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basis of the late act of parliament in favour of the Roman Ca. tholics. The author, who appears to be of that persuasion, writes in a sensible and spirited ftrain, equally expresive of the generosity of the legislature, and the gratitude of those who have been the objects of its indulgence on this occasion. A Serious Letter to the Public, on the late Transa&tion between Lord

North and the Duke of Gordon. 8vo. Is. Hooper. The transaction on which this Letter is founded is, we believe, fufficiently known to the public. The author's design is to vindicate lord North ; but though in the execution of this province he discovers a considerable degree of zeal, he is greatly inferior, in point of composition, to Junius, whose signature he assumes. A Letter to Lord George Germaine, giving an Account of the

Origin of the Dispute between Great Britain and the Colonies, &c. 8vo. Is. 6d. Whieldon.

The author of this Letter defends the several measures which have been pursued by administration since the commencement of the dispute with America ; and, as the basis of an amicable accommodation, he proposes certain terms, which however appear to betray a coercive rather than a conciliatory spirit. Authentic Memoirs of the late Earl of Chatham. 8vo. , 25.

Wenman. A zealous, unlimited panegyric, in which the author's admi. ration is more conspicuous than his accuracy.

An Inquiry after several important Truths ; especially concerning the

Jubitantial Truth, the Son of God, the hidden God, the Saviour.
And be moft rational mode of Worship. Taken from the Scrip-
turd only, &c. By J. W. E, a German Protestant. 8vo.
The following declaration seems to be perfectly ingenuous :

Not hearing at this present writing (Nov. 1776) of any publication against them [Mr. Lindsay, and Mr. Williams) and not choosing to listen to a known voice of delusion, I began first of all, to examine myself, what I could say, in case one of them was to argue in my hearing.. Am I myself well founded in the truth, so as to answer their objection? Why, I am not quite clear myself, was the result. I therefore resolved on an enquiry, in order to come at fome certainty in this point, &c.'

By this it appears, that the author has not been long converfant in theological studies : for in November 1776, when he sac down to write this pamphlet, he was not much acquainted with the subject, or, as he says, 'not quite clear :' and from the perusal of it, we find no reason to question his veracity.


Tbe Duly and Interest of every private Person and the Kingdom ar

large at i be present Yanclure. 8vo. 25. 6d. Buckland. This writer gives us a general view of our national vices, and considers their natural and inevitable consequences. He states the most obvious arguments in favour of a superintend. ing Providence, and thews the propriery and wisdom of a con, fapt application to the great Governor of nations, and the fu. preme Disposer of all events. He then addresses himself to the libertine, the unbeliever, the gamefter, the duellift, the drunk, ard, the self-murderer, &c. fecting before them the fatal effects of their immoralities. In the last place, he insists on the abHolute necesity of a reformation; and specifies the virtues, which are indispenfibly required of Chriftians.-A plain, pious, and useful creatise.

Sermon prea bed at the Anniversary Mrering of the Sons of ibe Clergy, in the Carbearal Church of St. Paul, » Thursday, May 15, 1797. By the Hon. and Rev. James Cornwallis, Dean of Canterbury. 4to. Batburst.

The sensible and judicious author of this discourse recommends the charity, which provides for the fons of the clergy, to the protection of bis auditors, upon this general principle, that whatever tends to the promotion of religion and virtue, ought to have a precedence among our good works: shewing, that the charity in question has the ftrongest claims in its favour, is free from the objections made to others, and has the purity of moral conduct for its great object,

To this Sermon is added an account of the annual contri. butions to the charity face the year 1720. By which it appears, that the colle&tion in 1777, which amounted to 1000l, was greater than any former one since the year 1766; and that the highest was 1:241. 145. in 1763. In the present year the collection, if we rightly recollect, was about bol. more chan that of the last year.

