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Angling, and the various other modes of fresh-water fishing, form a variety of articles; all of which are clear and explicit, and some of them even new.
The hunting the wild boar, and several other ferine animals, is defcribed in a manner at leaft entertaining, though ufelefs in this country.
Dogs form a variety of copious articles, of which we shall present our readers with that on pointers.
• POINTERS. Their great utility and excellence in shooting partridges, moor, or heath-game, which make them worthy our regard, are well known. There is fo great a variety of pointers of different make and fize, and fome good of each kind; that it is no wonder men fhould differ in their opinions concerning them. The pointers beft approved are not small, nor very large; but fuch as are well made, light and ftrong, and will naturally ftand. A fmall pointer, though ever fo good in his kind, can be but of little fervice in hunting, particularly through a ftrong piece of turnips, broom or heath; and the feet of a large heavy dog, will foon be tired by his own weight. 'Tis proper for a young sportsman to procure a dog that is well broken, and to enquire the method and words he has been used to by his former mafter in breaking and hunting with him: otherwife the dog will have a new leffon to learn. But if a young fportfman is defirous of breaking his own dogs, the following is the method advised.
• Having made choice of a whelp of a known good breed, begin when about three or four months old to teach him to couch at a piece of bread, caufing him to lie, whilft you walk round him at fome distance, and come nearer to him by degrees : when he has lain as long as you think proper, reward him with the piece of bread and fpeak kindly to him. Teach him to fetch and carry, to bring a glove or a bird of any fort after you; always obferving to cheer him with kind expreffions when he does well, and check or speak roughly to him when he does not obey. Ufe him to obey by whistle and figns with your hand as much as poffible; for it is a bad way to make more hallooing in the field than is neceffary. When you chastise him, it fhould be with a whip, fo as to make him remember it, using a rough voice at the fame time; but the chastisement should not be too fevere, and the words you use to him as few as poffible. When he is about five months old, ufe him frequently to be tied up, let him have off his chain for half an hour or an hour morning and evening. It is beft to give him his leffons in a morning before you feed him, with your own hand, that it may feem as a reward, the more to endear you to him; but do not overfeed him. Take him out whenever you walk, fometimes leading him in a string; fuffer him to go a little before you, and fometimes behind; but when loofe never fuffer him to go far from you, unless you hunt with him; and oblige him to come to you at the word back, or here; train him thus by continual lessons, till his attention is always on you to know what
he is to do. It will not be amifs frequently to fire off a little powder, and to make him lie down whilft you load again, whh will not only teach him to ftand fire, but will alfo make him acquainted with his bufinefs in the field; from the neglect of which he would frequently fpring birds whilft you are loading. At fix, feven, or eight months old (for all dogs will not begin to hunt alike early) take him into the field the latter end of Auguft: and if you have an old ftaunch pointer, take him with you at first to teach the other to hunt off. When your old deg makes a point, if the young one be not near, bring him up by degrees 'till he fpring the birds, and let him enjoy the scent; which will encourage him to hunt. When you find he knows bi ds, and will hunt, it is beft to take him out alone: observe wich way the wind lies, and if you can conveniently, enter on that fide of the piece you intend to hunt in, which is oppofite the wind, and do not fuffer your dog to go in before you, caft him off to the right or left, cross before the wind, walking lowly the fame way 'till he be got to the fide of the piece, then whiffle or give the word back, at the fame time walking the Contrary way, pointing with your hand the way you would have hin go; bring him back till he comes to the other hedge or fide of the field; advancing forward ten or twelve yards, every time he croffes you; repeat this till you have regularly hunted through the whole field; by which means you will certainly find birds if there be any. When he points, walk up to him, and go forward flowly towards the birds: when you think you are within a few yards of them, if they lie and your dog be fteady, walk in a circle round them, coming nearer by degrees 'till you Spring the birds. If your dog runs after them (as most young dogs will do) check him with rough words; but if he continues doing fo you must chaftife him fmartly with your whip 'till you break him of that fault. It is very common with young dogs that will ftand at firft, afterwards, to break in and fpring the birds; which you must never indulge him in. Put a few fmali ftones in your pocket, and when he stands, endeavour to head him, that is, to get before him, holding up your hand with a ftone ready to throw at him, to deter him from fpringing the birds, whilst you can walk round him; or if it be convenient, take a person with you on horseback, and when your dog commits a fault, or does not obey your call or whiftle; let him ride after and whip him: and at the fame time, if you whistle or call, he will naturally come to you for protection, Thus he will learn to come to you, as he always should do, when he has committed a fault; for if he was punished severely by yourself, you would find he would not come near you when he knew he had done wrong: which would render it difficult to break him; but if this method be observed; by harsh words and moderate correction he will foon get the better of the foible and become ftaunch. When he commits a fault, command your temper in correcting him, and let it be without paffion, and let no fault provoke you to kick or ftrike fo as to hurt him.
