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INDEX TO VOL. XXXVI. OF LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.
Austrian Money, ...... 48| Homes of American Authors, . 203, Child's First Letter, .... 129 Arabs and Zip Coon, .... 81
346 Constancy in Inconstancy, . 474 ....231 Husbands, Apology for, . . . . 255 Christmas Eve, ......576 American Statesmen, ... .341 Hang or not Hang, ..... 497 Antiquity, What is? .....389
Day gone by, ....... 41 Australia, ....... 429, 527 Isis, by J. A. St. John, .223, 337 Dim Old Woods, . ....: 234 Austro-French Alliance, ...619 Infidelity, Modern French, .: 439 D'Israeli, Farewell to, ... 304
Insects Talk, ........495 Dirty Old Man,...... 407 Books, New, 48, 96, 144, 173, 180, Ingersoll's War in 1812, . . . 498 189, 190, 239, 340,432, 467, 470,
Fear and Hope, • .....360 480, 501, 516 Jamaica, Condition of, . . . . 186 Biographers, Modern, ....173
Grey, Lady Jane, ..... 66 Berry, Miss, ........178 Kathay, Cruise in China Seas, Give to the Wind thy Fears, .280 Banking Philanthropy, . .. .179 Kingsley's Phaethon . .... 105 Birkbeck, Dr., ....... 182||
Hours, Worth of, ..... 129 Belgium and Piedmont, . 185, 288, Language, Primeval, .... 82
466 Links in Chain of Destiny, .. 86 In Peace, .........596 Bartley's Farewell to the Stage, 470 Living Branches on Dead Trees, 171 Indiau Summer, ...... 41 Berthalde Reimer's Voice, ..567 Lobos Question, ....... 288 In the Night Time, ..... 130
Living, ..........374 Italy in January. .....576 Country Clergymen, ... 32, 159 Legends, a Chapter on, ...377 “I would not live alway,” .586 Commercial Law, ...... 46 Love in the Moon, ......528 Chinese Festival, California, . 63 Lew Chew, Visit to, .... .620 Jewish Pilgrim, . ..... 44 Crowe, Mrs., ........ 97 Charles I., Attempted Escapes of, 100 Macaulay's Address, ... Lover's Grave, ...... 170 Convicts, Earnings of, ... .174 Monomania, .....
871 Love, Early, ....... 383 Cotton Metropolis, ...... 241 Mara, Madame, ... Cavendish, ......... 268 Moore's Memoirs, .... . 269 Madonna and Child, .... 104 Cuba, in a Religious Aspect, .287 Mexican Lion, .......276 Masque of the New Year, . .603 Charles V. in Retirement, 331, 481 Mary Tudor, ........ 347 Man is no Star, ...... 170 Counsel, License of, .....445 Money and Morals, ... 446 Milton Imitated. .., .383 Cobden's Wager, .....
....523 Married, Getting, ......458| Cuban Slavery, .......524 Madiai, ..........479 Night, To, .........373
-- 'Treaty, .......525 Money Panic, Paris, .....515| Christmas Fires, ...... 585 My Shadowy Passion, ....555 Old Echoes, . ....... 360
Montenegro and its Neighbors, 574 On the Banks of a Beautiful D'Israeli, Plagiarism, .... 29 Montenegro, ........618 River, ......... 96 De Quincey, Thomas, Humor of, 64 Design, School of, : .....174 Napoleon III., 193, 468, 508, 517, Powers, Hiram, . ..... 346 Digger's Bride, ....... 336 Doctor of Philosophy, ....586 Napoleon I., ....... Railway Nursery Rhymes, . 176 Duke and Apollyon,.....601 Needle, Crusade of, ..., Resignation and ReconciliaNatal, Six Months in, ... .4931
tion, .......... 384 Europe, .......... 47 Edwards, President, MSS. of, . 181 Orchestra, Human, ..... 47|
Speculative Sympathy, ... 170 Empson, Professor, .....376 Oxford Nuisance, ....
School Friendship, ..... 224 East, Four Months in, ... . 494
Piano, How to play, ..... 63. Thirty Years' War, ....471 Finden, Wm., ........ 143 Peatal Aggression, ...
