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and fix on their shoes again, anointing the hoofs, and fopping the foles, with scalding hot black pitch or tar.
• After a long day's journey, at night feel your horse's back, if it be pinched, galled, or swelled, (if you do not immediately discover it, perhaps you may after supper) there is nothing better than to rub it with good brandy and the white of an egg. If the galls are between the legs, use the same remedy ; but if the oftler rubs him weli between the legs he will feldom be galled in that part.
i in order to preserve horses after travel, take these few afe ful inftructions, When you are arrived from a journey, imme. diately draw the two heel nails of the fore-feet; and, if it be a large shoe, then four : two or three days after you may blood him in the neck, and feed him for ten or twelve days only with wet bran, without giving him any oats; bật keep him well littered.
• The reason why you are to draw the heel-nails, is because the heels are apt to swell, and if they are not thus eased, the fhoes would press and freighten them too much : 'tis also advise. able to ttop them with cow.dung for a while, but do not fake the foes off, 'nor pare the feet, because the bumours are drawn down by that means.
• The following bath will be very serviceable for preserving your horse's legs. Take the dung of a cow or ox, and make it thin with vinegar, so as to be of the confiftence of thick broth, and having added a handful of small falt, rub his fore-legs from the knees, and the hind-legs from the gambreis, chafing them well with and against the hair, that the remedy may sink in and stick to those parts, that they may be all covered over with it, Thus leave the hos se till morning, not wetting his legs, but giving him his water that evening in a pail: next morning
lead him to the river, or wash his legs in well-water, which is
very good, and will keep them from swelling.'
The hunting the hårt or ftag is very fully described, and affords an entertaining article ; but the chace of the hare, and that of the fox, are less skillfully treated, especially the latter, which is the more to be regretted, that it is the favourite amusement of modern sportsmen.
Under the head, hunting-horse, we meet with abundance of. useful hints, though the treatment in general is old.
Thore who delight in racing and cocking, will also find here a number of articles for their purpose.
Under the word Terms, we are presented with the technical terms and phrases used by huntsmen and falconers. Under those of Rabbits, Pigeons, and Poultry, the notable houl wife, we believe, will be gratified with useful information.
Birds likewise form the subject of a number of articles; as a specimen of which we shall lay before our readers that on the nightingale.
• The nightingale has the superiority above all other birds, in respect to her finging with so much variety, the sweetest and mod melodiously of all others,
• Nightingales appear in England, about the beginning of April, none as yet knowing where their habitations is (are] during the winter season ; and they usually make their nefts about a foot and a half, or two feet above ground, either in thick quick-set hedges, or in beds of nettles where old quick-set h. dges have been thrown together, and nettles grown through : and make them of such materials as the place affords: but some have found their nefts upon the ground, at the bottom of hedges, and amongft waste grounds; and some upon banks that have been raised, and then overgrown with thick grass. As for the number of their eggs, it is uncertain, some having three or four, and some five, according to the strength of their bodies; and those that make their neits in the summer, have fometimes seven er eight: but they have young ones commonly in the beginning of May.
• The nightingale that is best to be kept, should be of the earliest birds in the spring, they becoming more perfect in their fongs, and also hardier, for the old one has more time to sing over, or continue longer in singing than those that are later bred, and you may have better hopes of their living. The young ones mus not be taken out of their nefts will they are indifferently well feathered, not too little nor too much, for if the laft, they will be fullen, and in the other case they are apt to die, and at the best they are as much longer in bringing up.
• Their meat may be made of lean beef, Theep's heart, or bullock's heart, the fat skin whereof that covers it, must first be pulled off, and the finews taken out as clean as possibly; then loak a quantity of white bread in water, and chop it small, as it were for minced meat, then with a stick take up the quantity of a grey pea, and give every one three or four such gobbles in an hour's time, as long as they shall endure to abide in their neits.
• When they begin to grow strong, and ready to fly ont, pat them into the cage with several perches for them to fit upon, lined with some green baize, for they are at first subject to the cramp; and put some fine moss or hay at the bottom of the cage, for them to fit on when they please, always observing to keep them as clean as may be, for if they are brought up naftily, they, as well as all other birds, will always be fo; some fuffer no day-light to come to them only on one side; others, more curious, line their cages on three sides with
• For the diseases incident to this delightful bird; as nightingales grow extraordinary fat, both abroad in fields, as well as in houses where they are caged up, you are to observe, it is very dangerous when it begins to abate, if they do not fing, therefore they must be kept very warm upon the falling of their fat, and must have some saffron given them in their meat and water : but when they are perceived to grow fat, they muft be purged two or three times a week with some worms that are taken out of pigeon-houfes, for four or five weeks together ; and give them two or three speckled spiders a day, as long as they last, which spiders are found in Auguft
. If they grow melancholy, put into their water or drinking-pot, fome white sugar-candy, with a slice or two of liquorice ; and if they still complain, put into their pot fix or eight chives of saffron, continuing to give them lheep's heart and paste, also three or four meal. worms a day, and a few ants and their eggs : farther boil a newJaidegg very hard, mince it small, and frew it amongst the ants and their eggs.
Nightingales that have been kept two or three years in a cage are very subject to the gout, in that case you muft take them out and anoint their feet with fresh butter or capon's grease three or four days together, which is a certain care.
• The chief thing that causes most of the diseases, is for want of keeping them clean and neat, whereby their feet become clogged, and their claws rot off, which brings the gout and .cramp upon them : be sure twice a week to let them have gravel about the bottom of the cage, which must be very dry when it is put in, as it will not then be subject to clog.
