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that one should think it would alone have been sufficient to lead the grammarians to a knowledge of most of the other conjunctions, as well as ot itself: If that, an thut, unless that, though ibar, but that, without that, left ihal, fince that, Jave ibat, except that, &c.
AS is an article, and means the same as it, that, which. In the German, where it still evidently retains its original fignification and use, as so also does, it is written, es,
Als, in our old English, is a contraction of al, and es or as, and this al (which in comparisons used to be very properly employed be. fore the first es or as, but was not employed before the second) we now, in modern English, suppress, as we have done in numberless other instances. Thus,
As swift as darts or feather'd arrows fly,' In old English is written,
Als swift as ganze or fedderit arrow fleis.' which means, .With all that swiftness, with which, &c.'
Be-it, albeit, notwithstanding, nevertheless, fet, lave, except, out-cept, out-take, to wit, because, &c. are evident at first sight.
In this manner the ingenious author has traced all these fupposed unmeaning, indeclinable conjunctions to their fource, and shewn she precise meaning of each of them, with a perspicuity and consistency, which will at least entitle his hypothesis to the favourable consideration of every future etymologist and grammarian. A General History of Ireland, from the earliest Accounts to the close
of the Twelfth Century, collected from the most authentic Records. By Mr. O'Halloran.
2 vols. 410.
16. jis. 6d. in boards. Robinson. WHEN literary prejudices are attended with a competent
share of ingenuity and learning, there is hardly any hya pothesis which a writer of character may not embellish with the air of plaufibility. Enough, we imagined, had been said in refutation of the historical authority of the Irish bards, fileas, and senachies; but when the contest seemed to be de. cided, another champion arises, who asserts the cause of national honour with a degree of warmth, address, and ability, superior to all his predecessors. We are justified in this remark, not only by the whole series of the present History, but by the Preliminary Discourse, in which Mr. O'Halloran has endeavoured to pave the way for the reception of his hypo- . thesis, and has concentrated all the force of its collateral fup. ports.-But we shall immediately proceed to the History, which commences with the following chapter. VoL, XLVI. July, 1778.
In the year of the world, according to the Hebrew compu.. tation, 2736, in the month of Bel or May, and the 17th day of the moon's age, according to the relation of Amhergin, highpriest to this expedition, Ireland was invaded by a numerous body of feleet troops, from Galicia in Spain. After subduing the country, and etablishing their government on a permanent bafis, as shall be related in its place, they fet on foot an inquiry into the history and antiquities of the people thus reduced, how long they had been in the kingdom, and what colonies had preceded them, &c. The result of their researches produced the following relations, which have been as carefully transmitted from age to age, as those of their own particolar exploits, and these of their ancestors.
• In the year of the world 1956, Partholan, the son of Seara, the son of Sru, the son of Easru, son of Framant, fun to 'Fathocda, the son of Magog, fon to Japhet, the son of Noah, landed in Ireland, accompanied by his wife, Ealga, or Ealgnait, his three sons, Rughraidhe, Slainge, and Laighline, with their wives, and. 1000 soldiers. The Book of Invasions, from which this relation is taken, fixes the time of his landing to be 278 yeårs after the flood ; but Mr. O'Flaherty makes it 35 years later; differences, however, of little consequence in transactions fo remote and uninteresting. The cause of his flying from his native country, Greece, we are told, was, the inhuman murder of his father and mother, with a resolution to cut off also his elder brother, in order to possess himlelf of the supreme command; but his parricide and villany were so universally deteft. ed, that he was compelled to fly the country, and seek new abodes, and at length, as we fee; with his followers reached Ireland. The Book of Conquests mentions—but as an affair not authenticated that before the arrival of Partholan, Ire.* land was possessed by a colony from Africa, under the command of Ciocall, between whom and the new comers a bloody battle was fought, in which the Africans were cut off.
-* It is recorded, that at this time, there were found in freland but three lakes and nine rivers, whose names are particutarly mentioned; but from this it appears probable that the parts of the country, in which these lakes and rivers appeared, were only what were then known; and that as their succeffors began to explore and lay open other parts, the rivers and lakes then appearing, were entered into the national aanals, as they were discovered ; but as no previous mention could have been made of them, and that the different periods in which they were found out, were distinctly marked, succeeding annalists have dated the first bursting forth of each, from the time of its discovery. Our writers are very exact in the times in which these lakes and rivers appeared : it cuts a conspicuous figure in our history, and proves the extreme accuracy of our early writers; but a very: unjustifiable credulity in their fucceffors, who could suppose the firit discovery of them to be their first rise, though the learned
Hutchinson, bishop of Down and Conner, has taken no small pains to defend it.
But as it appears to me almolt a certainty, that (with a very few exceptions) rivers and lakes are nearly coeval with the creation, the reader will I hope excuse my taking Do farther notice of this part of our history.
• Soon after the landing of Partholan, his son Sluinge died, and was interred in the side of a mountain, in the present county of Down, from him denominated Sliabh-Slainge, sliabh being Irith for a mountain. · Laighline also died, and was buried near a lake in Meath, from him called Loch-Laighline ; and from the place of Rughraidhe's interment, the adjoining lake was called Loch-Rughraidhe. After a reign of thirty years, Par. tholan quitted this life, at Magh-Alta, in Meath, leaving the kingdom between his four fons, born in Ireland, whose names were Ear, Orba, Fearn, and Feargna.
