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ed to establish one similar to In 1813 he was still a pris. the churches of the first chris
Many of his followers tians.
were obliged to give up their Believing himself called to books, to leave Bergen, and to the ministry, he propagated his live separtaely.
live separtaely. They were principles both by preaching threatened that if they presumand writing ; and although he ed to preach, circulate, read or was persecuted by the clergy, keep any books concerning he found many to join him. their opinions, they also should By way of derision they were be imprisoned. If any person called Saints.
should purchase any of the On account of ill treatment books that treated of their from their neighbours many of principles, they were to be the society sold their posses- subject to a severe penalty. sions, and found it necessary
Those of their number vho to live more closely together. had not resided wholly in BerThey devoted their property gen were not deprived of their to the service of the Lord, for property, and they were the purchase of books, for the abled to assist those who were relief of the needy, and for the driven from thence. Notwithspread of the Gospel princi- standing all these restrictions ples. Some of them became and abuses, this people still merchants and traders, their continued to propagate their numbers increased, and they principles, and when they had became a respectable body of opportunity they met together people. But they were tra. in one another's houses. duced and misrepresented ; H. N. Hough, the founder the magistrates were stirred of this society, was not a very up against ther, and their long time kept in irons, and leader was imprisoned in Chris. he was frequently told by the tiana. He was denied the magistrates that he might leave company of his friends, the the prison ; but this he de. use of the Bible, and of pen clined, unlcss thcy would asand ink; nor was he eren sign a sufficient reason why permitted to speak to other they had imprisoned him and prisoners. His hands and feet taken his property, and that were put in irons ; and when of his friends. He however this was done he said " I re. so far availed himself of the joice that I am worthy to suf- liberty granted, as occasionalfer persecution for the Lord's ly to visit his friends and to sake ; and though you have ineet with them for religious taken away my outward prop. purposes. erty, you cannot take away my Among his followers were inward peace.” This had such two blind men who regarded an effect on the multitude who themselves as called to the stood by, that many of them ministry; and though they became converts to his relig. were born blind, they had acivus principles.
quired an extensive knowledge
of the scriptures and could re- This they considered as a great fer to any part of the Bible in blessing,for he instructed them their preaching. This Society in his religious sentiments, and retain the ceremonies of bap- endeavoured to promote the tisrn and the Lord's supper, principle of truth in their but in many respects their hearts. After a while they principles accord with those were removed to another ship, of the Society of Friends, where they found Barclay's Like the Friends they are op- Apology in the hands of a prisposed to war as antichristian ; oner, and adopted the opinions yet some of them have been of that writer. One of them known to take up arms in obe. wrote a letter to the people dience to the commands of called Quakers, and gave dimagistrates.
rections to the bearer that it During the late war between should be delivered to the first England and Denmark, person he should meet of that board of a prison ship off persuasion.
This occasioned Chatham two Norwegian pris. the inquiring prisoners a suponers became seriously im- ply of books, as well as visits pressed with the sin of swear- from Friends, Other prisoning, to which they had been. ers . observing their serious accustomed, and deeply hum- and exemplary deportment bled in view of their depravi- united with them till their ty and guilt. One of the So- number amounted to 28.ciety of Saints was brought on What a happy sight to behold board as a prisoner ; they ob- men who had been brought up served that he was not in the as warriors transformed from habit of swearing and soon be lions to lambs by the power of came acquainted with him. the christian religion !
ON THE COMPLACENCY WITA WHICH INFANTS ARE CONTEMPLATED. Whence the delight, sweet infancy, On yon cane-planted clustering shores That each fond eye derives from thee? Round which the western billow roars, I blush to tell the reason why,
That whip, whose lash so long reI blush for frail humanity.
sounds, So oft the sense that time supplies 'Tis Man that lifts,'tis Man it wounds! Proves but capacity of vice;
The wretch in that dank room who A power to love and to believe
pines TH' illusions that to wrong deceive ; 'Tis not disease, 'tis MAN confines ! A mental light that basely shines Those corses, yonder plain that strew, To guide the step of dark designs ; 'Twas man and not the tiger slew ! A miner's lamp, low paths to light, Fir'd cities blacken heaven with Deeds under ground, the works of
'Twas man's red lightning dealt the We turn from vice-encumbered sense
stroke. To smile on empty innocence. For this each eye, sweet infancy,
Delights to bend its look on thee! This scene of things indignant scan, Since stronger souls their strength See MAN throughout the pest of MAN! employ
And strain their powers but to destroy; Since eagles dip their heaks in blood, Complacence turns her view from And make their meat in throbbing thence
food ; To feebleness and innocence.
