Obrazy na stronie

being of a much earlier date. For we may confider, as a fymptom of it, the thirst with which fhe has been affected from the time that she was on the breaft. To all thefe circumftances, it is farther to be added, that her complaints have already refifted the power of feveral medicines. If, therefore, it admits of a Speedy and fortunate termination, it is, I own, much more than I expect.

It may feem ftrange, that hitherto I have taken no notice of a circumftance particularly mentioned in this cafe, that is, the worms which fhe has, at different times, been obferved to difcharge by ftool. There are some practitioners, who, with fuch circumstances as occur here, would look upon worms in the inteftinal canal to be the cause of the greatest part, if not of all the fymptoms. I muft, however, own, that I do not fufpect them to have any connection with the prefent complaint. Worms, indeed, in the intestines, are by no means a rare occurrence: yet, as far as my inquiries go, I think I may venture to affert, that, in this country, they are less frequent than in fome others; and that now, they are lefs frequent here than they were formerly, which I am inclined to afcribe to changes which have taken place with refpect to diet. Cafes are often to be met with, in which they are unquestionably productive of the moft threatning and moft anomalous fymptoms; yet there can be no doubt, that they are frequently prefent in the alimentary canal when they are productive of no inconvenience. This fufficiently appears from their being obferved to be difcharged where there has been no preceeding uneafinefs.

In the cafe before us they appeared chiefly during the course of a fever. It is to be obferved, that, during febrile affections, worms frequently appear and, when this is the cafe, there are many who are difposed to confider them as the cause of the fever. This conclufion, however, is, I imagine, often drawn without good reafon and I cannot help thinking, that they are frequently discharged merely in confequence of the fever. It would feem, that, from the morbid affection which exifts, probably from the increased heat of the body, their fituation becomes difagreeable to them. And I reckon it probable, that this may have been the cafe in the inftance before us. Our patient has, even of late, indeed, difcharged one, which gives a prefumption that there may be ftill others prefent. And the action of thefe on the alimentary canal, may either be the cause of fome fymptoms, or may aggravate them; yet, admitting that, I muft own, I do not confider them as forming any dangerous part of the affection; and I do not think that our attempts to cure are to be directed with a view to these.

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Refpecting the general plan of cure, from what has been faid, it may be concluded, that I am much at a lofs. I have, however, begun the treatment of this cafe, on what I reckon the most probable fuppofition; that is, the idea of its being a



dropfical affection. Suppofing that there is a collection of water in the cavity of the abdomen, it is my intention to artempt to discharge it by natural outlets. Of thefe, the chief are evacuation by ftool and urine. From the first of these, we can obtain the moft immediate and moft fudden discharge; from the laft, the evacuation which takes place has the leaft influence, as debilitating the patient; and, on this account, diuretics can be used with more regularity, and for a greater length of time, than purgatives. To thefe, therefore, I am chiefly difpofed to truft in the prefent cafe; yet I wish, in fome degree, to conjoin the advantages both from diuretics and purgatives. It is from thefe confiderations that I have put this tient on the use of two different remedies, cream of tartar and fquills. While the firft operates, moft immediately, as a purgative, it is, at the fame time, powerfully diuretic. The laft is intended folely with the view of increafing the quantity of urine. If, from thefe medicines, we can obtain a copious difcharge of urine, with a diminution of the fwellings, and, at the fame time, without debility, it may go far towards the recovery of the patient. At the fame time, in dropfical affections, I confider the evacuation of the water as the leaft important part of the cure. And, in almost every cafe, it is a more difficult matter to prevent the return of effufion, than to produce evacuation. It may, therefore, be neceffary, in order to fecure the good effects which may be derived from thefe evacuants, to have recourfe to Peruvian bark, and other tonics. At the fame time, I would by no means be understood to promise that we shall ever come this length in the cure; and, we may even be foon fatisfied, that the prefent plan is not to be perfifted in. The evacuation may be greater than our patient is able to bear, or it may take place without a diminution of the fwellings. In either cafe, it would be prejudicial. Suppofing this to happen, I muft own, that I cannot, at present, even conjecture what meafures I may then be difpofed to adopt. I fhall probably, however, try fome of thofe medicines which more immediately tend to increase the tone of the alimentary canal; particularly those which pass under the general titles of ftomachic and carminative medicines. It is, in fome measure, with an intention of this kind, that I mean to conjoin, with the prefent course, friction of the abdomen. And, merely as an inducement to its being continued for a fufficient length of time, I shall order it to be performed, either with oil, or with fome foft powder, but without expecting from thefe any other effect than as leading to the continuance of the friction.