• We are surprised to find in the retinue of this prince, four men of letters, three druids, three generals, a knight, a beatach or keeper of open house, and two merchants, whose names are preserved in our annals. The sons of Partholan, we are told, governed with great wisdom, as did their successors for fome generations, till at length a violent plague broke out, which Twept away the greatett part of this colony. By this means the kingdom, which for near 300 years was governed by the posterity of this prince, continued for thirty years after in a state of anarchy. The greatest number that were carried off by this contagion, was at Ben-Hedir, now Hoath, near Dublin, and the places adjacent: from which circumftance, we may infer, that it was brought into the kingdom by some fhip or ships : the mortality was fo rapid, that experience pointed out the utility (instead of different burial places, which only served to spread the disorder) of fixing on one common place, in which the dead were to be thrown indiscriminately; and which from this cir: cumstance, says the Book of Conquests, was ever after called Taimhleacht-Muinter Phartholan, or the burial place of the pofterity of Partholan. After the reception of Christianity, a celebrated monaftery was founded on this ground, to this day called Taimhieacht.'
It is, we readily agree with Mr. O'Halloran, surpring to find in Partholan's retinue two men of letters, three druids, a. knight, &c. (though knights errant may have existed in all ages); but we are more surprised to find any credit given to a parrative that pretends to so high antiquity, when the partie culars are surprising in any degree.
In book IL. chap. I. the historian relates, that Phænius, the inventor of letters, is claimed as the founder of the Irish or Milesian race. This personage is faid to be the son of Baath, the son of Magog, the son of Japhet, the son of Noah. " But, says Mr. O'Halloran, if we admit of this gea nealogy, we will at the same time see the neceflity for sup.
poging pofing that some more generations must have intervened between Phænius and Noah, to account for the great increase of mankind in his days.' This anecdote is to us another sub- , je&t for surprize ; and when the author acknowledges that there is a neceffity for recurring to supposition, to render the story credible, the most natural supposition would be, to renounce the whole as a fiction.
Of the incidents related in this work, which concludes with the arrival of Henry II. in Ireland, it is sufficient to observe, that Mr. O'Halloran has delivered, in an uninterrupted feries, the whole mass of Irish historical documents, from the alledged commencement of the monarchy to that time, and we Thall therefore return to make a few remarks on the Preliminary Discourse.
In order to account for the supposed emigrations from the southern countries to Ireland, Mr. O'Halloran is inclined to admit that the ancients were acquainted with that property of the magnet by which it points to the north. But is it reafonable to imagine, that this essential property could have been entirely overlooked by all ancient writers, had they actually known it? The probability seems to be infinitely stronger in favour of one inference than the other,
• In treating of every particular reign, says our author, I have. examined whatever had been advanced by different writers, either in print or manuscript, on the subject. Even Routh, Ulher, Ward, Colgan, and other ecclefiaftical writers, were explored for information; and I have rejected whatever feemed improbable or ill-founded. Frequent mention is made, in early days of invasions from Africa, and of transactions between our ancestors and these people. As no other people of Africa but the Carthaginians were a maritime or commercial people, I began to suspect that these were the very Fomharaigs fo often spoken of. I consulted their history, compared the eras in question, and satisfied myself, as I hope I shall the public, that my fufpicions were well grounded. This explained and juftihed the extent of our early commerce, the improvements in arts and manufactures, the working of our mines of copper, lead, and iron, the great riches of the country, and the fources from whence they flowed ! Besides their extensive commerce, for which the Carthaginians were fo renowned, it is a known fact, that, in their wars with the Romans, they hired mercenaries, not only in Iberia and Gaul, but drew troops from the Atlantic illesTo illuitrate this, we find mention made of the FineFomraraig, or African legions, in our early records, who, I take for granted, to be Irith troops consigned to that service: and for this reason, that our bands in Gaul were called Fine. Gall, as, in a subsequent period, those in Scotland were called Fine-Albin, just as the Romans denominated their legions after
the countries in which they served. But, to fhew that there is something more than conjecture in what is here advanced, it evidently appears, that Carthaginian swords, found near the plains of Canna, and ancient Irish swords, so frequently met with, are, as to shape, size, and mixture of metals, so exactly similar, that the assay master of the mint, who examined both, pronounced that they were cast in the same chauldron!'
This anecdote relates to Governor Pownal's Account of some Irish Antiquities, read before the Antiquarian Society, in 1774; but it cannot be conclusive of the inference in support of which it is cited. For as writers are agreed that the Phenician colonies traded with England for tin, at a very remote period, it is more probable, that those implements were imported from the south into England, and had afterwards been carried to Ireland by fome emigrant thither.
This ingenious author uniformly grants to the Irish records a degree of authenticity and credit, which we presume, from the fagacity that he discovers in other points, he would not consider as due to those of any different country, in periods equally remote. The authentic history of Greece has been
fixed to the commencement of the Olympiads; and that of all the western, as well as northern nations of Europe, must be confined to much lateè epochas. The supposition that arts and learning ever flourished in Ireland in very remote times, is entirely repugnant to probability ; because no local traces remain of such memorials as in every other country where those were cultivated, have transmitted to distant ages the proofs of their former existence. Mr. O'Halloran's narrative, however, may be regarded as a connected detail of the fabulous times in Ireland, preceding the dawn of its authentic annals in Dr. Leland's History,
Obfervations made during a Voyage round the World, on Physical
Geography, Natural History, and Etbic Philofopby. By John Reinhold Forster, LL.D. F. R. S. and S. A. 410. il. isi in
boards. Robinson. IT T is the business of philosophy to form general principles
from a multitude of particular observations; and this Dr. Foriter has endeavoured to effectuate in the work now be
He begins with remarks on the earth and lands, their inequalities, strata, and constituent parts. Respecting this part of the subject, one fe&ion may serve as a specimen.
6 ISL ANDS: