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and ordered to be offered, with a became a sinner, he became unfit vast apparatus of ceremony and ex- for
direct and immediate interpensive ritual, under the Levitical course with his Maker. Yet God priesthood, and that they continued
saw fit, in mercy, to reveal himself to be used by the descendants of as accessible, and as disposed to Abraham, till the advent of Christ, forç ve sin and accept the services is well known to all who have any of sinners, through a Mediator. acquaintance with the Bible. As This stupendous plan of redeeming the flesh of animals was not then love was announced in the first proallowed to be used as food, it is mise of a Saviour. It was illuspresumable, nay, highly probable, | trated and forcibly represented by that those animals, whose skins our the institution of animal sacrifices, first parents used for clothing, had in which we are to look for the ori. been offered in sacrifice. Gen. iii. gin of that maxim universally ad21. And, from the well known cha- mitted by the Jews, and which is racter of Abel, whom our Lord calls unequivocally evangelized in the "righteous Abel,” as also from the
New Testament, viz. “That withacceptance of his service in the in
out the shedding of blood there is stance before us, it is not to be sup- no remission of sin.” In one word, posed that he offered of the first- the covenant of grace, or that lings of his flock without a divine scheme of divine compassion to warrant.
fallen man, founded on the mediaOur second remark regards the torial character and work of Jesus design of this institution; which Christ, was administered in these was, we think, twofold-first, to re- primitive times chiefly by sacrifices; mind mankind that, as transgres- and the religious use of them, for sors of God's law, they deserved the great end contemplated in their death; which they could scarce fail appointment, implied a profession to reflect upon, with solemn peni- of faith in the promised Redeemer: tence, as often as they placed the whereas a neglect or contempt of bleeding victim on the altar, as an the types and symbols, involved a atonement for their sins; but, se- practical disregard towards the ancondly, and chiefly, it was design-titype or thing signified, which was, ed as a typical representation of indubitably, the Lamb of God, desthe sacrifice of Christ, the grand tined to take away the sin of the and efficient propitiatory, through || world, by the sacrifice of his blood. which Jehovah purposed, from the Abel, then, appears to have acquibeginning, to extend pardon and esced in God's plan of saving sinsalvation to guilty man. Viewed ners, and to have believed the rein reference to this glorious object vealed testimony concerning it. He of faith and hope set before a rebel- | approached the throne of grace, as lious and ruined world, how vene- a sinner, confessing his guilt, prerable, how significant and august senting at the altar,“ of the firstthose bloody sacrifices, and symbo-lings of his flock," a sin-offering, in lical rites, which preached to the compliance with the divine comworld, for ages, under the Old Tes- mand, imploring forgiveness, and tament dispensation, what is clear- professing hope in “Him who was ly taught in the gospel, i.e. that to come, and give his life a ransom « we have redemption through the for many." Thus, as the author of blood of Christ."
the epistle to the Hebrews expresses If these remarks be just, it will it, “ By faith Abel offered unto God not be difficult to discover the rea- a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, son why Abel and his offering were by which he obtained witness that regarded propitiously, while Cain he was righteous, God testifying of and his were rejected. When man his gifts; and, by it, he, being dead, yet speaketh.” Heb. xi. 4. But descended to expostulate with him, Cain, though he believed in God as in a manner eminently calculated his creator and benefactor, and, to bring him to repentance, and the therefore, deemed it proper to ac- acknowledgment and love of the knowledge his munificence by an truth. " Why art thou wroth, and eucharistical or thank-offering, yet, why is thy countenance fallen? If not being humbled for his sins, nor thou doest well, shalt thou not be believing in the promised Redeem- accepted ? and if thou doest not er, refused to bring that species of well, sin lieth at the door.” In the offering which typified redemption words of our Saviour to the unbe.. by the blood of Christ; and he was, lieving Jews, we have a short but consequently, rejected or disap- excellent comment on this address proved of, as one who obstinately of the Most High to Cain: “Ye clung to the violated covenant will not come unto me, that ye self-confident, and unwilling to be might have life!” Cain knew the a debtor to grace. A short extract terms of salvation as well as his from Dr. Adam Clarke's notes on brother Abel ; and if he refused to this passage of scripture, shall close comply with them, he must abide this article of our lecture. Cain, the consequences. The righteous the father of Deism, not acknow- Lord loveth righteousness, and canledging the necessity of a vicarious not do an unrighteous act. His sacrifice, nor feeling his need of an word of threatening, as well as of atonement, according to the dic- promise, must stand fast, and be tates of his natural religion brought unbroken for ever. « The soul that an eucharistic offering to the God sinneth, it shall die.” Cain had of the universe. Abel, not less sinned; and if he refused to accept grateful for the produce of his fields of redemption through the media and the increase of his flocks, tion of the second Adam, the Lord brought a similar offering, and by from heaven, he must die. Yet he adding a sacrifice to it, paid a pro- might have life--a ransom was proper regard to the will of God, as vided. “ Sin lieth at the door." far as it had then been revealed, This passage may, and we think acknowledging himself a sinner, ought to be rendered, a sin-offering and thus, deprecating the divine coucheth at the door ; that is, a displeasure, showed forth the death
lamb, for a sin-offering, lieth at the of Christ till he came. Thus his door of the sheep-fold. And it offerings were accepted, while those seems to be implied that, if he of Cain were rejected; for this, as would bring such an offering, in the apostle says, was done by faith, faith, as did his brother, he should and therefore he obtained witness be pardoned and accepted. And that he was righteous, or a justified though he began to meditate misperson, God testifying with his chief against Abel, from the base gifts, the thank-offering and the sin- principle of envy, God, as if to preoffering, by accepting them, that his vent the horrid deed that ensued, faith in the promised seed was the assured him that none of his rights only way in which he could accept or privileges, as the first-born, were the services and offerings of man- at all abridged--that Abel would kind.” Did God, then, abandon still render him all due respect, the unbelieving Cain, and allow him and treat him, in the family circle, no farther time or space for repent- with that deference and submission ance? Far from it. Even when he which belonged to the elder brobecame wroth, and his fallen coun- ther. But all this could not satisfy tenance betrayed the blasphemy of his jealous soul, or melt his obduhis heart, God," who delighteth not rate heart. He regarded the ways in the death of the wicked,” con- of God as unequal, and resolved that Heaven's favourite should feel reviewed Mr. C.'s book so far as the weight of his vengeance. He respects the church of God, and the talked with his brother-probably right of infants to baptism, before I disputed with him on religious sub- enter upon a review of the mode, or jects, and, having lured him into action of baptism, it may not be the field, rose up against him, and amiss to present you again with slew him, as an apostle informs us, some of his rules respecting positive because his own works were evil institutes, that you may see how far and his brother's righteous. Mark, he is himself governed by them on here, the difference between him this part of the subject. “In posithat serveth God and him that serv- tive institutes we are not authorized eth him not. Abel was a believer, to reason what we should do, but a professor of godliness; he, there
implicitly to obey--and can there fore, suffered persecution-his ca- be a positive institution without a reer on earth was short-his death positive precept or precedent auwas premature and violent. But thorizing it?" It may also not be he suffered for righteousness' sake, amiss to set before you the 99th and he was blessed, in his deed and question of his new catechism, with in his end. He may be considered its answer. “Q. How do you view all as the first martyr; and he proba- Pædobaptists with regard to this bly now leads the van of that noble ordinance of baptism? Can you, army of witnesses for the truth, according to the scriptures, consiwhich, encircling the throne of glo- der them baptized persons, or do ry, cry with a loud voice, “Salva- you consider them as unbaptized ? tion to our God, and to the Lamb, A. There is only one baptism, and for ever and ever."
