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fephus, Tertullian, Sulpicius Severus, Clemens, Irenæus, Cyprian, Origen, Ignatius, Eufebius, Justin Martyr, Optatus, Lactantius, Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus, Pliny, Orofius, Gregory of Tours, Le Clers, F. Paolo, Bayle, Fabricius, Grotius, Mosheim, Boffuet, Dupin, Tillemont, Pagi, Lyttelton, and the authors of the Universal History; and produces many passages, in which he has been guilty of plagiarism from Middleton, Barbeyrac, Daillé, Beaufobre, Dodwell, Lardner, Abauzit, and Tillemont.
In these instances the reader will observe, that there are various degrees of misrepresentation and plagiarism ; and that some of them may be excusable in an extensive work, through which it is hardly possible to preserve an unremitted attention.
It will likewise be urged, in favour of Mr. Gibbon, that the examiner alleges a similarity of thought, as a proof of plagiarism. To this objection he replies :
• If we consider that Mr. Gibbon's talents shine most confpicuously in the elegance of language, we must naturally imagine, that he would not constantly adopt the very words of the author, as he could so easily set off the sentiments in new and more graceful expressions, which would, at the same time, serve to disguise the plagiarism. Besides, it being my intent to prove to the Christian world, that our author has, in fact, produced no new objections against our religion, and that his boasted attack is made with arguments and reflexions long ago exploded ; to convict him of a fimilarity of sentiment fully answers this purpose.'
This writer however does not rest in a mere exhibition of fimilar pafiages. He produces inconteftible evidence; and particularly thews, that Mr. Gibbon's plan of accounting for the progress of Chriftianity from fecond causes is a stale infidel topic, urged and confuted long since,' as the reader will find in bishop Atterbury's Sermons, vol. i. serm. 3. On this occasion Mr. Davis subjoins the sentiments of the learned and judicious Mr. Mosheim.
• When we consider the rapid progress of Christianity among the Gentile nations, and the poor feeble instruments by which this great and amazing event was immediately effected, we must naturally bave recourse 10 an omnipotent and invisible hand, as its true and proper cause,” &c.
“ Such then were the true causes of that amazing rapidity with which the Christian religion spread itself upon the earth ;, and those who pretend to asign other reasons of this surprising event, indulge themselves in idle fiations, which must disguft every attentive observer of men and things.” Sect. 8. 10.
This is a warm and spirited attack on the literary character of Mr. Gibbon, and supported with indefatigable induftry, accurate investigation, and extensive reading.
Medical Cafes, feleated from the Records of the Public Dispensary at
Edinburgh ; witb Remarks and Observations. By Andrew
Duncan, M. D. 8vo. gs. boards, Murray. THE HE usefulness of medical cases, when those are faithfully
related, and judiciously treated, is too obvious either to admit of doubt, or require commendation. It is' by accurate registers of this kind that the practice of phyfic has been so much improved within the present century; and every benevolent mind must feel pleasure at the growth of such in. ftitutions, as are calculated not only to relieve the immediate distresses of the sick, but to extend the bounds of science, by pathological observations. It appears that a dispensary has lately been opened at Edinburgh, under the direction of Dr, Duncan, the author of the treatise before us; and the cases which he now presents to the public, are those of some pao tients who had been committed to his care, in this departe ment. The history of the patients and their diseases, how. ever, though indispensibly subfervient towards elucidating the method of cure, form the least considerable part of this voJume, which confifts chiefly of the observations delivered by the author in his clinical lectures, to the Atudenis who at. tended him.
As no general account of the work can convey so clear an idea of its nature as a specimen, we shall lay before our read. ers one entire lecture, curtailing only the introductory narra. tive, which the length of the quotation will not allow us to prefix. But to supply the deficiency in some measure, it may be necessary to observe that the disease which is the subject of this lecture, was an enlargement of the abdomen, and that the principal remedies prescribed by Dr. Duncan were finall doses of cream of tartar, frequently repeated, and squill pills. Here follows a copy of the lecture.
