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at the west end of Kno:kfarril, he observed, under the ruins, a stratum of dung, about three inches deep, pressed hard by the incumbent weight; and this stratum continued for many yards, as the workmen advanced.
In all the vitrified forts which Mr. Williams has seen, he has observed the remains of dry stone buildings run along a part of the ouifide, at some little distance from the vitrified wall. Where the fituation will admit, they are generally on the south side, but always on the flattest side of the hill, for the eale, as he juftly supposes, of the cattle. When there was not room enough on the level area above, to have this dry stone inclosure on the summit, a large ditch had been made on that side of the hil where the Nope was easieft; and on the outside of those ditches, there are every where dry stone ruins, which Mr. Williams supposes were intended for the security of the caitle. When the summit afforded no convenient station for the cattle, a level place for the purpose was formed towards the bottom of the hill.
Our author's subsequent observations relative to this place mult prove so intereiting to every reader who has any taste for such researches, that we shall admit them into our Review.
· The full name of this remarkable fortified hill, is Knockfarril-naphian, which I am told by gentlemen killed in the Galic langoage, is Fingal's place on Knock-farril, this being the name of the hill.
• The tradition of the common people concerning this place, is, that it was the habiration of giants; when giants were in the land! That the chief of these giants was Ree Phian M'Coul, which, I am told, means King Fingal the son of Coul.
· I think it no wonder at all, they suppose such extraordinary buildings as these the work of giants. We often meet with traditions chat appear much more absurd. And the tradition of the wonderful feats Fingal and his heroes were said to perform, might, in after ages, very well make them pass for giants; espetially when those feats would be exaggerated in after ages by poetical fi&tion.
• It is highly probable, that this was one of Fingal's habi. tations or places of strength, as this country, and the neighbouring countries of Sutherland, Caithness, and the coast of Moray, were subject to be invaded by the northern powers.
• The coasts of the Moray and Pentland friths, were the places they commonly infefted : and.I make no doubt but these coun. tries were the scenes of Fingal's wars with those powers, so often celebrated by Ollian, and other ancient Highland bards. To place the scene of those wars, and to make Fingal king only of that little rocky country now called Morven, a small district in the county of Argyll, in my opinion, betrays a criminal degree of ignorance of the Highlands in any one that writes of these
matters, and does but little honour to fo renowned a heroe to confine him to so small a spor,
' I have read Ollian, and I am pretty sure, from circumftances; I can fix some of the scenes of those poems in Moray and Caithness, &c. I have, indeed, been tempted to imagine, that this remarkable place, Knockfarsil, is the ruins of Selma, the palace or habitation of Fingal, fo often celebrated by Oitian.
Many circumstances give their joint fuffrage, to make this conjecture appear at least probable.
* This is a beautiful, and a centrical fituation.
• The buildings on this fortified hill, have been of great extent, and appear, by the ruins, to have been of great strength, and better executed than any of the kind I have seen.--There are clear vestiges of a remarkable road, leading from this place through the hills, towards the north-west fea.
• Several places in this neighbourhood bear the names of some of Fingal's heroes, which places might have belonged to the particular men they are named after; and there are near this, a fine river and valley, which to this day bear the name of Cona, the place of the famous bard Offian.
When I first saw the vellige of the ancient road leading to Knockfarril, I wondered what it could be ; as it has been cut very deep and wide, and the bark thrown out is ftill very high, on the side of the hill near the old ruins,
• The people of the country call ihis the giants hunting road; but it appears to me, it was a read of communication between this and some o:her remarkable place of strength, or between this and the north-west fea, towards which it leads. This road does not take the nearest cut over hill and dale, but feems to search every where for the hardest ground. In some places I have seen it go a considerable way about, to fhun a peat moss, and other soft ground.
• I followed the track of this road ihree or four miles, till it went in among the hills, the eas side of Binwevus, but could not go much farther, without proper conveniencies for lying out all night.
• It appears evidently to have been a road for men and horses, but not for carriages, as it is in some places very narrow.
They have, indeed, cut wide and deep, where the soil was soft; yet I observed, that in going up the side of a hill, where the ground was hard and firm, the road was not above five feet wide, -- just fit for men and horses to pass in a line.
I have not discovered such a road as this, leading to any other of the fortified hills I have seen.
• Whether the place of trength on Knockfarril was the fa. mous ancient Selma, or not, I will not pretend to assert; but I cannot help being perfuaded, that the famous bard Offian bad his residence in this neighbourhood. ,
He celt brates ihe vales, the freams, and the hills of Cona, as the scenes where he exercised his mule.
« The river Cona, now called Conan is about three short miles from Knockfarril.
• This river, fo famous of old, is now one of the finest rivers in the north.
• It waters a beautiful valley of great length, before it emerges from among the hills; and then it winds its way through a beautiful, extensive level coun!ry, in which it forms itself into many a long and smooth canal, and charming limpid stream, before it enters the tide near Dingwall. The valley watered by this river, is fill called Strath-conan, which is but a little variation, in so long a time, from Strath-cona.
• Many of the hills on both sides this fine river, bordering on the low country, are beautifully wild, and command an exo tensive prospect to the eart. When the aged bard would ascend one of these hills in the morning, and behold the glory of the rising fun, enlightening the whole prospect before him, and darting his all-chearing beams to the place of his retreat, and gild. ing the streams of his Cona with burnished silver; no wonder if his muse was fired to celebrate the morning glories of the great luminary, when shining over "the blue ocean, on the sides of the Morven."
• There are many romantic scenes, of woods, rocks, and falls of water, near the foot of the glen or valley.
