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"I S L A N D S. • All the isands which we saw during our voyage are either situated within the tropicks, or in the temperate zones. The tropical islands may be again divided into high and low.
• The high tropical i lands are either surrounded by reefs, and have flats near the sea. fhore, or they are without reefs. Of the first kind are O-Taheitee, with all the Society Isles, and Maatea, the higher Friendly Ines Tongatabu, Eadowe, Na. mocka, Turtle Tland, and New Caledonia.
• Amongst the highest tropical ifles without a reef, we reckon the Marquesas and all the New Hebrides, together with Savage Illand ; and Tofooa and Oghao among the Friendly Ines.
• The low isles of which we have any knowledge, are ChainIland and four other isles, which were perhaps seen by Mr. de Bougainville; also Tethuroa, Teoukea with four more called Pallifer's Illes, Tupai, Mopeeha or Howe's Illes ; Palmerstone's Illes, wish the Immer, one of the New Hebrides, and the Ar. chipelago of the low Friendly Ilands.
These isles are so different from each other in their nature, that we cannot help at firit light observing the striking and ma. terial difference. The low illes are commonly narrow, low ledges of coral rocks, including in the middle a kind of lagoon, and baving here and there little fandy spots somewhat elevated above high-water mark, whereon coconuts and a few other plants will thrive : the rest of the ledge of rocks is so low, that the lea frequently flows over it at high and sometimes at low water. Several of the larger isles of this kind are regularly inhabited; some are only resorted to, now and then, by the in. habitants of the neighbouring high ises, for the purposes of fishing, fowling, and turtling; and some others are ablolately uninhabited, though they are furnished with coco nut-trees and are often resorted to in great focks by maa of war birds, boobies, gulls, terns, and some petrels.
• The high islands of both kinds appear at a distance, like large hills in the midst of the ocean, and some of them are greatly elevated, so that their fummits are seldom free from clouds. Tbose, which are surrounded by a reef and by a fertile plain, along the sea-fhores, have commonly a more gentle slope; whereas the others are suddenly steep. It must be allowed, however, that the hills in some of the New Hebrides, viz. Ambrrym, Sandwich INe, Tanna, and others have likewise in several places an easy ascent.
• The islands seen by us in the South Sea in the temperate Southern 'zone, are Eafter Island, Norfolk Iland, and New Zeeland, and these are all high, and have no reef surrounding them. Norfolk Island is however fituated upon a bank ex. tending more than ten or twelve miles round it. New Zeeland as far as we had an opportunity of examining it, confifts
of very high hills, of which fome in the very interior parts have fummits almost always involved in clouds, or when free, shewing cheir snowy heads at more than twenty or thirty leagues distance. The lower hills of the same islands are almost every where covered with woods and forests, and none but the higher fummits appear to be barren.
• Tierra del Fuego as far as we could discover, appears to be a cluster of isles interfected by various deep founds and chan. nels. The land consists of craggy, bleak, and steep rocks, whose summits are covered with eternal snow, especially in those interior parts which are less exposed to the mild and humid air of the sea. Its easterninost lide about the streights le Maire, has an easy flope, and is in some parts wooded. Staten Land has the same appearance as the barren part of Tierra del Fuego: 'nor was the snow wanting in the beginning of January or the very height of summer.
• Southern Georgia is an isle of about eighty leagues in extent, consisting of high hills, none of which were free from snow in the middle of January, except a few rocks towards the fea : and the bottoms of all its harbours we found filled with ice.
' The last land we saw in these cold, dismal regions we called Sandwich Land, and the southernmost part of it, Southern
Thule. All this land or cluster of ifles, is full of ice and en. tirely covered with snow.
• -Pigris ubi nulla campis
Hor. lib. i. Od. xxii, Chap. II. contains various remarks on water and the ocean, including an ingenious investigation of its different principles and phenomena ; and the third chapter comprehends observations on the atmosphere, its changes, meteors, and phenomena,
In the two subsequent chapters, respectively, we are presented with remarks on the changes of the globe, aod on the organic bodies ; and in the fixth, the author advances to remarks on the human species. The first obje&ts of his inquiry are the number and population of the inhabitants of Uie South Sea Ines ; after which he takes a view of the va. rieties relative to colour, size, form, habit, and natural turn of mind, in the natives of those islands, with the causes of their difference, and likewise the moft probable opinion refpecting their origin and migration.
We Thall lay before our readers what is advanced by the au. thor, respecting the varieties of those iflanders,
• If we are desirous of tracing the 'races of all these ifanders back to any continent, or its neighbourhood, we muft cast an eye on a map of the South Sea where we find it bounded to the East by America, to the West by Afia, by the Indian Iles on its North side. and by New Holland to the Such At first fight, it might seem p obable, that these tropical isles were originally settled fron America, as the easterly winds are the molt prevalent in the e feas, and as the small and wretched embarkations of the natives in the Soub Seas, can hardly be employed in plying to windward. But if we consider the argument more minutely, we find that America itself was not peopl-d many centuries before its discovery by the Spaniards, There were but two states or kingdoms on this immense continent, that bad acquired any degree of population, and made considerable progress in civilization ; and they likewise did not originate earker, than about 300 or 400 years before the are rival of the Spaniard. The rest was occupied by a few ftraggling families, thinly dispersed over this vast tract of land, so that sometimes not more than 30 or 40 persons, lived in an extent of 100 leagues at very great distances from cach other. Again, when the Spaniards discovered lome of these islands in the South Sea, a few years only after the discovery of the con. tinent of America, they found them as populous as we have seen them in our days: from whence it appears to be highly improbable, that these isles were peopled from America. if we moreover consult the Mexican, Peruvian, and Chilefe vocabularies, and those of other American languages, we find not the most distant, or even accidental similarity between any of the American languages, and those of the South Sea Jlles, The colour, features, form, habit of body, and customs of the Americans, and these islanders, are totally different; as every one, conversant with the subject, will easily discover. Nay, the distances of 600, 700, 800, or even ioco leagues between the continent of America and the easteromolt of these isles, to. gether with the wretchedness and small size of their vessels, prove, in my opinion, inconteftably, that these iflanders never came from America.