From them the falling eye of love Sin vigorous falcons tyrants are Drops to the weak but harmless dove. The hovering terror of the air
EXTRACTS from a Report to the ing the enormous devastations of this
“ New-York Society for the preven- evil upon the minds and morals of the tion of Pauperism.”
people, we cannot but regard it as
the crying and increasing sin of the But with a view to bring the sub- nation, and as loudly demanding the ject committed to our charge, more solemn deliberation of our legislative definitely before the society, we have assemblies. thought it right; distinctly to enumer- 4th WANT OF ECONOMY.
Prodi. ate the more prominent of those gality is comparative. Among the causes of poverty, which prevail poor, it prevails to a great extent, in' within the city ; subjoining such re- an inattention to those small, but fremarks as may appear needful. quent savings when labour is plenti
1st. IGNORANCE, arising either ful, which may go to meet the privafrom in herent dullness, or from want tions of unfavourable seasons. of opportunities for improvement. 5th. IMPRUDENT AND HASTY MARThis operates as a restraint upon the
This, it is believed is a ferphysical powers, preventing that ex- tile source of trial and poverty. ercise and cultivation of the bodily 6th. LOTTERIES. The depravfaculties by which skill is obtained, ing nature and tendency of these aland the means of support increased. lurements to hazard money, is generThe influence of this cause, it is be- ally admitted by those who have been lieved, is particularly great among the most attentive to their effects. The foreign poor that annually accumu- time spent in inquiries relative to lot-, late in this city.
teries, in frequent attendance on lot2nd. IDLENESS. A tendency to tery offices, the feverish anxiety this evil may be more or less inherent. which prevails relative to the success It is greatly increased by other causes, of tickets, the associations to which and when it becomes habitual, it is it leads, all contribute to divert the the occasion of much suffering in labourer from his employment, to families, and augments to a great weaken the tone of his morals, to amount the burden of the industrious consume his earnings and consequentportions of society.
ly to increase his poverty. But ob3d. INTEMPERANCE IN DRINKING. jectionable and injuriqus to society This most prolific source of mischief as we believe lotteries to be, we reand misery, drags in its train almost gard as more destructive to morals, every species of suffering which af- and ruinous to all character and comflicts the poor. This evil, in relation fort, the numerous self-erected lotteto poverty and vice, may be emphat- ry insurances at which the young and ically styled, the Cause of Causes. the old are invited to spend their moThe box of Pandora is realized in ney in such small pittances, as the each of the kegs of ardent spirits that poorest labourer is frequently able to stand upon the counters of the sixteen command, under the delusive expechundred licensed grocers of this city. tation of a gain, the chance of which At a moderate computation, the mo- is as low, perhaps, as it is possible to ney spent in the purchase of spiritu- conceive. The poor are thus cheat. ous liquors would be more than suf- ed out of their money and their time, ficient to keep the whole city con- and too often left a prey to the feelstantly supplied with bread. ”View- ings of desperation : or, they are im. Vol. VI.No. 3. 12
pelled by those feelings to seek a tionably had their foundation in morefuge in the temporary, but fatal ob- tives of true Philanthropy ; they livion of intoxication.
have contributed, to cultivate the th. PAWNBROKERS. The es
feelings of christian charity, and to tablishment of these offices is consid- keep alive its salutary influence upon ered as very unfavourable to the in- the minds of our fellow-citizens; and dependence and welfare of the mid- they have doubtless relieved thousdling and inferior classes. The arti- ands from the pressure of the most fices which are often practised to de- pinching want, from cold, from hunceive the expectations of those who ger, and probably in many cases, are induced through actual distress, from untimely death. or by positive allurement, to trust But, in relation to these societies, their goods at these places, not to a question of no ordinary moment: Xrention the facilities which they af- presents itself to the considerate and ford to the commission of theft, and real philanthropist. Is not the parthe encouragement they give to a tial and temporary good which they dependence on stratagem and cun- accomplish, how acute soever the ning, rather than on the profits of miseries they relieve, and whatever honest industry, fairly entitle them, the number they may rescue from in the opinion of the committee, to a sufferings or death, more than counplace among the causes of Poverty. terbalanced, by the evils that flow
8th. HOUSES OF ILL FAME. The from the expectations they necessadireful effects of those sinks of iniqui- rily excite ; by the relaxation of inty, upon the habits and morals of a dustry, which such a display of benumerous class of young men, espe- nevolence tends to produce ; by that cially of sailors and apprentices, are reliance upon charitable aid, in case visible throughout the city. Open of unfavourable times, which must abandonment of character, vulgarity, unavoidably tend to diminish, in the profanity, &c. are among the inevita- minds of the labouring classes, that ble consequences, as it respects our wholesome anxiety to provide for the own sex, of those places of infamous wants of a distant day, which alone resort. Their effects upon the sever- can save them from a state of absoal thousands of females within this lute dependence, and from becomcity, who are ingulphed in those ing a burden to the community ? abodes of all that is vile, and all that To what extent abuses upon our is shocking to virtuous thought, upon present system of alms are practised, the miserable victims, many of them and how far the evils which accomof decent families, who are here sub- pany it are susceptible of remedy, we jected to the most cruel tyranny of should not, at present, feel warranted their inhuman masters-upon the fe- in attempting to state. The paupermales, who, hardened in crime, are ism of the city is under the managenightly sent from those dens of cor- ment of Five Commissioners, who ruption to roam through the city, we doubt not, are well qualified to * seeking whom they may devour,” fullil the trust reposed in them, and we have not the inclination, nor is it altogether disposed to discharge it our duty to describe. Among “the with fidelity. But we cannot with causes of poverty,” those houses, hold the opinion, that without a far where all the base-born passions are more extended, minute, and energetengendered-where the vilest profii- ic scheme of management than it is gacy receives a forced culture, must possible for any five men to keep in hold an eminent rank.