• The disease of this patient, in my opinion, is not alto: gether without ambiguity, There are, indeed, many fymp coms here, which are considered as the characterizing marks of a dropsical affection, And, from the swelling of the abdomen, the difficulty of breathing, the thirst, and scarcity of urine, we might conclude, that she is subjected to ascites. I am inclined. to think, that this is really the cale. But here a very essential circumstance is wanting. With this swelling of she belly, there is no evident Auctuation, a circumstance which is almost conAtantly obse ved where an enlargement of the abdomen depends. ppon water ; or even where any other liquid, such, for example, as blood, pus, or the like, is deposited in the cavity of the abdomen. The want of factuation, then, would naturally lead us to inquire, how far there is reason to faspect, that the Swelling here depends on any other cause And there is the rather room for such an inquiry, as there is no appearance of e fused water in any other part of the fyttem. Pure asciles, indeed, may, and frequently does exist ; yet, for the most part, it is conjoined with other dropsical affections.
There are two other fuppofitions respecting the cause of this swelling, which here naturally present themselves. It sometimes happens, that swellings, in appearance, fimilar to the present, depend upon a solid matter. But, to this fuppofition, there are nere two unfurmountable objections. The first may be drawn from the progress of the disease. Where the enlargement of the abdomen depends upon a solid matter, it very ge. nerally begins at a particular spot, and from thence it is gradually extended to other parts of the abdomen. But, in the present case, although the increase has been gradual, yet, it has been uniformly extended over the whole, and no particular local hardness has ever been discovered. Besides this, swellings depending on a folid matter, are not liable to sudden changes. With our patient, however, such changes manifeitly occur. Hence, for the suppofition of the swelling depending on solid, there is little foundation,
• Another suppoftion is, that the swelling here occurring may depend upon air ; that is, that our patient may be subjected to tympanites. But, of this affection also, fome of the chief fympcoms are wanting. No found is observed to be emiteed on pere cufsion of the abdomen, nor is any relief afforded on the diso charge of wind. Upon the whole, then, I reckon it at least the most probable supposition, that it does depend on water. The want of ductuation may arise from different circumstances. Ic may depend upon the Atate of the integuments ; it may arise from the condition of the viscera ; or it may proceed from the water being contained in hydatides. And, I consider the thirst and Icarcity of ur ne, as giving trong presumption of a dropical affection ; yet I shall not be surprised to find, that it turns out of a complicated nature, neither entirely depending on water nos air, but partly on both,
( With 'this uncertainty, I am nnt here disposed to give a very favourable prognostic. The youth of this patient is indeed femewhat in her favour ; and, it is ftill more so, that she has received, at least, temporary relief, from the quanticy of her urine being increased. But, these circumitances excepted, most others are againit our patient. While we have much uncertainiy refpecting the nature of the disease, we have at least some reason to dread a local affection; and, from the pain of the belly of which fhe complains, we can prognosticate nothing favourable. From the continuance of her disease, also, we may conclude it to be of a stubborn nature. For, although the be but eight years old, her affection has been obterved for no less than five of these. And there are even some indications of its
being being of a much earlier date. For we may consider, as a symptom of it, the thirst with which she has been affected from the time that she was on the breast. To all these circumstances, it is farther to be added, that her complaints have already resisted the power of several medicines. If, therefore, it admits of a speedy and fortunate termination, it is, I own, much more than I expect.
