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alledge all the objections against it, which have occurred We leave the merits of the controversy to be determined by thofe, who are difpofed to enter farther into the unfathomable depths of metaphyfics.

The Chronicle of England. Vol. II. From the Acceffion of Egbert to the Norman Conqueft. By Jofeph Strutt. 4to. 15. in boards. Shropfhire.

IN N our Review of the former volume of this work, we took notice of fome improprieties in the ftyle, which were equally inconfiftent with perfpicuity, and the elevation of hiftorical narrative; but in that now before us, it appears that Mr. Strutt has been confiderably more attentive to correctness. This volume, like the preceding, is divided into three general parts; the first of which contains the civil and military his tory of the Anglo-Saxons, from the acceffion of Egbert to the Norman conqueft; the fecond comprifes the ecclefiaftical hiftory of the fame period; and the third delivers an account of the government, manners, &c. of the people.

As a fpecimen of the compofition, we shall present our readers with a fhort extract from the history of Edward the Elder.

• Soon after the coronation of Edward, Ethelwald, an ambitious young nobleman, laid a claim to the crown of Weffex, and, being affifted by a strong party of difcontents, broke out into open rebellion, and feized upon the town of Winbourne, near Bath, which he made his place of refidence.-This young man, it seems, was fon to Ethelbryht, the fecond fon of Ethelwulf, and brother to Ælfred; fo that king Edward was his first coufin. He was too young, upon the decease of his father, to take the charge of the government, and was afterwards withheld by his uncles; however, by afferting his claim at this time, he proved a dangerous enemy to his coufin Edward. Being lodged with his party at Winbourne, he declared to them, that he was refolved to defend himself there against the affaults of Edward, or die in the attempt.-Edward, in the mean time, hearing of this rebellion, marched with his army towards Winbourne, and arriving at Banbury, in the neighbourhood of Winbourne, he encamped before the city.

Ethelwald, fearful of the event, notwithstanding his former boaftings, ftole out privately by night, and fled into Northumberland, where he joined the Danish army, which lay encamped on that fide of the Humber. After the departure of Ethelwald, the city of Winbourne was furrendered up to Ed

* See Crit. Rev. vol. xliii. p. 366.



ward, who entering in amongst other perfons, found the wife of Ethelwald, a woman whom he had forced from a convent (where he had taken the veil) and married, contrary to the ftrict commands of the church; but the was reftored to her former fituation, by the command of Edward. As foon as the flight of Ethelwald was made known to the king, he fent out a party of his troops in pursuit of him, but all their endeavours to take him proved unsuccessful.


Æthelwald, after he had joined the Danish army, made known to them the occafion of his flight from England, and the claim which he had to the crown of Weffex. They received him with great demonftrations of friendship, and promised him to efpoufe his caufe, no doubt being glad of fuch a plaufible pretext for the violation of the peace which yet exifted between them and the Saxons; moreover, they might expect that, whilft the claim of Ethelwald was fupported, a divifion might thereby be made in the Saxon ftate in favour of him, which could not fail of terminating to their advantage.Three years after they went, under his conduct, into the East Angles, where they were joined by the Danes, who inhabited that kingdom; and the year following (905) they broke the league of peace, and entered Mercia with their army, pillaging and deftroying the country as far as Creckland, where they paffed the Thames, and entering Wiltshire, proceeded to Bafingftoke; after which they returned back into the kingdom of the Eaft Angles, loaden with fpoils.-Edward, hearing of thefe dangerous proceedings, marched with his army after them, and entering the kingdom of the East Angles, laid the country wafte between the Dyke and the Oufe, and northward as far as the Fenns; when, being defirous of returning, he began his march, first ftri&tly ordering that his whole army fhould follow closely after him: but the Kentish-men, who formed a confiderable body, for fome caufe or other disobeyed his orders, and staid behind, notwithstanding seven meffengers were dispatched to them, from the king, to defire them to follow immediately.-In the mean time, the Danes, who had watched their opportunity, finding that the king was departed with the greater part of his army, fell upon thofe who ftaid behind, and a bloody battle enfued. The Kentish-men made a valiant refiftance; and though, after great carnage on both fides, they were obliged to quit the field, yet it was not before they had fo far reduced the power of the Danes, that they had but little caufe to boast of the victory. Befides the great number of common men the Saxons loft in this battle, the two earls Sigewulf and Sigelm, Eadwold, one of the king's minifters, Cenwulf an abbot, and many other persons of difN 2 tination

tinction were found among the flain.- On the fide of the Danes, were killed Eohric, king of the Eaft Angles, who had fucceeded Godrun in the year 890, and Ethelwald, the feditious author of the war, as alfo feveral noble men, and a prodigious number of private foldiers.

What steps were taken immediately after this important battle, either by Edward or the Danes, do not appear; the latter, however, feem to have fuffered fo feverely by this dearbought victory, that they were not delirous of renewing the war; and the Saxons, on the other hand, were no lefs inclined to peace. Accordingly, two years after, a peace was concluded between the Danes, as well in Northumberland as in the kingdom of the Eaft Angles, and the Saxons, which was ratified by king Edward and his nobles.

This truce continued three years unviolated, at which period the war was again renewed: but what provocation was given, or to which party the infringement of the treaty was owing, is not recorded. However, at this time king Edward caused a powerful army to be raised in Weffex and Mercia, which he sent beyond the Humber, against the Danes who refided in Northumberland. The Saxon forces entered Northumberland with fire and fword, and after staying there five weeks, during which time they made prodigious flaughter amongst the Danes, they returned home, laden with the spoils of their enemies.

