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physicians, from the beginning of the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth. The most celebrated French Physician within this period was Arnaud de Villeneuve, or Arnaldus de Villanova, who, in 1250, joined the knowledge of chemistry with the practice of phy: fic, and discovered the distillation of wine into brandy.
The second period comprises the physical worthies who flourished in the 16th and 17th century, especially the famous Fernel, first physician to Henry the second, by whom his talents and skill were molt munificently rewarded. He received of that king forty thoufand gold crowns (écus d'or), and of Catherina de Medicis ten thou. fand crowns (écus) every time she had lain in. His medical practice yielded him twelve thousand, (worth now forty thousand) livres a year. The learned Duret one of his successórs, was stih more highly favoured. When he married his daughter to Arnaud de l'Ille, professor of the Arabic language, she walked to church between Henry the third on her right, and her father on her left hand. That king also honoured the wedding entertainment with his presence; and as a proof of his royal affection, made the bride a present of all the gold and silver plate used at the feast.
The third period contains the memoirs of the most eminent French physicians, under the reigns of Lewis the XIV. and XV. such as Tournefort, Lemery, Geoffroi, Winslow, Astruc, &c. Lewis XIV, was likewise very munificent to his physicians and surgeons. After the operation of his filtula, in 1687, he gave M. d'Acquin, his first phytician, 100,000 francs; to Mr. Fagon 80,000 francs; and to Mr. Felix, his first surgeon, who had performed the operation, fifty thousand écus, or crowns.
Most of the eulogies in this third part are extracted from the late Mr. de Fontenelle's elegant Eloges des Académiciens.
FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Observationum Medicarum de Phthifi in Collegio præcipue clinico coba
lefiarum Decuria, a Franc. Henr. Meinoiph. Wilhelm. δύο. .
Collection of cures of a disease commonly thonght incurable, by
an author who appears very sanguine in his hopes, and some. times fanciful in his advice; for instance, when he proposes that every phthisical moiher ought to fuckle her children herself; because a phthisical woman, after having tried, during her pregnancy, many remedies without any effect, was after her delivery to fortunate as perfectly to recover, while, notwithstanding all remonstrances, the suckled her child herself.comHe muit therefore be read cum grano salis. L' Heroisme de l'Amitié; David & Jonathas, Pcëme en quatre Chants.
01 y a joint plusieurs Piéces tant en vers que en Prose, jur differens fujets. Par M. l'Abbé Bruté, Censeur Royal.
Paris, In the poem on David's and Jonathan's heroical friend hip, Mr. Bisté has introduced some fiftions, and endeavoured to give his proie a poetical colouring ; bu: fortunately he has not hazarded any alteracion in David's complaints on Saul's and Jonathan's death. Thtle are indeci tou natural, and too affecting, not to be injured by any alteration; and are one of the finest passages, not only in Mr. B's poem,' but in the whole Bible itself.
After this prose poem we find a collection of several pieces of poetry on various subjects: Seven Odes on the Seven Sacraments of The Roman Catholic Church, -a nice and difficult theme: then a very faint and distant initation of a most excellent ode of the lare Mr. De Haller on the Death of his first Lady ; a free Transation of the Canticle of Moses : " audite coli, quæ loquor;" succeeded by an essay in prose, entitled, “ Rémarques fuir l'Ecriture Saintes, attribuées à Longin;" (another pretended discovery of a Greek MS.) The volume concludes with an epiftle to a Freethinker on his writings against religion; and the author's epittle to his fifter, a nun, on his retirement to Montmorenci. Musei Capitolini antiqua Inscriptiones a Francisco Eugenio Quaseo,
Alexandrino ejufdem Musei Curatore P. nunc primum conjunctim editæ, notisque illuftratæ. Vol. I. II. 410. Romæ.
Many of the ancient inscriptions preserved in the Capitoline Mu. feum were indeed already published separately in various works, treatises, and periodical publications ; but many of them were in correctly printed, and many destitute of illustrations. Marchese Guaco, president of that mulæum, has therefore undertaken to copy them with the greatest fidelity and accuracy, to correct the errors that have crept into other copies, and to mention the place of each. He has also ranged them under proper classes, or chapters, and subjoined their explanations, or quotations of books, in which they are explained. The first volume is dedicated to the pope, and contains three chapters: ist. Of the Names and Attributes of the Gods and Godeffes, their Temples, Altars, Statues, Priests, &c. 2d. Of Emperors, Augufti, Cæsares, Augultæ, Kings. 3d. Of Consules, Præfecti Urbani, and Magiitrates.
