Obrazy na stronie

pofition to the fentiments of Dr. Smith. We shall however prefent our readers with the following fhort, but fenfible paffage, as being introductory to the investigation.


The hiftories of wars, from the earliest times, are much alike; the names of the countries ravaged, the towns deftroyed, and captains flain, are different; the motives and conduct of the oppreffors, and the miseries of the oppreffed, are the fame. Portugal raifed the first commercial empire of the modern world; the hiftory of her fate therefore opens a new field for the most important fpeculation. The tranfactions of the Portuguese in India are peculiarly the wars and negociations of commerce, and therefore offer inftructions to every trading country, which are not to be found in the campaigns of a Ca far or a Marlborough. The profperity and declension of foreign fettlements, refulting from the wisdom or errors of the fupreme power at home, from the wisdom or imprudence, the virtues or vices of governors abroad; the stupendous effects of unftained honour and faith; the miferable ruinous embar. raffments which attend difhoneft policy, though fupported by the greatest abilities in the field or in the council; the uncom mercial and dreadful confequences of wars unjustly provoked, though crowned with a long feries of victories; the self-deAtructive measures, uncommercial fpirit, and inherent weaknefs of defpotic rule; the power, affluence, and ftability which reward the liberal policy of humane government; in a word, all thofe caufes which nourish the infancy, all those which as a fecret difeafe undermine, or as a violent poifon fuddenly de-. ftroy the vital ftrength of a commercial empire; all these are developed and displayed, in the most exemplary manner, in the hiftory of the tranfactions of Portuguese Asia.



And all these combine to afcertain the great principles upon which that ftupendous common wealth the British Eaft India Company must exift or fall. The commerce of India is of moft effential value to the British nation. By the Indian goods diftributed over Europe, the effential balance of trade is preferved in our favour. But whether the Indian commerce={ fhould be conducted by an exclufive company, or laid open to every adventurer, is the question of the day, a question of! the very first importance to the British empire. And to this queftion the example of the Portuguese is of the first confequence. Both in the fenate, and in the works of fome political writers, this example has been appealed to an exact knowledge of the commercial principles of Portuguese Afia is therefore highly neceffary; particularly, if the most grofs mifreprefentations of it have already been given, with... the profeffed view of influencing the legislature. And an


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authenticated state of the principles of the Portuguefe Afiatic commerce, were it only to guard us against the vifionary and dangerous fchemes of theory, cannot but be of some utility to that nation which now commands the commerce of India.'

To the preliminary difcourfes is containing fome Portuguese papers, from the continent, of which he has companied with obfervations.

The alterations in the poem, though not confiderable, afford convincing evidence of the author's correctnefs and induftry. But the former detached notes on the brahmins are, by great additions, extended to a differtation at the end of the seventh book, where we meet with a curious narrative of oriental mythology.

fubjoined an appendix, tranfmitted to Mr. Mickle given a translation, ac



Sebaftian Caftellio's, &c. Lebens-gefchichte; or the Life of Sebastian Caftellio, by John Conrad Fuefslin, &c. 8vo. Frankfurt on the Mayn. (German.)

narrative of Caftellio's life interefts the reader, not

as it ferves to illuftrate the hiftory of literature, and of the reformation, but also as a piece of juftice due to the memory of an excellent man, who, during a confiderable part of his life, had been perfecuted and starved. His merits as a most faithful and elegant tranflator, and a very judicious and learned commentator of the Bible, are generally known and confeffed. But they are his dif putes with the Genevan reformers, Calvin and Beza, that characterize and endear him as a man. He was at firft highly esteemed by Calvin, who during his stay at Strasburgh lodged him in his own houfe, and after his return to Geneva, recommended him to the place of rector or head-mafter of the gymnafium of that city: but from the diffimilarity of their characters and fentiments, this friendship was of fhort duration. Soon after, Calvin began to quarrel with Caftellio, and by the firft fpecimens of his hatred forced him to retire from Geneva to Bafil.