all who have not been immersed in Let us learn from the subject of the name of the Father, Son, and this lecture the importance of wor- Holy Spirit, after professing the shipping God in spirit and in truth, faith of the gospel, have never been and the necessity of a believing re- baptized, and are now in an unbapgard to the Lord Jesus Christ, in all tized state." our endeavours to honour the Crea- You will have' perceived, that actor, and to secure the Divine accept- cording to this answer, not only inance of our persons and services. fant baptism, but the baptism of We are sinners: and heaven is in- adults, if not by immersion, is a accessible to us, save through the nullity; and consequently, that merits and intercession of the di. there is no church of God, no lawful vinely constituted Mediator, in ministry, amongst Pædobaptists: whom it hath pleased the Father and you will reasonably expect, that that all fulness should dwell. From for the purpose of showing us our that fulness may we receive, and exceeding great error, according to grace for grace!
his own rule made and provided for this case, he will tell us the chap
ter and verse in which it is said, Brief Review of a Debate on Chris
that baptism is to be administered
by immersion only; and that baptian Baptism, between Mr. John Walker, a Minister of the Seces
tism administered in any other mode
is null and void : and further, you sion, and Mr. Alexander Campbell, a Minister of the Baptist
will also expect, the words of this Church; in three Letters to a
chapter and verse to be so clear, and
distinctly defined, as to admit of no Friend.
other meaning, and like axioms to LETTER III.
involve their own evidence. And (Continued from page 348.) is not this the case ? Not at all, sir. Having in my last letters briefly His rule of “positive precept and
FOR THE PRESBYTERIAN MAGAZINE
precedent,” is only to be urged when as a proof of this, mentioned the little children are to be driven out case of Nebuchadnezzar, whose boof the church, where they had been dy is said, Dan. iv. 33, (ebaphe) to planted by Jehovah himself; but be wet with the dew of heaven; but abandoned, as of no manner of use, this could not be by immersion, but when the right of women to the by the dew being sprinkled upon Lord's supper, or immersion, is the him. question. He reasons too, and in- To this Mr. C. replied by profers, like any Pædobaptist; and in- ducing, 1. the opinion of Dr. CAMPstead of telling us where the “posi- BELL of Aberdeen, who, in his notes tive precept or precedent” for im- critical and explanatory to his mersion is, he appeals to lexicogra- translation of the four evangelists, phers and biblical critics, in sup- translates the verb BAPTIZO “to dip, port of his opinion. You will not to plunge, to immerse.” 2. The auunderstand me as condemning a re- thority of SCAPULA, who also renders course to the foregoing authorities, the word “ to plunge, to immerse, when under the direction of a sound to dye, because colouring is done discretion; but you cannot but see by immersion.” 3. The authority of how inconsistent, if not ridiculous, Stockius, who says, that "generalit is in Mr. C., who tells us, that ly it obtains by the natural import “in positive institutions we are not of the word, the idea of dipping in, authorized to reason what we should or immersing. Specially and prodo, but implicitly to obey;" and ‘perly, it signifies to immerse, or more especially when he tells us, to dip-figuratively it signifies to that the very existence of the church wash, because any thing that is depends upon baptism being ad- washed is usually dipped or imministered by immersion, as it is mersed in water. And to these admitted on both sides that baptism he adds the authority of Parkhurst, is the mode of initiation. But let who renders it, 1. “To dip, imus hear him and Mr. W. on the
merse, or plunge in water. 2. To point.
wash one's self, to be washed, wash, Mr. C. tells us that Mr. W. al- | i. e. the hands by immersion or leged in favour of administering plunging in water. 3. To baptize, baptism by pouring the water on the to immerse, or to wash with water subject, that the Greek verb bap- in token of purification.” Whence tizo, which is translated in our Bi- Mr. C. infers that immersion is the bles baptize, does not necessarily uniform meaning of the term, and signify to dip, but to sprinkle or o that there cannot be found one. pour—that the word is used in this
solitary instance in all the dictionsense in Luke xi. 39. “ A certain aries of the Greek language, nor in Pharisee asked Jesus to dine with classical use, that bapto or baptihim, and he went and sat down to zo signifies to sprinkle or to pour.' meat; and when the Pharisee saw Let this be remembered. it he marvelled that he had not first With respect to his first authori('ebaptisthe) washed before din- ty, Dr. Campbell, who says, “that ner:"_that it was not his whole
although the words baptein, and body, but his hands, that were al baptizein often occur in the septuluded to in this passage:that this agint and apocryphal writings, and was done by pouring water on the are always rendered to dip, to wash, hands; and as a proof, he mentioned
and to plunge, the instance adduced what is said of Elisha, that he pour- by Mr. W. of Nebuchadnezzar's ed water on the hands of Elijah. | body being wet with the dew of heaMr. W. also alleged, that “BAP- ven, is a proof that he was mistaken.