This article should have appeared in 1777 ; but has been in, advertently overlooked. The Excellence of the Liturgy of the Church of England ; a Ser:

mon at the Cburcboi St. Mary le Bow, on Sr. Mark's Day, 1778, pursuant to the Will of Mr. John Hutchin, By East Apthorp, D. D. 410.

Robson. This learned writer introduces his discourse with some geDeral observations on the usefulness of prescribed forms of prayer in public worthip; he then gives us an historical account of the origin of our Liturgy, 'and a general view of its principal parts.

Two or three short extracts on the compilation of the Li. -turgy may not be unacceptable to fome of our readers.

The compilers of the first English Liturgy had no models before them but the Latin breviaries of barbarous ages in monaftic rhythm. The first outline of this noble work is still to be

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discerned in the Litany and other prayers, published by the au, thority of kipg Henry VIII, in 1535...The two Liturgies of Edward VI in 1548 and 1551, with confiderable variations from each other, approached nearly in essentials, especially the latter, to the present form... In the reigo of queen Mary the Liturgy was repealed ... But the second Lirurgy of Édward VI. was restored at the acceffion of queen Elizabeth in 1558, and continued through that glorious reign win few variations ... In îhe first year of James I. after the conference at Hampton-court, it was reviewed; some thankfgivings were added at the end of the Litany ; and the catechism was enlarged with the doctrine of the sacraments; jts outline having been drawn long before, in king Henry's book of the Institution of a Chriftian Man, published in 1537, and 1543... It was again reviewed in 1661, after the conference of the Savoy ; when several lessons were changed, Yome collects altered, and the judicious prayers for the Ember weeks, for All Conditions of Men, and the very beautiful General Thanksgiving, were added.'

Tö'this discourse is annexed an account of a Catechetical Lecture, 'first established in 1622, which is to be regularly continued in Bow Church, on the first and third Sundays in every month,' at fix o'clock in the evening. The firft course is to be preached by the rector. Providence and Free Agency. A Sermon preacbed in the Cathedral

Church of St. Paul, April 17, 1778, being Good Friday. By Samuel Horsley, LL.D. 410. 15. Payne,

In treating on this difficult fubject, providence and freeagency, the learned author observes, that we must not imagine Juch an arbitrary exercise of God's power over the minds and wills of 'subordinate agents, as would convert rational beings into mere machines, and leave the Deity charged with the follies and the crimes of men, which was the error of the Calvinifts ; nor, on the other hapd, muft we set up such a liberty of created beings, as, necessarily precluding the divine foreknowledge of human actions, would take the government of the moral world out of the hands of God, and leave him nothing to do with the noblest part of the creation' To avoid these extremes, and to thew, that the foreknowledge and providence of the Deity, and the liberty, which properly belongs to man as a moral agent," are perfectly confiftent, and naturally connected, he proposes the following hypothesis :

« A moral motive and a mechanical force, are both indeed causes; and equally certain causes each of its

effect. But they are causes in very different senles of the word, and derive their energy from the moft opposite principles. Force is only another name for an efficient cause ; it is that which impresses motion upon body, the paflive recipient of a foreign impulse. A moral motive is what is more fignificantly called the final caufe, and can have no influence but with a being that proposes to itself an end, chooses means, and thus puts itself in action. It is true, that while ibis is my end, and while I conceive these to be the means, a definite act will as certainly follow that definite choice and judgment of my mind, provided I be free from all external reítraint and impediment, as a determinate motion will be excited in a body by a force applied in a given direction. There is in both cases an equal certainty of the effect, but the principle of the certainty, in the one case, and in the other, is entirely different: which difference necessarily arises from the different nature of final and eföcient causes. Every cause (except it be the will of the Deity acting to the first production of Jubitances, every cause I say, except this acting in this fingular instance) produces its effect by acting upon something; and, whatever be the cause that acis, the principle of certainty lies in a capacity, in the thing on which it acts, of being affecied by that action. Now the capacity which force, or an efficient cause, requires in the object of its action, is absolute inertness. But intelligence and liberty constitute the capacity of being influenced by a final cause, by a moral motive ; and to this very liberty does this sort of cause owe its whole ef. ficacy, the whole certainty of its operation; which certainty never can disprove the existence of that liberty, upon which it is itself founded, and of which it affords the highest evidence.



