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hand resting on the Holy Evangelists, did this patriarch of science avow his present and past belief in the dogmas of the Romish Church, abandon as false and heretical the doctrine of the earth's motion and of the sun's immobility, and pledge himself to denounce to the Inquisition any other person who was even suspected of heresy. He abjured, cursed, and detested, those eternal and immutable truths which the Almighty had permitted him to be the first to establish. Had Galileo but added the courage of the martyr to the wisdom of the sage; had he carried the glance of his indignant eye round the circle of his judges; had he lifted his hands to heaven, and called the living God to witness the truth and immutability of his opinions; the bigotry of his enemies would have been disarmed, and science would have enjoyed a memorable triumph.”



“ Into the Heaven of Heavens I have presumed,

An earthly guest, and drawn empyreal air.”—Milton.

The consideration of the system of Jupiter and his satellites led us to review the interesting history of Galileo, who first, by means of the telescope, disclosed the knowledge of that system to the world. I will now proceed with the other superior planets.

SATURN, as well as Jupiter, has within itself a system on a scale of great magnificence. In size it is next to Jupiter the largest of the planets, being seventy-nine thousand miles in diameter, or about one thousand times as large as the earth. It has likewise belts on its surface, and is attended by seven satellites. But a still more wonderful appendage is its Ring, a broad wheel, encompassing the planet at a great distance from it. As Saturn is nine hundred millions of miles from us, we require a more powerful telescope to see his glories, in all their magnificence, than we do to enjoy a full view of the system of Jupiter. When we are privileged with a view of Saturn, in his most favorable positions, through a telescope of the larger class, the mechanism appears more wonderful than even that of Jupiter.

Saturn's ring, when viewed with telescopes of a high power, is found to consist of two concentred rings, separated from each other by a dark space. Although this division of the rings appears to us, on account of our immense distance, as only a fine line, yet it is, in reality, an interval of not less than eighteen hundred miles. The dimensions of the whole system are, in round numbers, as follows:


Diameter of the planet,

79,000 From the surface of the planet to the inner ring, 20,000 Breadth of the inner ring,

17,000 Interval between the rings, .

1,800 Breadth of the outer ring,

10,500 Extreme dimensions from outside to outside, 176,000

Figure 60, facing page 247, represents Saturn, as it appears to a powerful telescope, surrounded by its rings, and having its body striped with dark belts, somewhat similar, but broader and less strongly marked than those of Jupiter. In telescopes of inferior power, but still sufficient to see the ring distinctly, we should scarcely discern the belts at all. We might, however, observe the shadow cast upon the ring by the planet, (as seen in the figure on the right, on the upper side ;) and, in favorable situations of the planet, we might discern glimpses of the shadow of the ring on the body of the planet, on the lower side beneath the ring. To see the division of the ring and the satellites requires a better telescope than is in possession of most observers. With smaller telescopes, we may discover an oval figure of peculiar appearance, which it would be difficult to interpret. Galileo, who first saw it in the year 1610, recognised this peculiarity, but did not know what it meant. Seeing something in the centre with two projecting arms, one on each side, he concluded that the planet was triple-shaped. This was, at the time, all he could learn respecting it, as the telescopes he possessed were very humble, compared with those now used by astronomers. The first constructed by him magnified but three times; his second, eight times; and his best, only thirty times, which is no better than a common ship-glass.

It was the practice of the astronomers of those days to give the first intimation of a new discovery in a Latin verse, the letters of which were transposed. This would enable them to claim priority, in case any other person should contest the honor of the discovery, and at the same time would afford opportunity to complete their observations, before they published a full account of them. Accordingly, Galileo announced the discovery of the singular appearance of Saturn under this disguise, in a line which, when the transposed letters were restored to their proper places, signified that he had observed, “that the most distant planet is tripleformed."* He shortly afterwards, at the request of his patron, the Emperor Rodolph, gave the solution, and added, “ I have, with great admiration, observed that Saturn is not a single star, but three together, which, as it were, touch each other; they have no relative motion, and are constituted of this form, o0o, the middle one being somewhat larger than the two lateral ones. If we examine them with an eye-glass which magnifies the surface less than one thousand times, the three stars do not appear very distinctly, but Saturn has an oblong appearance, like that of an olive, thus, o. Now, I have discovered a court for Jupiter, (alluding to his satellites,) and two servants for this old man, (Saturn,) who aid his steps, and never quit his side.”

