the sign for the thing lating in favour of immersion that signified, and the means for the they did not embrace. Although thing to be obtained, and which de- they translate "eis” to, and “ek” pends entirely on sovereign grace; from, in different places, yet whenthat there was a regenerating influ ever they met with them in conence in baptismal water.* Hence nexion with baptism, they invarithen it is easy to see, that pouring ably render the one into, and the a small quantity of water on the
other out of
But strong as their prejudice and * O felix sacramentum aquæ nostræ,
prepossessions were, it is astonishquia ablutis delictis pristinæ excitatis in
ing that the circumstances of the vitam æternam liberamur-sed nos hisci.
baptism now under consideration, culi secundum ix Jav nostrum Jesum
and the language of the inspired Christum in aqua nascimur.
historian, did not induce them to