• These distinctions, between the efficient and the final cause, being once understood, we may from the Neceffarians own prin. ciples deduce the firmeft proof of the liberty of man. For fince God fore-knows and governs future events, so far as sub. ordinate agents are concerned in them, by the means of moral motives, that is, by final causes; since these are the engines, by which he turns and wields the intellectual world, beading the perverse wills of wicked' men and of apostate fpirits to his purpose ; and since these motives owe their energy, their whole fuccefs, to the liberty of the beings that are governed by them; it is, in confequence, molt certain, however it may seem most itrange, that God could not govern the world as he does, by final causes, if man were not free; no (any) more than he could govern the material part of it mechanically, by efficient caufes, if matter were not wholly pallive.'

Speaking of the Necefíitarians he says : So far as they maintain the certain influence of moral motives, as the natural and fuficient means whereby human actions, and even human thoughts, are brought into that continued chain of causes and effects, which, taking its beginning in the operarions of the infinite mind, cannot but be fully undersiood by him ; so far they do fervice to the cause of truth, placing the “

great and glorious" doctrines of fore knowledge and providence-Absolute fore knowledge, universal providence-upon a firm and philosophical foundation,

There are many sensible observations in this discourse; but the foregoing. hypothesis does not appear (to us at least) so perlectiy satisfactory, as the author seems to imagine. For if moral

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motives are certain in their operations, is not man as much a machine, as if he were impelled by a mechanical force ? If the Deity proposes a motive, which I cannot refil, am I in that case a free agent? are not my elective powers absolutely over-ruled and determined to one particular choice ? On the contrary, if moral motives are not certain in their effects, the difficulty of reconciling divine fore-knowledge and man's free will still remains. A Sermon preached in a Country Church, on the Fast Days; 13 Dec.

1776, ard 27 Feb. 1778. 410. 15. White. The author points out the propriety and equity of national judgements, and the pernicious consequences, which must attend a total decay of public virtue. - This discourse bears the following infcription, in a curious engraving on the title-page : • Supremitate Regis vindicatâ in inferiori Domo Convocationis, Jan 23, 1775," which is the fignature of Dr. Ibbetson, and records his meritorious vindication of the king's supremacy, as the following celebrated line of Cicero commemorates his preserva ation of Rome :

" fortunatam natam me consule Romam." The Vanity of Human Dependencies flated and explained, in a Ser.

min preached at Barbican, May 17, 1778 ; being the Sunday after obe Decease of the late Earl of Chatham. By Charle's Bulkley. 416.

1. Johnson. In this discourse the author explains these words of Isaiah, ch. ii. 22.-' Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his noftrils ; for wherein is he to be accounted of?”—ihewing, thac whatever may be the station of any individual, however eminent his abilities, however brilliant his character, a dependence upon him is extravagant and presumptuous, when it is either inconfifient with that unrivalled glory and honour, which we owe to the Divine Majesty, or with the state and situation of man here on earth.-Having thus explained the text, he proceeds to the application, in which he pays bis tribute of respect to the late lord Chatham: but complains, that · he has been shocked with the appearances of a sullin infenfibility' upon the occalon. “ The righteous, says he, perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart; and merciful men are taken away, none considering that the righteous are taken away from the evil to come.” How applicable, continues he, are these words in particular to the character of him, whose death we now deplore? What was his constant, uniform language as a senátor, and a statesman, from the very beginning of our present troubles to his own latest breath? Tax not without representation :—there was righteousness.-Withdraw, withdraw your troops :- there was mercy, And when I reflect upon the great and mighty loss we have sustained by his removal, I am ready to cry out with another prophet, “ Woe is me, for I am as when they have gathered the summer fruits, as the grape gleanings of the viru

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