The following year, the Danes, rejecting all offers of peace, entered Mercia, and retaliated the injuries which they had received; but being met by a ftrong party of the Saxons, at Tetnal in Staffordshire, they were overthrown in a fet battle. In the mean time king Edward was in Kent, and had collected about an hundred fail of fhips, and was met by others which had been cruifing upon the fouthern coafts. The Danes (hearing how Edward was employed, and imagining the greatest part of his army was fent on board the veffels) collected all the forces they could, and advancing beyond the Severn into Weffex, plundered every part of the country they paffed through. The king, hearing of their proceedings, marched against them with all expedition, and came up with them, unexpectedly, at a place called Wodensfield, in Staffordshire, as they were returning home: a bloody battle enfued, in which the Danes, after a defperate refiftance, were totally overcome, with the lofs of fome thousands of their army, together with Ecwils their king, and feveral others of their chief noblemen and leaders.


This important victory was of great confequence to Edward, for at the fame time that it damped the fpirits of his


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enemies, it animated his friends, and fecured him the love of his fubjects, who looked upon him as their protector. Some time now elapfed in peace, the Danes not daring to renew the war, which time Edward prudently employed in fortifying his dominions, in order to fecure them from the future attempts of his enemies.-In the year 912 died Æthered, the earl of Mercia, brother-in-law to Edward; and upon his deceafe, the king took the cities of London and Oxford, with the country adjoining, into his own hands, which had before been committed by his father, Alfred, to the keeping of

thered. The government of the other parts of Mercia, which Æthered had held, was ftill poffeffed by Æthelfled his widow, fifier to king Edward, a woman of a courageous and martial spirit.'

Defcontents, used in the fenfe of malecontents, is a term unfavourable to precifion. In this paffage we might remark feveral inftances of redundancy, and mifarrangement, fo preva1.nt among the writers of the age; but we are inclined rather to approve the author's laudable exertion of industry, than to cenfure the occafional blemishes which he has admitted into the narrative, in common with fo many other writers.

In an Appendix are given fpecimens of the Anglo Saxon language and the volume is ornamented with no less than fortytwo beautiful copper-plates, befides engravings of the AngloSaxon coins, in a complete feries.

The Hiftory of the Cafes of Controverted Elections, which were tried and determined during the Firft and Second Seffions of the Fourteenth Parliament of Great Britain. XV, and XVI. Geo. III. By Sylvefter Douglas, Efq. Vol. III, and IV. 8vo. in boards. Cadell.

10s. 6d.

THE ufefulness of this work, towards establishing a judicial method of procedure in determining controverted elections, is too obvious to be questioned; and every friend to the British conftitution must therefore receive pleasure at the accomplishment of a plan, which is calculated to promote an object of fo much importance to the public. The two former, volumes, to which Mr. Douglas prefixed an elaborate introduction, were conducted with great judgment and fidelity *; and the fame qualities are equally confpicuous in those now under confideration.

The following extract from the Preface, containing the eftablished rules relative to the presentation of petitions, comSee Crit. Rev. vol. xi. p. 362. N 3


plaining of undue elections, on the second, or any fubfequent feffion of parliament, after a general election, may not be unacceptable to our readers.


I. The annual order mentioned in the Introduction, is always expreffed in the fame words, whether in the firft, fecond, or other fubfequent feffion of a parliament: yiz.

Ordered, "That all perfons who will queftion any returns of members to ferve in parliament, do queftion the fame within fourteen days next, and fo within fourteen days next after any new return shall be brought in."


But the conftruction is this; on the fecond, or any sub. fequent, feffion, no petitions can be received, even within the fortnight, unlefs, 1. Where the fame election has been complained of, in the foregoing fellion, and the cause has not been tried; which happens when the day fixed for taking the first complaint into confideration has been pofterior to the rifing of the parliament; 2. Where, in the cafe of a vacancy, there has not been, in the preceding feffion, a fortnight between the time when the return was brought in, and the end of the feffion; 3. When the election complained of has taken place, in confequence of a vacancy, between the two feffions, or after the commencement of the new one. In the first feffion of this parliament, an inftance occurred of the great rigour with which the house adheres to the limitation in the cafe of original petitions. In the laft, the like ftrianefs was obferved with refpect to the prefenting a new petition, complaining of an election which had been already petitioned against. The honourable George Keith Elphinstone had, in the former feffion, prefented a petition, queftioning the election of the fitting member for the county of Dunbarton, in Scotland; but there was no trial of the caufe before the parliament rofe. In the mean time, Mr. Elphinftone being a captain in the navy, was obliged to go abroad on the king's fervice. The annual or der of limitation for the laft feffion was made on the 27th of O&tober, 1775. On the 10th of November, the last day of the fortnight, captain Elphinstone was not returned; but Mr. Seton, who had been his agent on the former occasion, of.. fered to give information to the houfe, touching his intention of renewing his petition, and of the time of his going to fea," and of his being at that time abroad on his majesty's service! A motion, however, being made, and the queftion put, for Mr. Seton's being called to the bar, and examined, it paffed in the negative. Then a motion being made, and the queftion put, "That the honourable George Keith Elphinstone be allowed fourteen days more, from this day, to prefent his petition to the houfe, complaing of the election and return of fir


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