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Sequel Soon after the 7th of December, befides the continuance of the cream of tartar and fquills, directions were given, that this patient fhould have her belly carefully rubbed every evening for the fpace of half an hour. And, as the repeated evacuations by fool feemed to induce debility, the purgatives were ordered to be intermitted. But, not long after



this, on exposure to accidental cold, the fwelling of her abdomen was very confiderably increased; and as, at this time, her belly was rather bound, the fquill pills were omitted, and the cream of tartar repeated in the form of electary, conjoined with a small proportion of gamboge. This purged her briskly, and had foon the effect of diminishing, fomewhat, the swelling; but, even after he had continued it for a confiderable length of time, the fwelling was by no means entirely removed, Upon this, he was put on the ufe of a mixture, the bafis of which was the tintura amara. After the ufe of this mixture, there took place a confiderable discharge of wind, in the way of Alatus, and the fwelling fell a little. It did not, however, entirely disappear. But, as the continued, in other refpects in good health, and was no longer affected with the thirst, want of appetite, pain of her belly, fcarcity of urine, or other fymptoms which were most distressing at the time of admission, she was difmiffed about the middle of March,'


This Cafe, which is the fecond in the volume, is preceded by that of an epilepfy, cured by the use of the copřum ammoniacum; and it is followed by observations on the fubfequent diseases, respectively, viz. on a cutaneous affection rheumatic affection cured by the ufe of elixir guaiacinum volatilea chronical catarrh-an affection of the liver cured by mercurial medicines- -a petechial eruption-a cancerous affection of the breaft treated by electricity-hæmorrhois-menorrhagia cured by the Peruvian baik-amenorrhea treated by electric ty— tinea capitis-anomalous fymptoms arising from an intermittent fever-dysphagia cured by electricity-paralyfis-diarrhœa -venereal gonorrhea-hydrocephalus-morbid fenfibility of one of the hands-convulfions treated with the pil. cærulezperiodical pains of the inteftines removed by the pil. gummofæ

leprous affection-hæmoptyris-flatulent pains of the ftomach and bowels removed by afa fætida-lumbrici. To those cafes is fubjoined a difcourfe in Latin, entitled, De Laudibus Gulielmi Harvei Oratio.

It is fufficient to lay of the author's obfervations in general, that they difcover much judgement, and greatly tend to investigate the nature, as well as to afcertain the method of cure, in the feveral difeafes mentioned. They cannot fail of affording very ufeful inftruction to medical ftudents, and of likewife proving highly acceptable to every reader of this clafs. We are therefore perfuaded that Dr. Duncan, would perform an acceptable fervice, by continuing to lay be. fore the public, in the fame manner, a continuation of his practical remarks on the cafes of thofe patients who receive the benefit of the Difpenfary; an inftitution which we are glad to find adopted by the inhabitants of Edinburgh.


The Pythian, Nemean, and Ifthmian Odes of Pindar, tranflated into English Verfe; with critical and explanatory Remarks: to which are prefixed Obfervations on his Life and Writings; Conjectures on the Era wherein the Grecian Games concluded; and an Ode to the Genius of Pindar. 4to. 125. boards. Dodfley. THE name of Pindar carries with it an idea of poetical enthufiafm, lofty flights, magnificent images, and bold expreffions. Antiquity refounds with his praife. Plato allows, that he was one of the So, the divine poets.' Quinctilian calls him the prince of the lyric writers; and Horace thinks him inimitable. On the other hand, it has been said, that he frequently lofes his fubject, and rambles from fable to fable, with a wild and unbounded fancy. But it may be faid in his favour, that his fubjects are uniform and confined; that his odes were to be fung by a chorus, at the entertainments, which were provided by the Olympic victors, on their return to their respective countries; and that, in this cafe, it would have been invidious to have filled his hymns with the direct encomiums of a fingle man, who perhaps was not distinguished on any other account. But the praises of their founders, their benefactors, their heroes, and demigods, were regarded with religious veneration. We will therefore fuppofe, that the poet's digreffions were the effect of art; and might have had a propriety, or a connection with his fubject, which it is now impoffible to difcover.