. . 2641
Torrent of Arabia, : ....474 Free Trade and English Gov- Prosperity of the Country, . .284|
ernment, . . . . . . . . . 183 Prussia, . . . . . . . . . . 429 Webster, ....... 28, 448 Fruits, .......... 187 Parker, Theodore, ...... Wellington, 28, 60, 61, 62, 360, Fire Annihilator, ......495 Preciosa, .........542
526 France, Lamartine's Restora- Pill-Box, .....::::: 361|
Watcher on the Tower, . . .219 tion of Monarchy in,....547 Proposals for Amusing Posteri War, I saw, ....... 256 Financial Ferment, .....573 ty,
Randolph of Roanoke,.... 34 Guano Diggings, ...... 199 POETRY :
Regicides in America, .... 42 Guest, Sir J. J., ....... 208 Annie, a Song, ...... 81 Reynolds, Richard, ..... 220 Geographical Progress, . . . . 335 Alas for Human Reason, . . 112 Religion and Taste, ..... 229 Great Britain, Critical Position, 461 Ass and Lamb, ...... 283 Rooster-Pecked wlie,
..283 Rooster-Pecked Wife, ....431 - Ministry of, . . 463 Autumn, Still Day in, ... 202 Rational Liberty, ......475 on the Defensive, 465
Ruth ; a Norel, .......543 and the U. 8., 1622 Better trust all, ...... 254 River Scenery of France, . .
587 Gold Deposits, Europe, ... . 496 Be Patient, .......
. 304 Rhyming Dictionary, .....617 - Digging Mania, Final Ca Because the Few, .... 304 tastrophe of, .......597
| Schiller and Goethe, . . . . . 104
Canary Bird, ....... 45 Sevigné, Madame, ...... 145 Hindostan, Diorama of, ... 1981 Cathedral Music, ..... 80 Scott, Sir W., Last Hours of, . 177
St. John, Order of, ..... 1961 Berthalde Reimer's Voice, . 569 Uncle Tom, . ........ 189
- - , French, .....592
449 Dead or Alive, ..... .225 Villette By Currer Bell, . . .588
, Funeral of, .49, 185
5491 Golden Guillotine, .....361 Webster, Anecdote of, : : : : 31
-, Important Thought, . 160
257 Womans' Rights' Convention, . 289
Walker, Wm. Sidney, .... 295
Wine Trade, Mysteries of, . .502
Old and Young Love, . . .609 Wallotty Trot, ....,..593
stone, ......... 3901
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 450.—1 JANUARY, 1853.
From the Morning Chronicle, 19th Nov. which the young Napoleon showed so decidedly at THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.
Brienne. Arthur Wellesley, however, chose the
army as a profession in very early life. Richard, It is yet a mooted point where and when Arthur his elder brother, the late Marquis of Wellesley, Wellesley, the great Duke of Wellington, first saw preferred the civil service, and both boys at an the light. The honor has usually been awarded to early age lest Ireland for Eton. From that famous, Dangan Castle, the residence of his father, the school Richard went to Oxford, and Arthur, in Earl of Mornington, in the county of Meath. On pursuance of his profession, entered himself at the the other hand, certain discoveries lately made in military seminary of Angers—the capital of Anjou, the parish registers of Dublin-particularly an so celebrated in the history of the Plantagenets entry in that of St. Peter's Church-point to the where the French engineer Pignerol then presided. probability of the hero having been born in Dublin, He here spent six years in the pursuit of military at the town house of his parents, which was knowledge, according to the soon afterwards dissituated in its garden abutting on Merrion-square, used tactics of the old régime. During this period, The entry in question is that of the baptism of the however, Arthur made no more figure than at Eton, infant Arthur, which is dated as having been per- wbile, nearly at the same time, the young Napoleon formed on the 30th of April, 1769, an entry which, was the leading spirit of Brienne. Indeed, it is if correct, would set aside the ordinarily received said that the boyhood of Richard was far more opinion that the Duke of Wellington's birthday proinising than that of his brother. was the following day-the first of May, 1769. On his return home, in 1787, Arthur Wellesley, Still, of the two statements, both as regards local- in his eighteenth year, was gazetted to an ensigncy, ity and date, that favoring Dangan is most gener- as “ Arthur Wesley,” in the 73d Regiment, and ally adopted. An attempt to fix the birthplace of on the 25th of the following December, he was the future conqueror at Mornington, on his father's promoted to a lieutenancy in the 76th. Half a property, seems unsupported by any rational evi- dozen exchanges rapidly followed, and family infludence.
