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and fix on their fhoes again, anointing the hoofs, and stopping the foles, with scalding hot black pitch or tar.
• After a long day's journey, at night feel your horse's back, if it be pinched, galled, or fwelled, (if you do not immediately difcover it, perhaps you may after fupper) there is nothing better than to rub it with good brandy and the white of an egg. If the galls are between the legs, ufe the fame remedy; but if the oftler rubs him weli between the legs he will feldom be galled in that part.
In order to preserve horses after travel, take these few ufeful inftructions, When you are arrived from a journey, immediately draw the two heel nails of the fore-feet; and, if it be a large hoe, then four: two or three days after you may blood him in the neck, and feed him for ten or twelve days only with wet bran, without giving him any oats; but keep him well littered.
The reason why you are to draw the heel-nails, is because the heels are apt to fwell, and if they are not thus eafed, the fhoes would prefs and streighten them too much : 'tis also adviseable to flop them with cow-dung for a while, but do not take the fhoes off, nor pare the feet, because the humours are drawn down by that means.
The following bath will be very serviceable for preferving your horfe's legs, Take the dung of a cow or ox, and make it thin with vinegar, fo as to be of the confiftence of thick broth, and having added a handful of small falt, rub his fore-legs from the knees, and the hind-legs from the gambrels, chafing them well with and against the hair, that the remedy may fink in and ftick to thofe parts, that they may be all covered over with it. Thus leave the hofe till morning, not wetting his legs, but giving him his water that evening in a pail: next morning lead him to the river, or wash his legs in well-water, which is very good, and will keep them from fwelling.'
The hunting the hart or ftag is very fully defcribed, and affords an entertaining article; but the chace of the hare, and that of the fox, are lefs skillfully treated, especially the latter, which is the more to be regretted, that it is the favourite amufement of modern fportfmen.
Under the head, hunting-horfe, we meet with abundance of useful hints, though the treatment in general is old.
Thofe who delight in racing and cocking, will also find here a number of articles for their purpose.
Under the word Terms, we are prefented with the technical terms and phrafes ufed by huntfmen and falconers. Under thofe of Rabbits, Pigeons, and Poultry, the notable houfe wife, we believe, will be gratified with useful information.
Birds likewife form the subject of a number of articles; as a specimen of which we fhall lay before our readers that on the nightingale.
The nightingale has the fuperiority above all other birds, in refpect to her finging with fo much variety, the sweetest and most melodiously of all others.
• Nightingales appear in England, about the beginning of April, none as yet knowing where their habitations is [are] during the winter feafon; and they usually make their nefts about a foot and a half, or two feet above ground, either in thick quick-fet hedges, or in beds of nettles where old quick-fet hedges have been thrown together, and nettles grown through and make them of fuch materials as the place affords: but fome have found their nefts upon the ground, at the bottom of hedges, and amongst wafte grounds; and fome upon banks that have been raised, and then overgrown with thick grafs. As for the number of their eggs, it is uncertain, fome having three or four, and fome five, according to the ftrength of their bodies; and those that make their nefts in the fummer, have fometimes seven or eight but they have young ones commonly in the beginning of May.
The nightingale that is beft to be kept, fhould be of the earliest birds in the fpring, they becoming more perfect in their fongs, and also hardier, for the old one has more time to fing over, or continue longer in finging than thofe that are later bred, and you may have better hopes of their living. The young ones must not be taken out of their nefts till they are indifferently well feathered, not too little nor too much, for if the laft, they will be fullen, and in the other cafe they are apt to die, and at the best they are as much longer in bringing up.
• Their meat may be made of lean beef, theep's heart, or bullock's heart, the fat fkin whereof that covers it, must first be pulled off, and the finews taken out as clean as poffibly; then foak a quantity of white bread in water, and chop it fmall, as it were for minced meat, then with a stick take up the quantity of a grey pea, and give every one three or four fuch gobbles in an hour's time, as long as they fhall endure to abide in their nefts.
• When they begin to grow ftrong, and ready to fly out, pat them into the cage with feveral perches for them to fit upon, lined with fome green baize, for they are at firft fubject to the cramp; and put fome fine mofs or hay at the bottom of the cage, for them to fit on when they pleafe, always obferving to keep them as clean as may be, for if they are brought up naftily, they, as well as all other birds, will always be fo; fome fuffer no day-light to come to them only on one fide; others, more curious, line their cages on three fides with green
For the diseases incident to this delightful bird; as nightingales grow extraordinary fat, both abroad in fields, as well as
in houfes where they are caged up, you are to observe, it is very dangerous when it begins to abate, if they do not fing, therefore they must be kept very warm upon the falling of their fat, and must have fome faffron given them in their meat and water: but when they are perceived to grow fat, they must be purged two or three times a week with fome worms that are Laken out of pigeon-houfes, for four or five weeks together; and give them two or three fpeckled fpiders a-day, as long as they laft, which fpiders are found in Auguft. If they grow melancholy, put into their water or drinking-pot, fome white fugar-candy, with a flice or two of liquorice; and if they ftill complain, put into their pot fix or eight chives of faffron, continuing to give them sheep's heart and paste, alfo three or four mealworms a day, and a few ants and their eggs: farther boil a newJaid egg very hard, mince it small, and ftrew it amongst the ants and their eggs.
Nightingales that have been kept two or three years in a cage are very fubject to the gout, in that cafe you must take them out and anoint their feet with fresh butter or capon's grease three or four days together, which is a certain cure.