constant operation, abuses will be 9th. THE NUMEROUS CHARITA- practised, and to a great extent, up.
on the public bounty ; taxes musta The Committee by no means intend be increased, and vice and suffering to cast an indiscriminate censure upon perpetuated. these institutions, nor to implicate the LASTLY. Your committee would inotives, nor even to deny the use- mention war during its prevalence, fulness, in a certain degree, of any as one of the most abundant sources one of them. They have unques,
of poverty and vice, which the list of.
human corruptions comprehends. vidual, by any of the institutions alBut as this evil lies out of the imme- ready established, and due notice tadiate reach of local regulation, and
ken of the information they afford, a as we are now happily blest with a change will soon be perceived in the peace which we hope will be durable, aspect of the poor. Finding that they it is deemed unnecessary further to have real friends, that their conduct is notice it.
an object of solicitude, that their The present tranquil state of the characters will be the subject of republic mind, and the almost total ab- mark, a sense of decency, and a sence of political jealousy, indicate a spirit of independence will be gradu period peculiarly favourable to inter- ally awakened, the effects of which, nal improvement and reformation. must eventually be perceived in the
We therefore proceed to point out diminution of the poor rates of the the means, which we consider best city. calculated to meliorate the condition 2nd. To encourage and assist the of the poorer classes, and to strike at labouring classes to make the most of the root of those evils which go to the their earnings, by promoting the esincrease of poverty and its attendant tablishment of a Savings Bank, or of miseries.
Benefit Societies, Life Insurances, &c. ist. To divide the city into very The good effects of such associations small districts, and to appoint from have been abundantly proved in Euthe members of the society, two or rope and in America. Boston, Phila three visiters for each district, whose delphia, and Baltimore have each a duty it shall be; to become acquainted Savings Bank. with the inhabitants of the district, to 3rd. To prevent, by all legal means, visit frequently the families of those the access of paupers who are not enwho are in indigent circumstances, titled to a residence in the city. The to advise them with respect to their plan of inspection before described business, the education of their chil- will furnish the mears of entirely predren, the economy of their houses, to venting those disgraceful encroach administer encouragement or admoni- ments upon the charity of the city, tion, as they may find occasion ; and which it is belieyed have been pracin general, by preserving an open, tised to no inconsiderable extent. candid, and friendly intercourse with 4th. To unite with the corporate them, to gain their confidence, and authorities in the entire inhibition of by suitable and well timed counsel, street begging. There can be no rear to excite them to such a course of sonable excuse whatever, for this conduct as will best promote their practice, more especially if the course physical and moral welfare. The vis
of inspection, now recommended, be iters to keep an accurate register of kept in operation. the names of all those who reside
5th. To.ad, if it shall be deemed within their respective districts, to expedient, in furnishing employment notice every change of residence, to those who cannot procure it, either whether of single or married persons, by the establishment of houses of inand to annex such-observations to the dustry, or by supplying materials for names of those who claim their par- domestic labour. ticular attention as will enable them 6th. To advise and promote the to give every needful information with opening of places of worship in the respect to their character, reputation, outer wards of the city, especially in habits, &c.
situations where licentiousness is the It may fairly be presumed, that if most prevalent. This subject is conthis scheme of inspection can be car- sidered as one of vital importance. ried into full effect ; if visiters can be If, as we believ?, nine tenths of the found, who will undertake the charge, poverty and wretchedness which the from the pure motive of philanthropy, city exhibits, proceeds directly or inand if, on the principles of active directly from the want of correct morconcert, a reference be always had to al principle, and if religion is the bathe books of the visiters, before char- sis of morality, then will it be admititable relief is extended to any indie ted, that to extend the benefits of re