. It may seem strange, that hitherto I have taken no notice of a circumstance particularly mentioned in this case, that is, the worms which she has, at different times, been observed to discharge by ftool. There are some practitioners, who, with such circumstances as occur here, would look upon worms in the intestinal canal to be the cause of the greatest part, if not of all the symptoms. I must, however, own, that I do not fufpeet them to have any connection with the present complaint. Worms, indeed, in the intestines, are by no means a rare occurrence : yet, as far as my inquiries go, I think I may venture to assert, that, in this country, they are less frequent than in some others; and that now, they are less frequent here than they were formerly, which I am inclined to ascribe to changes which have taken place with respect to diet. Cafes are often to be met with, in which they are unquestionably productive of the most threatning and most anomalous symptoms ; yet there can be no doubt, that they are frequently present in the alimentary canal when they are productive of no inconvenience. This sufficiently appears from their being observed to be discharged where there has been no preceeding uneasinefs.
• In the case before us they appeared chiefly during the course of a fever. It is to be observed, that, during febrile affections, worms frequently appear; and, when this is the case, there are many who are disposed to consider them as the cause of the fever. This conclusion, however, is, I imagine, often drawn without good reason; and I cannot help thinking, that they are frequently discharged merely in consequence of the fever. It would seem, that, from the morbid affection which exifts, probably from the increased heat of the body, their fiļuation becomes disagreeable to them. And I reckon it probable, that this may have been the case in the instance before
Our patient has, even of late, indeed, discharged one, which gives a presumption that there may be still others' prefent. And the action of these on the alimentary canal, may either be the cause of some fymptoms, or may aggravate them ; yet, admitting that, I must own, I do not confider them as forming any dangerous part of the affection ; and I do not think that our attempts to cure are to be directed with a view to there.
Respecting the general plan of cure, from what has been said, it may be concluded, that I am much at a loss. I have, however, begun the treatment of this case, on what I reckon the most probable supposition; that is, the idea of its being a
dropfical affection. Suppofing that there is a collection of water in the cavity of the abdomen, it is my intention to actempt to discharge it by natural outlets. Of these, the chief are evacuation by ftool and urine. From the first of these, we can obtain the most immediate and most sudden discharge ; from the last, the evacuation which takes place has the least influence, as debilitating the patient ; and, on this account, diuretics can be used with more regularity, and for a greater length of time, than purgatives. To these, therefore, I am chiefly disposed to truft in the present case; yet I wish, in fome degree, to conjoin the advantages both from diuretics and purgatives. It is from these considerations that I have put this patient on the use of two different remedies, cream of tartar and squills. While the first operates, most immediately, as a purgative, it is, at the same time, 'powerfully diuretic. The last is intended solely with the view of increasing the quantity of urine. If, from these medicines, we can obtain a copious discharge of urine, with a diminution of the swellings, and, at the same time, without debility, it may go far towards the recovery of the patient. At the same time, in dropsical affections, I consider the evacuation of the water as the least important part of the cure.
And, in almost every case, it is a more difficult mate ter to prevent the return of effusion, than to produce evacuation. It may, therefore, be necessary, in order to secure the good effects which may be derived from these evacuants, to have recourse to Peruvian bark, and other tonics. At the same time, I would by no means be understood to promise that we fall ever come this length in the cure; and, we may even be soon fatisfied, that the present plan is not to be perfifted in. The evacuation may be greater than our patient is able to bear, or it may take place without a diminution of the swellings. In either cafe, it would be prejudicial. Sapposing this to happen, I muft own, that I cannot, at present, even conjecture what measures I may then be disposed to adopt. I thall probably, however, try some of those medicines which more immediately tend to increase the tone of the alimentary canal; particularly those which pass under the general titles of ftomachic and carminative medicines. It is, in some measure, with an intention of this kind, that I mean to conjoin, with the present course, friction of the abdomen. And, merely as an inducement to its being continued for a fufficient length of time, I shall order it to be performed, either with oil, or with some soft powder, but without expecting from these any other effect than as leading to the continuance of the friction.
• Siquel) Soon after the 7th of December, besides the continuance of the cream of tartar and squills, directions were given, that this patient should have her belly carefully rubbed every evening for the space of half an hour. And, as the repeated evacuations by fool seemed to induce debility, the purgatives were ordered to be intermitted. But, not long after 8