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position to the sentiments of Dr. Smith. We shall however present our readers with the following short, but fenfible pafa fage, as being introductory to the investigation.
• Thę histories of wars, froin the earliest times, are much alike; the names of the countries ravaged, the towns destroyed, and captains Nain, are different; the motives and conduct of the oppreffors, and the miseries of the oppressed, are the fame., Portugal raifed the first commercial empire of the modern world; the history of her fate therefore opens a new field for the most important fpeculation. The transactions of the Portuguese in India are peculiarly the wars and negociations of commerce, and therefore offer instructions to every trading country, which are not to be found in the campaigns of a Cæ. far or a Marlborough. The prosperity and declenfion of foreign fettlements, resulting from the wisdom or errors -of the fupreme power at home, from the wisdom or imprudence, the virtues or vices of governors abroad ; the stupendous effects of unstained honour and faith; the miserable ruinous embar. raffments which attend dishonest policy, though supported by the greatest abilities in the field or in the council; the uncom mercial and dreadful consequences of wars unjustly provoked, though crowned with a long series of victories; the self-deftructive measures, uncommercial spirit, and inherent weaknefs of despotic role; the power, affluence, and ftability which reward the liberal policy of humane government ; in a word, all those causes which nourish the infancy, all those which as a secret disease undermine, or as a violent poison suddenly de ftroy the, vital strength of a commercial empire; all these are developed and displayed, in the most exemplary manner, in the history of the transactions of Portuguese Afia.
· And all these combine to ascertain the great principles uponi which that stupendous common wealth the British East India Company muft exist or fall. The commerce of India is of? most effential value to the British nation. By the Indian goods distributed over Europe, the effential balance of trade is preferved, in our favour. But whether the Indian commerce fhould be.conducted by an exclusive company, or laid open-to? every adventurer, is the question of the day, a question of the very firft importance to the British empire. And to this - question the example of the Portuguese. is of the first consequence.. Both in the senate, and in the works of fome. political writers, this example has been appealed to an exact knowledge of the cominercial principles of Portuguese Asia is therefore highly neceffary ; particularly, if the most grofs misrepresentations of it have already been given, with the profeffed view of influencing the legislature.. And an
authenticated state of the principles of the Portuguese Afiatic commerce, were it only to guard us against the visionary and dangerous schemes of theory, cannot but be of some utility to that nation which now commands the commerce of India.'
To the preliminary discourses is fubjoined an appendix, containing some Portuguese papers, transmitted to Mr. Mickle from the continent, of which he has given a translation, accompanied with observations.
The alterations in the poem, though not considerable, af. ford convincing evidence of the author's correctness and industry. But the former detached notes on the brahmins are, by great additions, extended to a dissertation at the end of the seventh book, where we meet with a curious narrative of oriental mythology.
FOREIGN ARTICLES. Sebastian Caftellio's, &c. Lebens-geschichte ; of the Life of Sebastian
Castellio, by John Conrad Fuesslin, &c. 8vo. Frankfurt on the Mayn. (German.)
as it serves to illustrate the history of literature, and of the reformation, but also as a piece of justice due to the memory of an excellent man, who, during a confiderable part of his life, had been persecuted and starved. His merits as a most faithful and elegant ; translator, and a very judicious and learned commentator of the Bible, are generally known and confessed. But they are his dis. putes with the Genevan reformers, Calvin and Beza, that characterize and endear him as a man. He was at first highly esteemed by Calvin, who during his stay at Strasburgh lodged him in his own house, and after his return to Geneva, recommended him to the place of rector or head-master of the gymnasium of that city : but from the diffimilarity of their characters and sentiments, this friendship, was of short duration. Soon after, Calvin began to quarrel with Castellio, and by the first specimens of his hatred forced him to retire from Geneva to Bafil.