Their difputes feem to have originated in the diverfity of their fentiments on predeftination and religious toleration. This latter controverfy was excited by the perfecution and execution of that poor fanatic, Servetus, who was burned at Calvin's inftigation. Such a furious excefs of orthodox zeal could not fail to roufe the indignation of Caftellio, a man of fenfe, moderation, and humanity. He published a collection of treatises on religious toleration. Calvin and Beza, on the other hand, attempted to defend the fanguinary proceedings againft Servetus, and to justify their own odious and dreadful doctrine on that subject: Calvin, by his • Defenfio orthodoxa fidei ;" and Beza, by his answering the question,

An hæretici a civili magiftratu puniendi,' in the affirmative. It was indeed fortunate for Caftellio to have retired, at the first ebullitions of Calvin's zeal, beyond the reach of his further perfecutions. For


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confidering that demagogue's exceffive inveteracy against him, it is hard to fay where it would have stopped. In a book still extant in that reformer's theological works, entitled: Brevis refponfio ad diluendas Nebulonis cujufdam calumnias,' Calvin calls Caftellio a villain. He even accuses him of having ftolen wood: whereas this very accufation itself was a piece of the meanest villainy, because both utterly falfe, and inexpreffibly cruel! The fact, as folemnly declared by Caftellio, was this: after he had been driven from Geneva by Calvin's" perfecution, he languished a long time at Bafil in mifery and want, of common neceffaries. In order to procure fewel, and keep himfelf from starving with cold, one of the most learned, most virtuous, and most respectable men of his age, was driven to the úfual Shift of the poorest people, to feek and fish for fome small ftray wood in the river. And this common and allowed resource of diftreffed poverty, was by Calvin ftyled a theft!-Let pofterity, his and Caftellio's competent and unbiaffed judge, compare the conduct of this Chriftian divine towards his quondam friend, with that of De-' mofthenes towards Efchines, his fierce and ardent rival, whom, immediately after the most violent ftruggles against himself, he forced to accept of a confiderable sum of money to foften the rigour of his exile!-Who would not a thousand times rather chufe to have been Caftellio fifhing for fome fmall ftray wood, than Calvin, driving Servetus to the ftake, or infulting a poor, but great and worthy man in his diftrefs, occafioned by Calvin's own intrigues!

It is, however, a fatisfaction to think, that Calvin's flanderous afperfions on Caftellio's character, were by his own contemporaries already treated with just contempt, as appears, among other proofs, from Caftellio's fubfequent appointment to the profefforship of the Greek language in the university of Bafil.

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John Mudge Untersuchung über geimpfte Blattern:-i. e. A German Tranflation of Mr. Mudge's Enquiry into the Inoculation of the Smallpox. Dantzick. 1778, 820.


7E mention this tranflation, the work of Dr. Woulf, F. R. S. an eminent practitioner at Dantzick, because he has given us a great number of new and valuable obfervations on the fmall pox, in a large appendix joined to his tranflation. Thefe obfervations are of fuch importance, and fo judiciously and philofophically drawn up, that we fincerely with to fee them tranflated into our language, for the ufe of the medical faculty, as well as of private families.

Lettres d'Amour et d'Affaires, écrites par Catherine, Comteffe de Salmour, Marquife de Balbian, au Marggrave de Br. 8vo. Turin. (Drefden.)

Prince Charles Philip of Brandenburgh, elector Frederick the Third's brother-in-law, who in 1695, commanded the Brandenburgh troops at Turin, happened to fall in love with the countess dowager of Salmour, and refolved upon marrying her fecretly. But his brother, the elector, difapproving of this marriage, caused the countess to be shut up in a convent, whence he wrote these letters to the margrave, in whose pockets they are faid to have been VOL. XLVI. July, 1778. F found

found when he died of a disease after the siege of Casal, at which he had affifted by her advice.

For aught that appears to the contrary, thefe letters may be genuine and authentic. They breathe the native character of an intriguing dowager, who was perhaps fomewhat in love, but certainly ambitious, cunning, and selfish. The preface tells us that for the valuable confideration of thirty thousand ducats the confented to relinquish the title of the margrave's dowager, and this strong feature is till further confirmed by her own infinuations in a letter written by her to the elector, after the margrave's death. Her epifties may therefore be confidered as inftructive memorials exhibiting the human heart under the powerful influence of a very ticklish and critical fituation.

D. Jo. Sal. Semleri Paraphrafis H. Epiftola ad Corinthios. Acceffit Latina vetus Tranflatio, & Lectionum Varietas. 8vo. Halle. The Second Epiftle to the Corinthians, one of the most difficult books of the New Teftament, has here been illustrated with great learning, ingenuity, and fuccefs.

Opufcules politiques & moraux-ou, Essai contre l' Abus du Pouvoir des Souverains, et juße Ideé du Gouvernement d'un bon Prince. Suivi du Tochin contre le Despotisme du Souverain. Par M.** Avocat. guo. Londres.