The breed of pointers which has been mixed with English Spaniels, fuch as are for fetting-dogs, (in order to have fuch as will run faft and hunt brifkly) are according to the degrees of Spaniel in them, difficult to be made ftaunch, and many of them never will ftand well in company. The method already given is the most likely to fucceed with thefe, but I would by no means advise a young sportsman to meddle with fuch. If you find your dog refractory, and cannot easily make him ftand, yet find fome qualities that induce you to take a good deal of trouble with him (such as a very extraordinary fagacity in fcent and that of a strong bold hunter) when he knows birds well, you may hunt him with a leather ftrap three or four yards long, fastened to his collar, which by his treading on it frequently will shorten his fpeed, and render him the easier to be stopped. Some will hunt him with a collar lined with another, through which feveral clout-headed nails are put, the points inward, and a line faftened thereto: which will not only check his running too fast, but when he ftops, if the line be long enough for you to get so near as to fet your foot on or take hold of it, if he bolts forward he will be pricked fo as to make him remember it, and will endeavour to avoid the repetition of that punishment. You must be very strict with him, and not hunt him in company with any other dog, 'till he be quite ftaunch: it often costs a great deal of trouble to make him so; but such dogs when broken, do often turn out the best.
Some are of opinion that the way to make pointers fland well in company is, when they are young, to take them out conftantly with your old ftaunch dogs, and they will learn by degrees to ftand both with or without company. But unless he is of a breed known to stand naturally, you will find more difficulty in breaking a vicious dog in company than by himfelf.
It is also common, not to begin to enter pointers 'till near a year old; because using them very young fhortens their speed. Suppose there is truth in this maxim, and your dog fhould not hunt altogether fo faft, a fufficient amends will be made for his want of fwiftnefs, by hunting more carefully, nor will he run upon birds or pass them unnoticed as dogs which run very fast are apt to do.'
The articles relative to horfes, horsemanship, and farriery, are alfo numerous, and many of them valuable; particularly those respecting the age of a horfe, and rules for buying horfes.
Under the word Journey, we find directions for the management of a horfe in travelling, which, on account of the information it contains, we fhall admit to a place in our Review.
See that his fhoes be not too ftreight, or prefs his feet, but -be exactly shaped: and let him be fhod fome days before you begin a journey, that they may be fettled to his feet.
• Observe that he is furnished with a bitt proper for him, and by no means too heavy, which may incline him to carry low, or to reft upon the hand when he grows weary, which horsemen call, making use of his fifth leg.
The mouth of the bitt fhould rest upon his bars about half a finger's breadth from his tufhes, fo as not to make him frumble his lips; the curb fhould reft in the hollow of his beard a little above the chin; and if it gall him, you must defend the place with a piece of buff, or other foft leather.
Take notice that the faddle do not reft upon his withers, reins, or back-bone, and that one part of it do not prefs his back more than another.
• Some riders gall a horfe's fides below the faddle with their ftirrup-leathers, especially if he be lean; to hinder it, you fhould fix a leather-ftrap between the points of the fore and hind bows of the faddle, and make the ftirrup-leather pass over
Begin your journey with fhort marches, efpecially if your horfe has not been exercised for a long time: fuffer him to itale as often as you find him inclined, and not only fo, but invite him to it; but do not excite your mares to ftale, because their vigour will be thereby diminished.