· These, with the hills, the widely extended country, and various views of the siver which the hills command, would be a charming retirement for the aged bard.
• In mort, there are so many concurring circumstances, to make it appear probable that this country was the chief refidence of the famous warrior Fingal, that I would spin out this letter too long, were I to advance as many of them as have come under my observation. But the goodness and fituation of the countries on both fides the Moray frith, and the numerous remains of places of strength, and other monuments of remote antiquity, are to me as good as a thousand proofs, that there have been very remarkable people inhabiting these countries in those early periods, and that they had very powerful enemies to oppose.'
The next vitrified fort described by Mr. Williams, is situated on the hill of Craig-Phadrick, immediately above the house of Muirtoun, two miles west of Inverness; a hill nearly of the same height as that of Knockfarril, and commanding a most extensive prospect. The fortifications on this hill appear to have been very strong. Mr. Williams remarks as a peculiarity, that there are here distinct ruins of two vitrified walls quite round the inclosed area, and three at the entrance on the east end. The inner wall seems to have been very high and strong, but the outer one not of any considerable height. It is founded on the solid rock, about fix or eight paces from the inner wall, and the author imagines it has been intended as a fence for the cattle, there being no remains of any dry
None rampart for that purpose. The area inclosed by the inner wall is about eighty paces long, and twenty-seven broad ; and both the inner and outer walls appear, by the ruins, to have been exceeding well vitrified.
This seems to be the hill, of which, under the name of Craig Feterick, an account is given in the last volume of the Philosophical Tranfactions, as noticed in our Review for May. The hill is there represented as having once been a volcano ; but Mr. Williams's more accurate investigation seems entirely to overturn this conje&ure.
After giving an account of three other fortified hills of the same kind, namely, Castle Finlay, and Dun-Evan, in the shire of Nairn, and of Finaven, in the shire of Angus, Mr. Wil. liams proceeds to deliver his opinion relative to the manier in which those curious buildings have been erected ; in which detail we find some ingenious observations on the progress of the human mind in the invension of arts.
The author next makes fome remarks of the ruins of dry fone buildings, which are found in many parts of the Highlands, and are uniformly of a conic figure. The area, on the ground within the walls, is from thirty to forty foot diameter. The entrance was always by one low door, and they had a cavity at the bortom, running quite round in the heart of the wall, which is conjectured to have been designed for keeping provisions. Those buildings had a small opening at the top, for admitting light, as well as affording a passage to the smoke, which rose from the fire, that is supposed to have burned in the middle of the area.
Notwithitanding the obvious difference between the structure of those buildings and the vitrified forts, Mr. Williams thinks it is not improbable that they belonged to the same period of time, and were raised by the same people. In support of this conjecture he observes, that the vitrified forts are found only where. the rock is of the plum pudding kind, which is easily vitrified; and the conic structures where the stones are large, square, and broad-bedded, but could not so easily be rendered subject to vitrification,
To the narrative, is subjoined a description of Craig-Patrick, by Mr. James Watt, engineer ; with a letter to Mr. Williams, from Dr. Black, professor of chymistry in the university of Edinburgh, in which this ingenious gentleman concurs with him in opinion, respecting the manner in which he supposes those vitrified forts to have been constructed. The discoveries made by Mr. Williams are not only highly gratifying to curiosity, considering them as the subject of antiquarian researches ; but afford a striking instance of the extraordinary expedients to which people had recourle in the infancy of arts.
A Letter to John Dunning, Esq. By Mr. Horne. Svo. Is. 62.
Johnson. TH HE author of this Letter takes occasion, from an ex
pression in a precedent, quoted at his trial, to enter into a train of grammatical speculations.
The point in debate is thus opened and explained.
• A supposed omission, in the information against Lawley, is produced to justify a real omiffion, in the information against me; when indeed there was no omislion in the precedent. But the averment said to be omitted, was, not only subftantially, but literally made.
“ The exception taken was, that it was not positively averred, that Crooke was indicted, it was only laid, that the sciens, that Crooke had been indicted, and was to be tried for forgery, did fo and so.”—That is literally thus: “ Crooke had been indicted for forgery" (there is the averment literally made)" she knowing that, did so and so.”
Such, fir, is, in all cases, the unsuspected construction not only in our own, but in every language in the world, where the conjunction tbat, or fome equivalent word, is employed. I speak confidently, because I know, a priori, that it must be to ; and I have likewise tried it in a great variety of lan. guages, ancient as well as modern, Afiatic as well as Eu. ropean.'
The word that, he thinks, is therefore not to be considered as a conjunction, but as an article, or a pronoun: and to prove this, he produces, among many others, the following examples: 'I wish you to believe, that I would not wilfully hurt á fy.' 'In this inftance the construction, he says, is to be thus resolved: 'I would not wilfully hurt a fly, I wish you to believe shut (assertion).-" Thieves rise by night, that they may cut men's throats."-Resolution : « Thieves may cut men's throats ; (for) bar (purpose) they rise by night.'
He adds :
* This method of resolation takes place in those languages, which have different conjunctions for the same purpose : for the original of the last example, where ut is employed, and not the the Latin neuter article quod, will be resolved in the same
• Ut jugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones.' • Tlough San&tius, who struggled so hard to withdraw quod from among the conjunctioos, ftill left ut among them without moleftation, yet is ut no other than the Greek article ori, adopt. ed for this conjunctive purpose by the Latins, and by them ori. ginally written uti: the o being changed into a from that propenQty which both the ancient Romans had, and the modern