ence favored his rapid promotion. He was a capArthur was the fourth son of the Earl and tain in 1791-after having been alternately in foot Countess of Mornington. Both his father and and cavalry regiments—and he continued to altermother were of English descent. The Colleys, or nate in his preference of different branches of the Cowleys, who were the founders of the Morning- service while he was rising, which he did rapidly, ton family, had emigrated to Kilkenny in the through the superior grades up to the command of reign of Henry VIII. There were two of them, a regiment. On the 30th of September, 1794, brothers ; and they were astute and wily lawyers. Arthur Wellesley was gazetted as lieutenant-colonel The countess' family, the Wesleys, had previously of the 33d, having thus risen, in little more than settled in Ireland, but their original property was six years, without much help from his own merits, in Sussex, and they were of the old Saxon race. from subaltern rank to the proud position of comThe two families were early united by intermar- mander of a veteran regiment. riage, and at length the estates of both passed The young officer had lived carelessly with reinto the possession of a Richard Colley, who, with spect to money matters, and many—some of them the lands, took the name of the testator, Garret very anjusing-stories were long current in Dublin Wesley; and these two names, Colley and Wesley, touching the shifts to which he had sometimes been were, in process of time, metamorphosed into the compelled to resort. Under such circumstances a better-known appellations of Cowley and Wellesley. seat in the Irish House of Commons may have been In 1747 the Wellesleys were raised to the peerage highly convenient. Captain Wellesley was returned by George II., under the title-bestowed upon in 1790 for Trim, a rotten horough, the property Richard Cowley Wellesley-first of Baron, and of the Morningtons; and for three or four years then of Earl of Mornington. His successor was he represented in the House little more, it is said, the duke's father. It is strange to think of the than the local squabbles and interests of his pocket difference between the characters and lives of the constituency, and the hereditary toryism of his parent and the child. The earl's business and de- family. He seldom addressed the House, and his light was music. He passed half his life at the style of speaking is reported to have been poor, harpsichord, and gave birth—for he possessed a confused, broken, and altogether ineffective. It is vein of melody of no ordinary character—to several right, however, to add that Sir Jonah Barrington of the most beautiful compositions known in Eng- recollected being told by “ a good judge," the first lish glee and madrigal music, and which yet keep time he was introduced to the strangers' gallery, the name of Mornington fresh in the love and ad- that Captain Wellesley “ does speak sometimes, and miration of all votaries of English art.
when he does, believe me, it is always to the purArthur only saw his father in infancy. He was pose.” still young when Lord Mornington died; but | Thus far, the great qualities of the illustrious his mother, Lady Mornington, possessed powers duke were undeveloped. He appeared to the world which enabled her, in no small degree, to supply a in no other light than as a very lucky young officer, father's place. The boy at first displayed no par- and a rather dull tory member of the Irish House ticular abilities indeed, the contrary has been of Commons. The diamond was yet uncut, and hinted ; and he does not seem to have given any none-perhaps not even himself-suspected the lus juvenile manifestations of those warlike instincts tre of the gem. But st length the scene was to be
CCCCL. LIVING AGE, VOL. XXXVI. 1
changed, the sphere to be widened—the true chord | for service in October, 1795, when it embarked at was to be struck, and the life of Arthur Wellesley Portsmouth in Admiral Christian's fieet, destined was at last to begin. He embarked with his regi- for the West Indies. It is needless to attempt to ment for Ostend in 1794.