It was by this mystic light that Galileo groped his * Altissimum planetam tergeminum observavi. Or, as transposed, Smaismrmilme poeta leumi bvne nugttaviras.

way through an organization which, under the more powerful glasses of his successors, was to expand into a mighty orb, encompassed by splendid rings of vast dimensions, the whole attended by seven bright satellites. This system was first fully developed by Huyghens, a Dutch astronomer, about forty years afterwards.* It requires a superior telescope to see it to advantage ; but, when seen through such a telescope, it is one of the most charming spectacles afforded to that instrument. To give some idea of the properties of a telescope suited to such observations, I annex an extract from an account, that was published a few years since, of a telescope constructed by Mr. Tully, a distinguished English artist. “ The length of the instrument was twelve feet, but was easily adjusted, and was perfectly steady. The magnifying powers ranged from two hundred to seven hundred and eighty times; but the great excellence of the telescope consisted more in the superior distinctness and brilliancy with which objects were seen through it, than in its magnifying pow

With a power of two hundred and forty, the light of Jupiter was almost more than the eye could bear, and his satellites appeared as bright as Sirius, but with a clear and steady light; and the belts and spots on the face of the planet were most distinctly defined. With a power of nearly four hundred, Saturn appeared large and well defined, and was one of the most beautiful objects that can well be conceived.”

That the ring is a solid opaque substance, is shown by its throwing its shadow on the body of the planet on the side nearest the sun, and on the other side receiving that of the body. The ring encompasses the equatorial regions of the planet, and the planet revolves on an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of the


* In imitation of Galileo, Huyghens announced his discovery in this form : a a a a a a a cccccdeeee eg hiiiiiiillllmmnn nnnnnnno000 ppqrrstttttuu uuu ; which he afterwards recomposed into this sentence : Annulo cingitur, tenui, plano, nusquam cohærente, ad eclipticam inclinato..


L. A.

ring in about ten and a half hours. This is known by observing the rotation of certain dusky spots, which sometimes appear on its surface. This motion is nearly the same with the diurnal motion of Jupiter, subjecting places on the equator of the planet to a very swift revolution, and occasioning a high degree of compression at the poles, the equatorial being to the polar diameter in the high ratio of eleven to ten.

Saturn's ring, in its revolution around the sun, always remains parallel to itself. If we hold opposite to the cye a circular ring or disk, like a piece of coin, it will appear as a complete circle only when it is at right angles to the axis of vision. When it is oblique to that axis, it will be projected into an ellipse more and more flattened, as its obliquity is increased, until, when its plane coincides with the axis of vision, it is projected into a straight line. Please to take some circle, as a flat plate, (whose rim may well represent the ring of Saturn,) and hold it in these different positions before the eye. Now, place on the table a lamp to represent the sun, and holding the ring at a certain distance, inclined a little towards the lamp, carry it round the lamp, always keeping it parallel to itself. During its revolution, it will twice present its edge to the lamp at opposite points; and twice, at places ninety degrees distant from those points, it will present its broadest face towards the lamp. At intermediate points, it will exhibit an ellipse more or less open, according as it is nearer one or the other of the preceding positions. It will be seen, also, that in one half of the revolution, the lamp shines on one side of the ring, and in the other half of the revolution, on the other side.

Such would be the successive appearances of Saturn's ring to a spectator on the sun; and since the earth is, in respect to so distant a body as Saturn, very near the sun, these appearances are presented to us nearly in the same manner as though we viewed them from the sun.

Accordingly, we sometimes see Saturn's ring under the form of a broad ellipse, which grows contin

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