• We must therefore go to the westward ; let us begin with New Holland. All the former navigators, and especially cap. tain Cook, in the Endeavour, found this immense continent very thinly inhabited. The diminutive fize of its inhabitants, the peculiarity of their customs and habits, their total want of coco-nuts, cultivated plantanes, and hogs, together with the most miserable condition of their huts and boats, prove beyond all doubt, that the South Sea islanders, are not descended from the natives of New Holland. But, what is still more convincing, their language is totally different, as evidently appears from the examination of a vocabulary obligingly commu. nicated to me by captain Cook. We have therefore nothing left but to go further to the north, where the South Sea ifles are as it were connected with the East Indian isles. Many of these latter are inhabited by two different races of men. la
Leveral of the Moluccas is a race of men, who are blacker than the rest, with woolly hair, llender and tall, speaking a peculiar language, and inhabiting the interior hilly parts of the countries; in f veral ifles these people are called Alfcories. The fores of these isles are peopled by another nation, whose individuals are swarthy, of a more agreeable form, with curled and long hair, and of a different language, which is chiefy a branch or dialect of the Malayan. In all the Philippines, the interior mountainous parts, are inhabited by a black set of people, with frizzled hair, who are ta'l, lufty, and very warlike, and speak a peculiar langu.ge different from that of their neighbours. But the outskirts towards the sea are peopled with a race iafinitely fairer, having long hair, and speaking different languag s; they are of various denominations, but the Tagales, Pampangos, and Bissayas, are the most celebrated among them. The former are the more ancient inhabitants, and the latter are certainly related to the various tibes of Malays, who had over-run all the East India islands before the arrival of the Eu. ropeans in those seas. Their language is likewise in many
in. stances related to that of the Malays. The ifle of Formosa or Tai-ovan has likewise in its interior hilly parts, a set of brown,' frizzly haired, broad-faced inhabitants ; but the shores, especially those to the North, are occupied by the Chinese, who differ even in language from the former. The isles of New Guinea, New Britain, and Nova Hibernia have certainly black complexioned inhabitants, whose manners, customs, habit, form, and character, correspond very much with the inhabitants of the South Sea islands belonging to the second race in Nova Caledonia, Tanna, and Mallicollo; and these blacks in New Gui. nea, are probably related to those in the Moluccas and Philip. pines The Ladrones, and the new discovered Caroline Ilands, cootain a set of people very much related to our first race. Their fize, colour, babit, manners, and cuttoms, seem strongly to indicate this affinity; and they are according to the account of some writers, nearly related in every respect to the Tagales in Luçon or Manilla, so that we may now trace the line of mi. gration by a continued line of isles, the greater part of which are pot above 100 leagues distant from each other.
• We likewise find a very remarkable fimilarity between se. veral words of the fair tribe of islanders in the South Sea, and some of the Malays. But it would be highly inconclusive from fimilarity of a few words, to infer tha: these islanders were de. scended from the Malays: for as the Malay contains words found in the Persian, Malabar, Braminic, Cingalese, Javanese, and Malegass, this should likewife imply, that the nations Speaking the above mentioned languages were the offspring of the Malays, which certainly would be proving too much. am therefore rather inclined to suppose, that all these dialects preserve several words of a more ancient language, which was more universal, and was gradually divided into many languages,
Dow remarkably different. The words therefore of the language of the South Sea ifles, which are fimilar to others in the Malay tongue, prove clearly in my opinion, that the Eastern South Sea ifles were originally peopled from the Indian, or Afatic Northern ifles; and that thofe lying more to the Weftward, received their first inhabitants from the neighbourhood of New Guinea.'
Dr. Forster next relates the progress which the South Sea iflanders have made towards civilization, with their method of procuring food; to which he subjoins a concise view of the general principles of national happiness. From this subject he makes a tranfition to the principles, moral ideas, manners, refinement, luxury, and the condition of women among the natives of the South Sea ifles; thence pasing to education, and the origin and progress of manufactures, arts, and sciences; afterwards considering religion, mythology, cofmogony, worship, origin of mankind, future state, rites genethliac, nuptial, and sepulchral. These subjects are followed by a recapitulation, in which the author takes a general view of the happiness of the islanders in the South Sea; and a short comparative view of various manners and customs usual in the South Sea ifles, with those of other nations.---The whole affords a comprehensive, well digested, systematical account of the new discovered islands in the South Sea; to which are added useful observations on the preservation of health in long poyages.
The Works of the Caledonian Bards. Translated from the Galic.
Vol. I. Small 8vo. 35. Jewed. Cadell. THE *HE Poems of Offian, though perhaps the most confider
able for beauty and extent, are not the only vernacular compofitions, of the metrical kind, to be found in the HighJands of Scotland. It appears that several others of the ancient Caledonian bards had left behind them productions, which continue to be admired by all who are conversant with the Galic language. The tranflation of the poems now published confifts of the following: Morduth, an ancient heroic poem in three books, the Chief of Scarlaw, the Chief of Feyglen, the Cave of Creyla, Colmala and Orwi, the Old Bard's Wish, Duchoil's Elegy, Sulvina's Elegy, Oran-Molla, the Words of Woe, the Approach of Summer, the Ancient Chief.
That our readers may be furnished with a specimen, we Shall lay before them the poem of Colmala and Orwi, not for poffefsing any merit superior to the others, but as being the least incumbered with notes,