Vol. II. contains three other classes of inscriptions. Chap. 4. Military Inscriptions. 5. Those relating to Ofices, Arts, and Sciences, generally practiced by freed Men (liberti.) 6. Matrimonial or conjugal Infcriptions. Descrizione degli Stromenii Armonici d'ogni Genere, del Padre Bonan.
ni; Edizione riveduta, corretta ed accresciuta dall' Ab. Giacinto Cerati; Ornata con CXL. Rami incisi da Arnoldo Wanwentterout.
410. In Roma. • This work originally appeared in the last century under the title of Gabinetto Armonico, and contained then the description of an apartment in the musæum of the Roman college ; in which a variety of musical inftruments was preserved. It was then an indifferent medley encumbered with a great deal of useless erudition; and has now by Signor Cerati been greatly improved, and almost transformed into a new book, as he was expunged the futa perfluities, enriched it with judicious additions, and corrected its Atyle. The various instruments here collected and minuteiy defcribed, are represented in 140 neatly engraved copper-plates. Dissertazione epistolare del Sgr. Ab. Gio. Batista Passeri, sopra un'anti.
ca Statueita di Marmo trovata nel distretto di Perugia, ed ora exjien. te nel Museo dell'Inftituto di Bologna.
Signor Passeri thinks the liitle itatue in question, a donarium votivum to a goddess of health.
Bibliopea, offia l’ Artę di compor Libri. 8vo. In Turino. Signor Carlo Denina, professor of eloquence at Turin, and au. thor of the weil known Rivoluzioni d'Italia, here judiciously confiders and explains the necessary qualifications of a good book, and an accomplifhed writer. Discorso sopra la Pittura, del Cav. Conte Giovio, &c. 8vo. Bassano.
A very tumid panegyric, with a thort biftory, and very superficial theory of the art of painting. Lettera del Sign, Conte Abbate Giambatista Roberti, al Signor Cava
lier Conte Giambatista Giovio, e Riposta del Medenimo sopra Gia. como dà Ponte detto il Bassan Vecchio. 8vo. In Lugano,
Bassano, so called from his native place, was chiefly celebrated for his excellent style in painting animals. Count Ruberti here endeavours to extend that painter's fame beyond this narrow sphere ; he ascribes to him two different manners, and attempts to prove bis asertions by referring to several pictures. The reply lubjoined, contain's a defence of a picture of St. Paul, against the ftrictures of C. Giovio, in his · Discorso sopra la Pittura.' Homeri Ilias Latinis Versibus expresa a Raymundo Cunichio Regufino, Profeffore Eloquentia & Lingua Græcæ, in Collegio Romano. Folio. Roinæ.
A new harmonious and elegant Latin translation of the Iliad. Įlliade di Omero, nuovamente Tradotta dal Græco in Versi sciolti, com
la Batramomachia. 2 'vols. 8vo. Venice.
This Italian transation of Homer, by signor Ridolfi, though sometimes 'rather faint, and not always very faithful, still deserves a considerable rank ainong the great number of Italian translations of that poet. Roland Furieux, Poëme heroique d' Arioste, Traduction nouvelle, par
M. Cavailhon. 3 vols, 16mo. Paris.
Mr. Cavailhon has prefixed a preface to his translation, in which he severely reviews the beauties and faults of that 'favourite Italian poet Ariosto. He seems to have been very confident in hoping that the public would adopt all his sentiments; for he bas, in confe. quence, taken liberies with his original, which will hardly be al. lowed to trarllators, however elegant. He has altered, expunged, or abridged, every paslage displeating his taste; and even thrown two canios into one. Don C rlos Lind Alexei, Luines und Buckingham, ein Versuch in ver
glichenen Litb.nbeschreibungen, or D. C. ant' Al. &c. An attempt in Parallel Biography By E. Totze. 8vo. Greifswald. (Gera? inan.)
The unfortunate personages whose lives and fates are here relat. ed and coinpa: ed at length, with each other, are well known to our readers from other works. They are remarkable rather for thrir fortune and misfortunes, than for any extraordinary-genius; or any exploits and atchievemen's worthy the regard of poiterity. We therefore with that the learned professor Totze, may, for the future at least, employ his unquestionable talents for historical difquifitions, on subjects more generally interesting to his readers.