trace the series of incidents which now occurred to For the previous few years the political and social change the destination of Colonel Wellesley from atmosphere of Europe had been growing wilder the West to the East. The feet was driven back, and blacker. The old system was tottering to its the 33d re-landed, and they were next year foundations. France had struck it mortally, and despatched to Bengal, where they arrived in Sepall dynastic Europe feared to share the fate of the tember, 1796, accompanied by their commander, French monarchy. The excesses of the French who had joined them at the Cape. Two years Revolution had, in particular, driven England passed tranquilly, but at the close of that period frantic with horror and alarm, and the execution the regiment was attached to the Madras Presi. of the royal family and the Reign of Terror had dency, where preparations were already making poured the last drop into the cup of international for that terrible contest which ended with the fall bitterness. On every side, people who had been of the dynasty of Mysore, the death of its great found eagerly hailing the first announced principles sultan, Tippoo Saib, and the overthrow of the inof the Revolution, and welcoming the at length dependent Mahratta power at Assaye. These restored rights of man, were recoiling in disgust preparations were, by a singular chance, mainly from the fascinating doctrines which had led to directed by Richard Wellesley, then Lord Mornsuch results; and when Mr. Pitt declared war ington, who, on the 17th May, 1798, arrived from with the republic of France, it was amid shouts England as governor-general of India. The two of national acclamation. But unfortunate were brothers met that year at Calcutta. War was the results of all this enthusiasm. We had nei- then looming darkly ahead. The contests in ther generals who could lead, nor troops which Europe bad spread to the other hemisphere ; and could fight; and as for the prestige with which our the inany partially-subdued and partially overarmy was encompassed, it was unbappily rather awed Indian monarchs over whom we reigned that of Fontenoy than of Blenheim. We had began to feel, as the news of English reverses at ruined our warlike resources by giving the supreme home reached them, that now or never was the cominand to royal dukes who had neither knowl- time for flinging off forever the British yoke, and edge nor talents to support the position; whilst, asserting their ancient independence. The French amongst the troops themselves, the utmost laxity element which yet lingered in Asia was naturally of discipline prevailed. Moreover, they were ill- employed to fan the rising fame. We had driven armed, ill-clothed, ill-drilled, ill-paid, and ill-fed. the French out of their Oriental possessions, and Consequently, one of the first events of the war was the recollections of Pondicherry still rankled the disgraceful retreat of the Duke of York, who sorely. It is true that France was not formally at commanded 10,000 troops in the Netherlands, before war with us in the East-there was no French the levies of the French republicans—bodies of regiment in India. The tricolor, which had wildly enthusiastic young men, who rushed upon lately replaced the drapeau blanc, waved over no the bayonet singing revolutionary songs, and utterly Asiatic territory to which we laid claim. But bewildered the brains of generals whose notions of there were dangerous French adventurers-prinwarfare were drawn from the principles and prac- cipally military men-lurking amid the courts and tice of the days of Louis XIV.
camps of the Mahratta chiefs, of the Nizam, and When Wellesley, with the 33d Regiment, especially of the redoubtable Tippoo Saib. These arrived at Ostend, as part of the expedition of persons hated the English, and the sentiment was relief under the Earl of Moira, he came to join a fully reciprocated. They were at once dangerous beaten general in a disastrous retreat. It was not and insidious foes. They whispered triumph into an auspicious commencement of a military career, the ears of their Oriental host, they initiated but the young soldier did his duty quietly, coolly, Oriental soldiery in European discipline and Euroand effectively. He reëinbarked his troops at pean modes of war, and they held out promises of Ostend, which place Picbegru was threatening, lavish assistance, both in troups and treasure, and joined the Duke of York at Malines. The his- from the Republic of France. Tippoo had more tory of the campaign which followed is that of a than a hundred French officers, adventurers or beaten army Aying from pillar to post, and forced soi-disant political agents, in his service ; and hither and thither at the will of the conqueror. these men excited and encouraged an ambition Baffled, and all but heart-broken, the Duke of which, in any case, was sufficiently ready to exYork was recalled, and the Hanoverian general, plode. They appear to have had that prince Walmoden, took the command, and at once as thoroughly in their power. He was a member of sumed the offensive. The result was a protracted their Jacobin club, and he joined in their denunciwinter campaign in Holland and Westphalia, in ations of all possible kings, saving always himself which the allies were generally worsted, whilst and his neighbors, the Mahratta chiefs. With they also suffered severely from the severity of the latter he was anxious to ally himself before the season ; and, at its close, Colonel Wellesley, sweeping down with his splendid forces—amount“ the leader of a broken host," found himself ing to more than 70,000 highly-arined and disdriven through Holland to the sea, leaving the ciplined troops—upon the 8,000 sepoys and the victorious republicans the masters of Continental 4,000 English soldiers which were all that the Europe.
governor-general, at the time of his arrival, had at The military abilities, the energy, and resources his disposal. displayed by Colonel Wellesley in that disastrous And here let us pause for a moment to glance at campaign, were made the subject of high praise in the political geography of our Indian territory at the reports of the day. His regiment embarked that period. We held the points-each important for England, and was for some time stationed at for strategic operations-of Calcutta, Madras, and Southampton ; and, after a period barely sufficient Bombay ; but our possessions, which were mainly for rest and reörganization, it was again called out limited to the coast, were but spots compared with