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it is more rational to suppose, that either in the first or second inftance the disorder was not really the small.

.pox, frequenc mistakes of that kind happening ; but were, it actually ro, Thall we thence draw a general conclusion, that the small-pox is a difemper we may have over and over, and lose that comfort, and even folid security, which arises from the contrary opinion ?

Having ventured to say what the gout is not owing to, the reader will now expect to be told what it is owing to ; and I know not how to do it more clearly and concisely, than by first giving him a receipt, which if he will have resolucion implicitly to follow, my life on it, he will have a true, genuine gout, although there have been no traces of it in his family for fifty generations,

« Let him take little or no exercise ; drink plentifully, but not to drurkenness, of punch, light sharp wines, cyders, in short, of any liquor where there is much spirit and much acid united, whether the spirit be first separated by distillation, and then mixed with the acid, as in punch; or whether the Spirit and acid be produced by fermentation, as in wine, &c. for neither the spirit alone, nor the acid alone will generate

to be gout :

: the more parp and volatile the liquor, provided it have à sufficient proportion of spirit, the more efficacious will it be. Let him continue this course faithfully and regularly for nine or ten months, then may he set up for the Adam of a gouty pofterity. If he stick to one particular liquor, and drink no water, tea, small-beer, or other diluters, the effect will be the speedier ; and if he be rather in the decline of life, the sooner yet will he succeed.”

The ingenious inquirer afterwards examines the propriety of the general do&trine, that bleeding is pernicious in the gout; and he endeavours to fhew, upon pathological principles, that the effect of this remedy must always depend on the particular circumstances of the case.

A variety of other observations, that discover' both ingenuity and judgement, incidentally occurs; but on some of those subjects, the author indulges himself in theoretical speculation, to a degree beyond what can be admitted as decifive of the merits of practice.

Gulielmi Hudsoni, Reg. Soc, S. & Pharmac. Lond. Flora An

glica, exhibens Plantas per Regnum Britanniæ /ponte crescentes, &c. Editio altera, emendata & auda. 2 vols. 8vo. 1os. 6d.

Nourse. THE HE first edition of this work, published in 1762, being

entirely sold off, and the copies rising from the original price of 7s. 6d. to the extraordinary one of three guineas, it

was

was in some measure the author's duty towards the public, to reduce this heavy tax upon science, and to enable a great number of inquisitive readers to profit at a more moderate expence, of the knowledge contained in his useful and valuable work. Another consideration of equal, if not greater weight, made a second edition very acceptable at this time. In the space of sixteen years, which were elapsed since the first publication of this work, Mr. Hudson had, on his frequent bytanical travels throughout all parts of England, and by the communication of several afliduous friends, received such additions to his former catalogue, and collected so many corrections founded on new observations, that a second edition would in many respe&s appear in the light of a new work, presenting the indigenous botanists with a variety of interest. ing articles before unknown, or at least imperfeâly described. On perusal of the volumes before us, these laudable motives seem to have influenced the author to re-publish his Flora Anglica.

After a most copious terminology, or explication of the Latin terms employed in modern botany, together with a complete lift of authors cited in the course of the work, Mr. Hudson proceeds to the enumeration of the British plants, disposed as in his first edition, according to the sexual system of the great Linnæus, lately deceased. To each new genus is affixed the short generic character, and to each species the differentia /pecifica. After the synonyms from other authors, follow the English names, the place of growth, and foil, the duration, time of flowering, and sometimes particular descriptions, and the pharmaceutic uses. The duration is expressed by the signs first adopted by Linnæus, and the months by Roman numbers from I to XII.

To give a catalogue of names, and add to every one a string of synonyms copicd from the Linnæan Species Plantarum, and then to call such a compilation, a Flora of any particular couna try, is perhaps one of the easiest and most frequent manipulations in the whole art of book-making at this day, when private profit and the outward appearance, not the reality of fcientific knowledge are too often the main objects of writers. Very different is the task of a botanical author, who carefully compares every plant with the description of his predecessors, and admits of no parallel quotations, without being well assured of the identity of the species before him, with those de. scribed in other books. The result of his study will be of important use, where the vamped productions of others do a&ual disservice; for as the latter encrease the difficulty of diftinguishing the species of plants by quoting erroneous fyVol. XLVI. July, 1778.

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nonyms ;

nonyms ; so on the contrary the more careful and critical works of the true practical botanist, give us clear ideas of every individual, and effe&tually introduce good order, where confusion and contradiction formerly deterred the

young

beginner. The author who undertakes this laborious task, must not hope to earn, at first, those loud eulogiums which are lavished on the empiric. His book quite destitute of the empty Jhere of novelty, and concealing the fruits of his afliduous reYearches under a plain garb, to which the eye has long been accustomed, -can have no charms to captivate the fuperficial reader. The very few, who pursue the science with equal ardour as himself, and are fif we may so express it) initiated in its mysteries, are the only competent judges of his merit, and will trace in every line that great knowledge and application, which the profane cannot discover. From the real utility of his work he may however expect in the end to meet with uni. versal approbation, when every mere unmeaning catalogue is forgotten. After the most attentive perusal of Mr. Hudion's Flora Anglica, we have every reason to believe, that it will be generally esteemed not only the most complete account of the vegetable kingdom within our native idand, but likewise a valuable guide to botanists in general, on account of those cris tical corrections which appear to have been made with judge. ment after a nice examination, and with an indefatigable application.