» the root of “BAPTIZO," is But this is not all. The late Rev. sometimes used in this sense, and John P. Campbell, of Kentucky, in
his book, (p. 29—86) by a minute Schleusner, confessedly the ablest examination, and detailed view of all lexicographers of modern times, it the places where the words are used fully appears, that although it was in the septuagint, has proved incon- used frequently by Greek writers to trovertibly that their primary mean- denote immersion, yet it is 'never ing in that translation of the Old used in this sense in the New TesTestament, is, “ to smear, to tinge, tament: and I boldly affirm that to wet with some liquid;" and that to there is not a good Greek linguist immerse is only a secondary mean- who has read, or will read, Mr. J. ing; and that the vulgate translation P. Campbell's book in answer to of the scriptures, with Pagninus, Mr. Jones, but will be fully conBuxtorf, and Tromius, critics of vinced that this is the case. Nor is high reputation, render the words it strange that the writers of the in the foregoing primary meaning.
New Testament should affix a meanMr. C. has animadverted on some ing to it different from the Greek places in this book; but for very writers of the day. The Greek prudential reasons has overlooked writers, says Schleusner, used it that part of
I have alluded to. not unfrequently, though not alAs to his second authorities SCA- ways, to denote washing by immerPULA and STOCKIUS, as I have not sion; but the writers of the New access to them at present, I must Testament use it in a figurative allow Mr. C. all the force he can sense, denoting the application of derive from their opinion. With water to the body as a religious rite, respect to Parkhurst, his last au- and a divine ordinance appointed thority, he at first garbles his defi- for the purpose of initiating into the nition of the word baptizo; though church, and for obtaining the remisfor what reason, I will not positive- sion of sins, and the purifying influly say, he afterwards acknowledges ences of the Holy Spirit. Hence it. Mr C.'s quotation from Park- said Peter on the day of Pentecost, hurst's Lexicon, is, “to dip, to im- “Be baptized every one of you for merse, to plunge in water:” but the remission of sins, and
shall Parkhurst's words are, 1. To dip, receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." immerse, or plunge in water: but It follows then, that unless other in the New Testament it occurs not words and circumstances connected strictly in this sense, unless so far as with baptism determine the mode this is included in sense 1 and 3, be- of applying water to the subject, the low; and this is in perfect accord- word baptizo cannot. ance with the definition of SCHLEUS- But in addition to the foregoing NER, one of the best and most es- lexicographers and critics respectteemed lexicographers of modern ing the meaning of the verb baptitimes. His definition is this. Bap- zo, Mr. C. tells us that the Greek tizo-1. Properly to immerse and prepositions en, eis, ek, and apo, dye, to dip into water. “In this which are connected with it, show sense, indeed, it is never used in the that its meaning is “to immerse;" New Testament, but it is so used as en and eis, he says, signify in and with some frequency in Greek au- into; and ek and apo,"out of.” In thors," "as it is not unfrequent to Matthew iïi. 6, en is, indeed, transdip or immerse something in water lated in; "and were baptized of in order to wash it." As the limits him in Jordan, confessing their assigned to this letter will not per
But in the 11th verse, an. mit me to enter into a fuller inves- in Mark i. 8, and in John i. 26, tigation of the word baptizo, in is translated “with." I inder the New Testament, I would only || baptize you with (en) water." B further observe, that from the defi- why might not en be translated in, nitions of it given by Parkhurst and in the 11th as well as in the 6th