These birds are also subject to apofthumes and breakings out above their eyes nd nebs, for which you are also to use butter and capon's grease. To raise nightingales when they are very bare, give them new eggs chopt very small, amongit their sheep's heart and paste, or hard eggs, and when they are recovered, bring them to ordinary diet again, that you may continue to maintain them in their former plight; but as soon as you perceive them growing fat, give them no more eggs.
There is another disease incident to those birds, called the streigheness, or ftrangling in the breast; which proceeds very often for want of care in preparing their food, by mixing fat meat therewith; and may be perceived by the beating pain they were not accuftomed to, which abides in this part, and by his often gaping and opening his bill; it may also be occasioned by fome linew or thread of the sheep's heart (fer want of hreding with a sharp knife) that hangs in his throat, or that many times clings about his tongue, whsch makes him forsake his meat and grow poor in a very fhort time, especially in the Spring, and when he is in the long-note: as soon as you perceive the symptoms, take him gentiy out of his cage, open his bill with a quill or pin, and unloosen any string or loose piece of flesh that may hang about his tongue or throat, and when you have taken it away, give him fome white sugar-candy in his
water, or else diffolve it and moisten his meat with it, which will prove a present remedy. .
• All that is to be said more concerning this melodious bird, is touching the length of his life ; fome live but one, fome three, some five, and others unto eight and twelve years ; and they fmg rather better and better for the first eight years, but then they decline by degrees, but if they have good keepers, it will prolong their lives three or four years ; and where there is one kept in a cage until that age, an hundred die; yet the care of some have been such, that it has been known nightingales have lived to be fifteen years old, and to continue singing, more or less, for the most part of the time.'
In a work so multifarious, a uniformity of execution is not to be expected ; but upon the whole, we may recommend this miscellany as an entertaining and useful book to the young sportsman; and it is the more valuable, that it preserves many ancient pastimes which are now disused.
We wish, however, that the editors had not suffered such passages as the following, so incon Gistent with the practice of a true sportsman, to escape their notice. Under the head, Hare-hunting, we are advisedy according to the season and the nature of the place where the hare is accustomed to fit, there beat with your hounds, and start her ; which is much better sport than trayling of her from her relief to her form.' Likewise, under the article, Shooting ; ' whether the game be flying, or in a hedge, or tree, always endeavour to Thoot as near you possibly can, with the wind, and rather sideways or behind the fowl than in their faces; nor foot at a single bird, if you can compass more within your level.'
We also wish, that many of the ancient, and now illegal methods of destroying game had been treated less explicitly ; as poachers may thence be rendered more expert in their clandeftine practices, and their number perhaps be increased.. This objection, however, affects rather the tendency than the merit of the work, which, it must be acknowledged, contains more useful information, in less compass, than any other book on the subject in the English language. The volume is fur. Aished with various plates of nets, pitfals, traps, &c. and the frontispiece exhibits the representation of a beautiful horse, which, being marked in its different parts, with figures that are explained in the course of the work, serves at once for ornament and use,
An Essay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul, and its
Inftin&tive Sense of Good and Evil; in Opposition to the Opinions ada vanced in .be Elays introdu&tory to Dr. Priestley's Abridgement of Dr. Hartley's Observations on Mar. To'wbich are added, Strictures on Dr. Hartley's Theory ; Thoughts on the Origin of Evil;. and Proof of the contradictory Opinions of Dr. Priestley and bis
Author. With an Appendix, in Anfwer to Dr. Prieftley's Difquifitions on Matter and Spirit. 8vo. 51. boards. Dodfley. THE
HE design of this writer is to shew the fallity, and the
pernicious consequences of some of the doctrines, advance ed by Dr. Priestley, in his Efrays prefixed to Hartley's Observations on Man; particularly his arguments in favour of the materiality of the human soul. This notion, he apprehends, is inconfiftent with the creed of a deist, and with that belief of a future ftate, which is derived from the light of nature; inconfiftent likewise with revelation; and attended with some abfurd consequences, arising from the changes our bodies continually undergo ; which, upon the principles of Dr. Priestley, would destroy our identity, &c.
It is now generally allowed, that every living creature is en dowed with an immaterial intelligence. Because, if it be admitted, that brutes have a material foul, it must also be afe firmed, that the power of moving, and the faculty of thinking, are not incompatible with matter. If matter be capable of rising to a certain point of knowledge and understanding, by fubtilizing this matter farther, it may rise to a higher degree of perfection; from an oyster it may reach to a dog, from a dog to a peasant, from a peasant to a philofopher. Our author has made a remark, relative to this point, which we shall quote, as it falls within the notice of the most ordinary obferver.
• 'I have been often greatly entertained by taking flies out of water and observing all their endeavours to relieve themselves from their distress. At firft-whilft quite weten they content themselves with only crawling-and trailing their wings, which have clung close to the body-till, by proceeding, some way, a good deal of the water has been left behind in their track. The little animal, (having stood ftill feveral times, as if to consider whether he was yet free enough to hope for success from his ate tempts) then crouches down close to the ground, and moves a little forward, in order to wipe his belly-this he repeats several times. He then stands fill--and raifing himself on his legs, twifts his two fore legs across each other, frequently putting them over his head, and round his neck, and constantly afterwards rubbing his legs against each other, to remove the wet which they had wiped from the head, &c. He next does the same with his two hind legs and with them he wipes his wings