Bifarrorien Bisarrerien. . 8vo. Leipzig. German. Neither the diction, nor the contents of this book could have been readily guessed from its title. Its title is indeed a • B: farrerie,' but the only one, we think in the book ; for the performance it. Self contains free, fentible, and useful reflexions, concerning the state of learning in general; of diviniry, law, philosophy, history, polite arts and sciences, antiquities, criticism ; the friendship of (cholars; oeconomical literature ; and projected reformations of go
L A W. A Differtation on the Folclande and Beclande of the Saxons, &c.
410. Is. Ji wed. Bathurft. OST of our legal antiquarians have been of opinion, that
the feuds were introduced into Britain at the Norman inva. fion; and though the Saxons were indisputably established here long before the customs of the feudifls in Spain, Italy, and France had been formed into a code by Récessuinthus, Rotharis, and Charlemagne, in the beginning of the seventh century; Aill the opinion has prevailed, that the Saxons, who had gained footing in this ifland, alone neglected to encourage a political regulation fo well adapted to the necesity and the genius of the times. This has been the general idea.-Others have contented themselves with allowing that the feuds might pollibly have been known to the Saxons; and kave then quietly proceeded in the beaten track, without any farther investigation.
We must agree with our present author, that, without a reference to the Folclande and Boclande of the Saxons, it is not possible to form an adequate idea of the point in question, and with him we must express our surprize that so little attention has been paid to thefe necessary terms.
Sir Edward Coke, chat great oracle of the law, is, like all other oracles, in this in. #tance at least, ambiguous and unsatisfactory. So is not the au. thor of this elegant differtation : his explanation appears to us, who pretend not to be black-letter lawyers, as agreeable to reafon, and ftrongly supported by authorities. Of this we are conyinced, that the numerous references in the notes bespeak much legal information, and that the differtation is written with the pleasing pen of a scholar and a gentleman.
Should any reader be inclined to put a question which we had almot asked: How is a modern lawyer interested in the present argument? Of what importance to him is the Saxon or Nor. man original of the feudal system ?--Let him receive the same satisfactory rebuke which we received.
• An acquaintance with this celebrated constitution is essentially necefiary to the illustration of the rules and maxims of the common law; for if'we wish to pervade the spirit and reason of a law, we must investigate the circumstances that attended its R4
inftitution, as the character of the legislator, the nature of the government, and the genius of the times.
• For example, many of the oppressive refinements of the feudal law were annihilated by the great charter, many of its wholesome regulations were confirmed; it follows, that without a knowledge of that law, we can never comprehend the efficacy of the constitutions of Runnymede, or do justice to our virtuous progenitors who fealed them with their blood.
• The learning of our modern tenures appears at first view to be extremely obscure ; we are apt, for instance, to reprobate efcheats pro delicto tenentis, as an iniquitous mode of punihing the innocent of the third and fourth generation ; by a reference however to these antiquated customs of the feudiíts, the darkness is dispelled, and reaton and cquity supply the place of absurdity and injuftice.
• If we attribute to the Normans the introduction of the beneficium or feud, with its necessary consequences, as well as its oppressive deductions; we mult regard it as an innovation upon the common law, the arbitrary imposition of a tyrant inimical to the liberties of the suspected subjects of his acquired territory.
• If we derive the feudal conftitution from the Saxons, it affumes a milder form ; we connect it with a government that tended to promote the liberty of the subject, and to preserve it from infringement; with the names of Alfred and of Edward, and with the laws that have made those names venerable.
• In an age of continual emigrations and consequently of invasions, the military tenure was well adapted to the sudden emergence of repelling an incurfion; it was for this political benefit, and not for the emolument of their kings, that it was established among the Saxons.
• It was under the Norman monarchs, that the feudal insti. tutions were first perverted into instruments of opprefsion ;, a system originally simple in its conftruction, assumed in their hands a much more complicated form ; aids were levied upon · various pretences, primer seisins and arbitrary reliefs were rigoroully exacted, the rights of wardship and marriage were afferted, and at length by the render of escuage, in lieu of the personal service, the military spirit entirely evaporated.' Readings on Statutes, cbiefly thoje, affeing the Admini Aration of
public Juflice, in criminal and civil Cases; passed in the Reign of King George the Second. By John Rayner, the Younger. 410. gs. Boards. Browne.
This volume contains much law learning. It does credit to the author, cannot fail to instruct and entertain the student, may even inform the legislator.
In some places we meet with expressions and remarks, which, without any detriment, might have been omitted.
. • James Daniel the prosecutor was an Irishman, a vile proRigate fellow, a fort of retainer to the gang.' (P. 193.) He