The chief thing that caufes most of the diseases, is for want of keeping them clean and neat, whereby their feet become clogged, and their claws rot off, which brings the gout and cramp upon them: be fure twice a week to let them have gravel about the bottom of the cage, which must be very dry when it is put in, as it will not then be fubject to clog.
These birds are alfo fubject to apofthumes and breakings out above their eyes and nebs, for which you are also to use butter and capon's greafe. To raife nightingales when they are very bare, give them new eggs chopt very fmall, amongit their fheep's heart and pafte, or hard eggs, and when they are recovered, bring them to ordinary diet again, that you may continue to maintain them in their former plight; but as foon as you perceive them growing fat, give them no more eggs.
There is another disease incident to those birds, called the freightness, or ftrangling in the breaft; which proceeds very often for want of care in preparing their food, by mixing fat meat therewith; and may be perceived by the beating pain they were not accuftomed to, which abides in this part, and by his often gaping and opening his bill; it may also be occafioned by fome finew or thread of the fheep's heart (fer want of shreding with a fharp knife) that hangs in his throat, or that many times clings about his tongue, whsch makes him forfake his meat and grow poor in a very fhort time, especially in the fpring, and when he is in the fong-note: as foon as you perceive the fymptoms, take him gently out of his cage, open his bill with a quill or pin, and unloofen any ftring or loofe piece of fleth that may hang about his tongue or throat, and when you have taken it away, give him fome white fugar-candy in his
water, or else diffolve it and moiften his meat with it, which will prove a prefent remedy..
All that is to be faid more concerning this melodious bird, is touching the length of his life; fome live but one, fome three, fome five, and others unto eight and twelve years; and they fing rather better and better for the first eight years, but then they decline by degrees, but if they have good keepers, it will prolong their lives three or four years: and where there is one kept in a cage until that age, an hundred die; yet the care of fome have been fuch, that it has been known nightingales have lived to be fifteen years cld, and to continue finging, more or lefs, for the most part of the time.'
In a work fo multifarious, a uniformity of execution is not to be expected; but upon the whole, we may recommend this miscellany as an entertaining and useful book to the young sportsman; and it is the more valuable, that it preferves many ancient paftimes which are now disused.
We wish, however, that the editors had not suffered fuch paffages as the following, fo inconfiftent with the practice of a true sportsman, to escape their notice. Under the head, Hare-hunting, we are advised, according to the season and the nature of the place where the hare is accustomed to fit,there beat with your hounds, and start her; which is much better sport than trayling of her from her relief to her form." Likewife, under the article, Shooting; whether the game be flying, or in a hedge, or tree, always endeavour to shoot as near you poffibly can, with the wind, and rather fideways or behind the fowl than in their faces; nor shoot at a single bird, if you can compass more within your level.'
We also wish, that many of the ancient, and now illegal methods of destroying game had been treated lefs explicitly ; . as poachers may thence be rendered more expert in their clandeftine practices, and their number perhaps be increased.. This objection, however, affects rather the tendency than the merit of the work, which, it must be acknowledged, contains more useful information, in lefs compass, than any other book on the subject in the English language. The volume is furnished with various plates of nets, pitfals, traps, &c. and the frontispiece exhibits the reprefentation of a beautiful horse, which, being marked in its different parts, with figures that are explained in the course of the work, ferves at once for ornament and use.
An Efay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul, and its Instinctive Senfe of Good and Evil; in Oppofition to the Opinions advanced in the Effays introductory to Dr. Prieftley's Abridgement of Dr. Hartley's Obfervations on Man. To which are added, Strictures on Dr. Hartley's Theory; Thoughts on the Origin of Evil; and Proof of the contradictory Opinions of Dr. Priestley and bis Author. With an Appendix, in Anfwer to Dr. Prieftley's Difquifitions on Matter and Spirit. 8vo. 51. boards. Dodsley. THE 'HE defign of this writer is to fhew the falfity, and the pernicious confequences of fome of the doctrines, advanced by Dr. Priestley, in his Effays prefixed to Hartley's Obfervations on Man; particularly his arguments in favour of the materiality of the human foul. This notion, he apprehends, is inconfiftent with the creed of a deift, and with that belief of a future ftate, which is derived from the light of nature; inconfiftent likewise with revelation; and attended with fomē abfurd confequences, arifing from the changes our bodies continually undergo; which, upon the principles of Dr. Priestley, ́ would deftroy our identity, &c.
It is now generally allowed, that every living creature is endowed with an immaterial intelligence. Becaufe, if it be admitted, that brutes have a material foul, it must also be affirmed, that the power of moving, and the faculty of think ing, are not incompatible with matter. If matter be capable of rifing to a certain point of knowledge and understanding, by fubtilizing this matter farther, it may rife to a higher degree of perfection; from an oyfter it may reach to a dog, from a dog to a peafant, from a peafant to a philofopher. Our author has made a remark, relative to this point, which we shall quote, as it falls within the notice of the most ordinary obferver.
⚫ I have been often greatly entertained by taking flies out of water and obferving all their endeavours to relieve themselves from their diftrefs. At firft-whilft quite wet-they content themselves with only crawling-and trailing their wings, which have clung close to the body-till, by proceeding fome way, a good deal of the water has been left behind in their track. The little animal, (having stood still feveral times, as if to confider whether he was yet free enough to hope for fuccefs from his attempts) then crouches down close to the ground, and moves a little forward, in order to wipe his belly-this he repeats feveral times. He then ftands ftill-and raifing himfelf on his legs, twifts his two fore legs across each other, frequently putting them over his head, and round his neck, and conftantly afterwards rubbing his legs against each other, to remove the wet which they had wiped from the head, &c. He next does the fame with his two hind legs-and with them he wipes his wings