- It would take up too much room to mention all the im. provements which this new edition has received; we shall however take the liberty to insert a few specimens in proof of its general utility to botanists. Among the genera Mr. Hudson has added fix new ones, viz. Narthecium, Tofieldia, Ficaria, Ga. leobdolon, Hedypnois, and Nasmythia. The first and second of these are the anthericum offifragum and calyculatum of Linnæus; the third his ranunculus ficaria ; and the fourth his galeopfis galeobdolon. The hedypnois appears to be a most, necessary addition to the system, as it includes a number of anomalous species of different Linnæan genera, which have i hitherto puzzled the botanical student. Mr. Hudson enumerates, five species, viz.

T. Hedypnois hispida, which includes the leontodon hispidum, & birtum of Linnæus.

2. H. autumnalis, which includes the leontodon autumnale, , Linn. and as a second variety, the hieracium taraxaci, Linn.

3. H. rectorum, which is Linn. crepis tectorum,
4. H. hieracioides, ihe picris' hieracioides Linn,
5. H. biennis, the crepis biennis Linn.

The

.

The genus of Narmythia is with sufficient reason feparated from the Eriocaulon, and brought to the class of monoecia, as is that of callitriche to polygamia. Among the graffes Mr. Hudson has made many alterations, and, we think; several real improvements. Throughout his work there are likewise a number of new species, and particularly among the cryptogamiæ, where the lichens, ulve, and fuci, have received considera able addition, much greater indeed than we could have expected in a country, fcrutinized by many eminent botanists, with the great Ray at their head.

An Examination of the fifteenib and fixteenth Chapters of Mr. Gibe

bon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. By

Henry Edward Davis, B. A. 8vo. 45. fewed. Dodfley. THE *HE author of this work introduces his remarks with the

following general observations on Mr. Gibbon's pera formance.

• It has been jadiciously observed, that it is not the business of the historian to profess himself a sceptic in matters of religion.

Machiavel, whose detestable principles, in his political works, are well known, found it necessary to assume a very differeot character, when he wrote the History of Florence. And even David Hume, in his History of England, is content with glancing at Sacred Truth by fome oblique hints.

• It is therefore to be wished, that Mr. Gibbon, satisfied with the applause due to him as an elegant historian, had not produced himself as an avowed champion for infidelity, in his fif. teenth and fixteenth chapters, which have cast a blemish on the whole work.

• It does not appear to have been essential to his history to touch at all on "she Rise and Progress of Christianity,” much less to make so long a digression, which seems to have been wrought up with so much art, and care, and ingenuity, that we can ealily trace the author's predilection for the subject. He treats it indeed con amore; which has induced many judicious persons to suspect, that the rest of the volume was written to introduce these two chapters with a better grace, and more decent apo pearance.

However, whether the conjecture be founded on truth, or pot; had our author followed his design as “a candid enquiry, which he professes to do, he would have had a better right to our approbation and esteem.

• The artful insinuations of so agreeable a writer, impera ceptibly sedace his readers, who, charmed with his style, and deladed with the vaia pomp of words, may be apt to pay too

much

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much regard to the pernicious sentiments he means to convey. It is, therefore, absolutely necessary that they thould be reminded of the unfair proceedings of such an insidious friend, who offers the deadly draught in a golden cup, that they may be less fenfible of their danger.

• The remarkable mode of quotation, which Mr. Gibbon adopts, muft immediately strike every one who turns to his notes. He sometimes only mentions the author, perhaps the book, and often leaves the reader the toil of finding out, or rather gueling at the passage.

• The policy, however, is not without its design and use. By endeavouring to deprive us of the means of comparing him with the authorities he cites, he fastered himself, no doubt, that he might fafely have recourse to misrepresentation ; that his inaccuracies might escape the piercing eye of criticism; and that he might indulge his wit and spleen, in fathering the abfurdest opinions on the most venerable writers of antiquity. For, often, on examining his references, when they are to be traced, we fall find him supporting his cause by manifeft falfification, and perpetually affuming to himself the strange privilege of inferting in his text what the writers referred to give him no right to advance on their authority.

« This breach of the common faith reposed in authors, is peculiarly indefenfible, as it deceives all those who have not the leisure, the means, nor the abilities, of searching out the passages in the originals.

• Our author often proposes second, or even third handed notions as new; and has gained a name among fome, by retailing objections which have been long ago started, and as long fince refuted and exploded.

• In fact, sceptics and free-thinkers are of a date fo old, and their objections were urged so early, and in such numbers, that our modern pretenders to this wisdom and philosophy can with difficuliy invent any thing new, or discover, with all their ma. levolent penetration, a fresh flaw. The same set of men have been alone distinguished by different names and appellations, from Porphyry, Celsus, or Julian, in the first ages of Christianity; down to Voltaire, Hume, or Gibbon in the present.

• Such is the plan of our author. It must be mine to ob. viate and oppose it. In order to which, I have felected several of the more notorious instances of his misrepresentation and error, reducing them to their respective heads, and subjoining a long list of almost incredible inaccuracies, and such striking proofs of servile plagiarism, as the world will be surprised to meet with in an author who puts in so bold a claim to originality and extensive reading.'

In fupport of this heavy charge the examiner lays before bis readers a great number of passages, in which the historian has misrepresented Diodorus Siculus, Justin, Dion Caffius, Jo

fephus,

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