The remaining works of Pindar are xiv Olympic, xii Pythian, zi Nemean, and viii Ifthmian odes.

The firft, fecond, third, firth, feventh, eleventh, twelfth, fourteenth of the Olympic, the fift of the Pythian, the first and eleventh of the Nemean, and the fecond of the Ifthmian odes, were tranflated by Mr. Weft; the other fix Olympic odes by an anonymous writer, in 1775: all the rest are now, tranflated by Mr. Greene.

The flights, the digreffions, the figures, the allufions, and the abftrufe learning of this ancient poet, render his pieces extremely dark and difficult. A tranflator, finding himself embarraffed, generally runs out into a paraphrafe; and only gives us fome tranfient glimpfes of the original.

In the fixth Pythian ode, Pindar extolls the bravery of Antilochus, who attempted to rescue his father Neftor, at the expence of his own life, when that venerable old warrior was attacked by Memnon, and one of the horfes in his chariot wounded by Paris.

Plato in Menon. p. 415. edit. Ficini.


Εγένετο καὶ πρότερον Αντίλοχος βιατάς,
Νόημα τέτο φέρων, ὃς ὑπερεφθιτο
Πατρὸς, ἐναρίμβροτον άμμιν

νας τράταρχον Αιθιόπων Μέμνονα. Νερό-
ρειον γὰς ἵππος ἄρμ ̓ ἐπέδα,

Πάριο, ἐκ βελέων δαῖχθεὶς· ὁ δ ̓ ἔφεπε
Κραταιὸν ἔγχΘ.
Μεσσανία δὲ γέροντος

Δοναθεῖσα φρὴν βίασε παιδα ὅν·

Χαμαιπεῖὲς δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ ἔπον ἐκ ἀπέρριψεν αὐτῇ·
Μένων δὲ ὁ θεῖ©· αἰνής, πρίατο μὲν θανάτ
τοιο κομίδων πατρὸς, ἐδο-

· κησιν τῶν πάλαι γενεᾶ ὁπλοτέροισιν,
*Έργον πελώριον τελέσας,

Ὑπαῖς ἀμφὶ τοκεῦσιν ἐμμὲν προς ἀρεάν.

• 'Twas thus the Grecian boy with gen'rous rage
Shelter'd the good old Neftor's hoary age,
And fell to fave him-when thy force,
Stern Ethiopian, bar'd his courfe,
Memnon, curft homicide-the car
From Paris felt a ling'ring war ;

Quick flew th' unerring fpear; with throbbing heart
Thus Neftor-" Fly, my fon, oh! fly the hoftil dart !"
• Yet vain the fondling care!-his fire
Arous'd the heav'n-born ftripling's fire,

To tempt the stroke of fate;
For thee, thou pride of ancient days,
Flows the rich ftrain of deathlefs praise,

That hails the good and great.'

There are some parts of this extract, which are inelegantly, and others, which feem to be inaccurately expreffed.

The Grecian boy' is an appellation far below the heroic character of Antilochus, who is called by Homer, μενεχάρμης, μεγαθυμός, προς πολεμιςης, a bold and intrepid warrior ; and by Pindar, the brave or impetuous Antilochus.


• The cur/ homicide' is an unclaffical expreffion. Homer, Pindar, nor any of the ancient poets, mean to ftigmatize their heroes by a cur/e, when they call them εναριμβροτου, οι ανδροφόνοι. These epithets are titles of honour. The latter is frequently applied to Hector in the Iliad.

The car from Paris felt a ling'ring war.' The original is plain and fimple; Paris had wounded one of Neftor's horses; and this accident had ftopped his chariot.' But Mr. Greene's verfion is unintelligible.

The tranflator reprefents the fpear, which he fuppofes to be Memnon's, as actually fying. This is difpatching the


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