Their disputes seem to have originated in the diversity of their sentiments on predestination and religious toleration. This latter controversy was excited by the persecution and execution of that poor fanatic, Servetus, who was burned at Calvin's inftigation. Such a furious excess of orthodox zeal could not fail to rouse the indignation of Caftellio, a man of sense, moderation, and humanity. He published a collection of treatises on religious toleration. Calvin and Beza, on the other hand, attempted to defend the sanguinary proceedings against Servetus, and to justify their own odious and dreadful doctrine on that subject : Calvin, by his • Deferho orthodoxe fidei;". and Beza, by his answering the question, • An hæretici a civili magistratu puniendi,' in the affirmative. It was indeed fortunate for Caftellio to have retired, at the first ebullitions of Calvin's zeal, beyond the reach of his further persecutions. For
considering that demagogue's excessive inveteracy against him, it is hard to say where it would have stopped. In a book still extant in that reformer's theological works, entitled : Brevis responsio ad diluendas Nebulonis cujufdam calumnias,' Calvin calls Castellio a villgin. He even accuses him of having folen wood: whereas this very accufation itself was a piece of the meaneft villainy, because both utterly false, and inexpressibly cruel! The fact, as folemnly declared by Castellio, was this: after he had been driven fro Geneva by Calvin's persecution, he languished a long time at Bafil in misery and want, of common necessaries. In order to procure fewel, and keep himself from starving with cold, one of the most learned, most virtuous, and most respectable men of his age, was driven to the usual hift of the poorest people, to seek and fish for some small stray wood in the river. And this common and allowed resource of distressed poverty, was by Calvin styled a theft!-Let pofterity, his and Castellio's competent and unbiassed judge, compare the conduct of this Christian divine towards his quondam friend, with that of Dea' mosthenes towards Eschines, his fierce and ardent rival, whom, immediately after the most violent struggles against himself, he, forced to accept of a considerable sum of money to foften the ri. gour of his exile !Who would not a thousand times rather chule to have been Castellio fishing for some small stray wood, than Calvin, driving Servetus to the stake, or insulting a poor, but great and worthy man in his distress, occasioned by Calvin's own intrigues !
It is, however, a satisfaction to think, that Calvin's flanderous aspersions on Castellio's character, were by his own contemporaries already treated with just contempt, as appears, among other proofs, from Castellio's subsequent appointment to the profefforship of the Greek language in the university of Bafil.
FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. John Mudge Untersuchung über geimpfte Blattern :-i. e. A German
Transation of Mr. Mudge's Enquiry into the Inoculation of the Smalla
pox. Dantzick. 1778, 8vo. WE mention this translation, the work of Dr. Woulf, F. R. S.
eminent practitioner at Dantzick, because he has given us a great number of new and valuable observations on the small.pox,, in a large appendix joined to his translation. These observations are of such importance, and so judicionly and philosophically drawn up, that we fincerely wish to see them translated into our language, for the use of the medical faculty, as well as of private families, Lettres d'Amour et d'Affaires, écrites par Catherine, Comtesse de Sal
mour, Marquise de Balbian, au Marggrave de Br. 8.vo. Turin. (Dresden.) Prince Charles Philip of Brandenburgh, elector Frederick the Third's brother-in-law, who in 1695, conimanded the Brandenburgh troops at Turin, happened to fall in love with the countess dowager of Salmour, and resolved upon marrying her secretly. But his brother, the elector, disapproving of this marriage, caused the countess to be thut up in a convent, whence the wrote these letters to the margrave, in whose pockets they are said to have been VOL. XLVI, July, 1778,
found when he died of a disease after the fiege of Casal, at which be had affilted by her advice.
For aught that appears to the contrary, these letters may be genuine and authentic. They breathe the native character of an intriguing dowager, who was perhaps somewhat in love, but certainly ambitious, cunning, and selfil. 'The preface tells us that for the valuable confideration of thirty thousand ducats the consented to rélinguish the title of the margrave's dowager, and this itrong fea. ture is itill further confirmed by her own infinuations in a letter written by her to the elector, after the margrave's death. Her epiftles máy therefore be confidered as instructive memorials exbibit. ing the human heart under the powerful influence of a very ticklisha and critical situation. D. Jo. Sal. Semleri Paraphrahs H. Epiftola ad Corinthios. Acceffit
Latina vetus Tranflatio, & Lectionum Varietas. 8vo. Halle. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, one of the most difficult books of the New Testament, has here been illustrated with great learning, ingenuity, and success. Opuscules politiques & moraux-u, Essai contre l' Abus du pouvoir des
Souverains, et jupe Idee du Gouvernement d'un bon Prince. Suivi di Tocfin contre le Despotisme du Souverain. Par M. ** Avocat. Svo. Londres.