It is adviseable to ride very foftly, for a quarter or half an hour before you arrive at the inn, that the horse not being too warm, nor out of breath, when put into the ftable, you may unbridle him; but if your bufinefs obliges you to put on fharply, you must then (the weather being warm) let him be walked in a man's hand, that he may cool by degrees; otherwise if it be very cold, let him be covered with cloths, and walked up and down in fome place free from wind; but in cafe you have not the conveniency of a sheltered walk, ftable him. forthwith, and let his whole body be rubbed and dried with straw.
Although fome people will have their horfe's legs rubbed down with ftraw as foon as they are brought into the ftable, thinking to fupple them by that means; yet it is one of the greatest errors that can be committed, and produces no other effects than to draw down into the legs thofe humours that are always flirred up by the fatigue of the journey: not that the rubbing of horfes legs is to be difallowed, on he contrary, we highly approve of it, only would not have it done at their first arrival, but when they are perfectly cooled.
Being come to your inn, as foon as your horfe is partly dried, and ceafes to beat in the flanks, let him be unbridled, his bitt washed, cleanfed, and wiped, and let him eat his hay at pleasure.
If your horfe be very dry, and you have not given him water on the road, give him oats wafhed in good mild ale.
The duft and fand will fometimes fo dry the tongues and mouths of horses, that they lofe their appetites: in fuch cafe give them bran well moistened with water, to cool and refresh their
mouths; or wash their mouths and tongues with a wet spunge, to oblige them to eat.
The foregoing directions are to be obferved after moderate riding, but if you have rid exceffive hard, unfaddle your horfe, and fcrape off the fweat with a fweating-knife, or fcraper, holding it with both hands, and going always with the hair; then rub his head and ears with a large hair-cloth, wipe him alfo between the fore-legs and hind-legs; in the mean while, his body fhould be rubbed all over with ftraw, especially under his belly and beneath the faddle, till he is thoroughly dry.
That done, fet on the faddle again, cover him, and if you have a warm place, let him be gently led up and down in it, for a quarter of an hour, but if not, let him dry where he ftands.
Or you may unfaddle him immediately; fcrape off the fweat; let the oftler take a little vinegar in his mouth and fquirt it into the horfes; then rub his head, between the fore and hind legs, and his whole body, till he is pretty dry; let him not drink till thoroughly cool and has eat a few oats; for many, by drinking too foon have been spoiled. Set the faddle in the fun or by a fire in order to dry the pannels.
• When horfes are arrived in an inn, a man fhould, before they are unbridled, lift up their feet, to fee whether they want any of their fhoes, or if thofe they have do not rest upon their fides, afterwards he fhould pick and clear them of the earth and gravel, which may be got betwixt their shoes and foles.
• If you water them abroad, upon their return from the river, cause their feet to be stopped with cow-dung, which will eafe the pain therein; and if it be in the evening, let the dung continue in their feet all night, to keep them foft and in good condition; but if your horfe have brittle feet, it will be requifite to anoint the fore-feet, at the on-fetting of the hoofs, with butter, oil, or hog's-greafe, before you water him in the morning, and in dry weather they fhould be alfo greafed at
Many horfes, as foon as unbridled, inftead of eating lay themselves down to reft, by reafon of the great pain they have in their feet, fo that a man is apt to think them fick, but if he looks to their eyes, he will fee they are lively and good, and if he offers them meat as they are lying, they will eat it very willingly yet if he handles their feet, he will find them extremely hot, which difcovers their fuffering in that part.
You must therefore fee if their fhoes do not reft upon their foles, which is fomewhat difficult to be certainly known, without unfhoeing them, but if you take off their fhoes, then look to the infide of them, and you may perceive that thofe parts which reft upon the foles, are more fmooth and shining than the others: in this cafe you are to pare their feet in those parts,