The reflexions of this writer are just, but trite; and he runs into frequent repetitions.

Della Origine e dei Progressi nell' Arte Obstetricia, Prolufione recitata de Sebaftiano Rizzo, Padoano, goblico Profeffore d' Obstetricia. 440Venice.

Some account of the Venetian phyficians who have diftinguished themfelves by their labours in midwifery; especially of Sebaftian Melli; of the famous anatomift J. Dominio Santorini; of his fon Peter; of the present Archiater Paitoni; and of our author's predeceffor, J. Manini.

J. J. von Mofer Anmerkungen über das Absterben des Churfurftlichen Haufes Bayern, in fo ferne daffelbige einen Einfluss in viele Stucke der teutfchen Staatsverfaffung hat; or, J. J. de Mofer's Remarks on the Extinction of the Electoral House of Bavaria, as far as it influences many Parts of the political Conftitution of Germany. 410. Frankfurt on the Mayn. (German.)

This author, one of the most voluminous and laborious writers on the laws and conftitution of Germany, confiders this very interefting fubject in every point of view. His performance is indeed rather too diffufe; but valuable and instructive.

Inftruction fur la Manière de definfecter les Cuirs des Beftiaux morts de l epizootie, & de les rendre propres à étre travaillés dans les Tanneries fans y porter de Contagion. Par M. Vicq. d'Azyr. Paris.

A fingle but interesting sheet, as it may contribute towards leffening the lofs of the poor country people, by faving at least the hides and fkins of the cattle dead by epidemical diseases.

Recueil de Differtations hiftoriques et critiques, avec des nouvelles Affertions fur la Vegetation fpontanée des Coquilles du Chateau des Places. Par M. de la Sauvagère. 4to. with 5 elegant Plates. Paris.

The first and greater part of this collection contains an uninterefting difpute with. Mr. Robin, on fome French antiquities


near Angers. But the more ftriking part of this publication are the author's repeated affertions concerning a fpontaneous vegetation of hells near his refidence; whofe examen we must leave to Meff. Buffon, Guettard, and other naturalists in France.

La Théorie du Chirurgien ou Anatomie en general et en particulier du Corps humain, avec des Obfervations chirurgiques fur chaque partie par M. Durand. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris.

A manual of anatomy according to M. Winflow's fyftem and method, without either alteration or improvement.



A Collection of the Pieces formerly published by Henry Brooke, Efq. To which are added feveral Plays and Poems, now firft printed. 4 vols. 8vo. 14. 15. Sewed. Cadell.


HE author of thefe pieces, who is a native of Ireland, is well known to the public, as a writer, by his tragedy of Guftavus Vafa, printed in 1758, the Earl of Effex in 1761, the Fool of Quality, 5 volumes, in 1766 and 1770, and other publications.

The prefent collection confifts of the following articles: Univerfal Beauty, a philofophical poem on the works of the creation, in fix books; Conftantia, or the Man of Law's Tale of Chaucer, modernized; Redemption, a Poem *; Four Fables, viz. the Temple of Hymen, the Sparrow and Dove, the Female Seducers, Love and Vanity; the laft Speech of John Good, vul garly called Jack the Giant-queller, who was condemned April 1, 1745, and executed on the 3d of May following; eight Tragedies, entitled, Guftavus Vafa, the Earl of Effex, Antony and Cleopatra, the Impoftor or Mahomet, earl of Weftmorland or Bruern, Cymbeline king of Britain, Montezuma, and the Vestal Virgin; Little John [John Good] and the Giants, a dramatic opera [prohibited after the first night's reprefentation]; the Contending Brothers, a comedy; three comedies of two acts, the Charitable Affociation, the Female Officer, and the Marriage Contract; Ruth, an oratorio; feveral Prologues and Epilogues; Verfes to the Memory of Lieutenant Colonel Clements; a Character [Dr. Lucas's]; an Addrefs to Mr. B. on advertising his Treatife on the Interefts of Ireland; the Patriotifm of Ireland, a ballad; the Queftion, infcribed to lady Caroline Rüffel; and Conrade, a fragment.

Though this writer is not to be ranked in the first class of poets, his productions have a confiderable share of merit; they bear the marks of a strong genius, a pious turn of mind, and integrity of heart. His dramatic pieces breathe a fpirit of li berty and patriotic zeal.

See Crit. Rev. vol. xxxv. p. 69.
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