The reflexions of this writer are just, but trite ; and he rus into frequent repetitions. Della Origine e dei Progresi nell" Arte-Obftetricia, Prolufione recitata de
Sebaltiano Rizzo, Padoano, poblico Profeffore d'Obfterricia. 4to. Venice. Some account of the Venetian phyficians who have distinguished themselves by their labours in midwifery; efpecially of Sebastian Melli; of the famous anatomist J. Dominio Santorini; of his son Peter; of the present Archiater Paitoni į and of our author's predeceffor, J. Manini. J. J. von Moser Anmerkungen über das Absterben des Churfurstlichen
Haufes Bayern, in so ferne daffelbige einen Einfluss in viele Stücke der teutschen Staatsverfassung har ; or, J: J. de Moser's Remarks on the Extinction of the EleEoral House of Bavaria, as far as it influences: many Parts of the political Conftitution of Germany. 410. Frankfur on ihe Mayn. (German.)
This author, one of the most voluminous and laborious writers on the laws and constitution of Germany, considers this very in. teresting fubject in every point of view, His performance is indeed rather too diffuse ; but valuable and instructive. Instruction sur la Manière de desinfecter les Cuirs des Beftiaux morts de la epizootie, & de les rendre propres à être travaillés dans les Tanneries fans y porter de Contagion. Par M. Vicq. d'Azyr. Paris.
A single but interesting sheet, as it may contribute towards lefsening the loss of the poor country people, by saving at least the hides and skills of the cattle dead by epidemical diseafes. Recueil de Difertations hißoriques et critiques, avec des nouvelles Af
fe-trons sur la Vegetation spontanée des Coquilles du Chaieau des Placés. Par M. de la Sauvagère. 410. wish s elegant Plates. Paris.
The firit and greater part of this collection contains an uninteresting dispute with. Mr. Robin, on some French antiquities
near Angers. But the more striking part of this publication are the author's repeated assertions concerning a spontaneous vegetation of Mells near his relidence ; whose examen we must leave to Mello Buffon, Guettard, and other naturalists in France. La Théorie du Chirurgien ou Anatomie en general et en particulier de Corps humain, avec des Observations chirurgiques sur chaque partie par M. Durand.
2 vols. 8vo. Paris. A manual of anatomy according to M. Winslow's system and method, without either alteration or improveinent.
POETRY. A Collečtion of the Pieces formerly published by Henry Brooke, Ejq.
To which are added several Plays and Poems, now firft printed. 4 vols. 8voi ilo is. Jewed: Cadell. HE author of these pieces, who is a native of Ireland, is
well known to the public, as a writer, by his tragedy of Gustavus Vasa, printed in 1938, the Eari of Effex in 1961, the Fool of Quality, 5 volumes, in 1766 and 1770, and other publications.
The present collection confifts of the following articles : Uni. versal Beauty, a philosophical poem on the works of the creation, in fix books; Conftantia, or the Man of Law's Tale of Chau. ter, modernized; Redemption, a Poem *; Four Fables, viz. the Temple of Hymen, the Sparrow and Dove, the Female Se. ducers, Love and Vanity ; the last Speech of John Good, vol. garly called Jack the Giant-que ler, who was condemned April 1, 1745, and executed on the 3d of May following ; eight Tragedies, entitled, Guftavos Vasa, the Earl of Eflex, Antony and Cleopatra, the Impostor or Mahomet, earl of Weftmorland or Bruern, Cymbeline king of Britain, Montezuma, and the Veftal Virgin; Little John (John Good) and the Giants, a dramatic opera (prohibited after the firft night's representation); the Contending Brothers, a comedy ; three comedies of two acts, the Charitable Association, the Female Officer, and the Marriage Contract ; Ruth, an oratorio; several Prologues and Epilogues ; Verses to the Memory of Lieutenant Colonel Clements ; a Character (Dr. Lucas's]; an Address to Mr. B. on advertising his Treatise on the Interests of Ireland; the Pa. triotism of Ireland, a ballad ; the Question, inscribed to lady Caroline Rüffel; and Coorade, a fragment.
Though this writer is not to be ranked in the first class of poets, his productions have a considerable Mare of merit; they bear the marks of a strong genius, a pious curn of mind, and integrity of heart. His dramatic pieces breathe a spirit of li. berty and patriotic ze 1. See Cris. Rev., vol. xxxv. p. 69.