Obrazy na stronie

distributed to all parts of the eye in an amazing manner. The extreme minute ones convey only a fine and subtile lymph thither, by which means the tunics and humours of the eye are nourished; the veins partly carry the blood back to the finuses of the dura mater, and partly to the jugulars. The nerves of the eye are very numerous ; beldes the optic nerves pierce the globe of the eye from the side of the nose, a little on the inside of the optic axis or center; their external coat, which is a production of the dura mater, is continued to the sclerotis, as their internal is from the pia mater to the chosoides : and the medullary fibres palling through all, are expanded on the retina, upon which the images of objects are painted. The centre of this expansion is insenfible, and all rays which fall upon it are loft ; consequently, that point of the object from which the rays come, is invisible to the eye; the reason of this proceeds, probably, from the blood-vesels, which enter the globe of the eye with the optic nerve, and cover this part of the retina. But whatsoever the cause be, there is a manifeft advantage in the optic nerves being inserted on the infide of the optic axis. For if they had pierced the eye in the axis, the middle point of every object had been invisible, and where all things conduce to make ussee beft, there we had not seen af all.'

To render this compendium the more useful, a copious index is added ; and the volume is furnished with several anatomical plates.

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A View of the Hard-labour Bill; being an Abstraat of a Pampblet,

intituled, Draught of a Bill, to punish by Imprisonment and Hard-labour, certain Offenders; and to eftablish proper Places for their Reception.' Intersperjed with Observations, &c. By Jeremy

Bentham, Esq. 8vo. 25. Payne. IN

the account of thanks due from the community to individuals, next in order to him who ventures his life for the service of his fellow.creatures, stands the man who dedicates his time and his study to their benefit. In such a list of benefactors, immediately after the respectable name of Howard, will appear the name of Bentham--the gentleman to whom the public is obliged for this pamphlet.

The work before us is sufficiently explained by its title. Some inaccuracies and inelegancies of style and method, which it contains, would not have escaped the author had the short space of time, to which he was neceffarily confined in obferv. ations upon a paling bill, admitted of the re-touches of a pencil which we can plainly perceive to be a master's.—The li. beral eye of the man of humanity will not mark such trifling

errors ;

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errors; the man of judgment will clearly see that he who let them flip can corre& them.

In our examination of this work, we shall not feel much concern, if we Mould be intelligible to those only who have already confidered the bill and the pamphlet.

The allowance proposed, in p. 14 of these Observations, to be granted to committee-men, is exceedingly proper, and might perhaps be the very allowance mentioned-fixpence a mile, and a sum not more than ten shillings a day, while the committee shall continue fitting—but that the distance be ascertained by the oath of the committee-man we by no means approve; he who is not to be credited in such a matter as this without an oath, is surely not a proper person to be upon any committee.

When our author comes to that feaion of the bill which speaks of the dimensions of the buildings, and directs each house to contain several cells and dungeons, he has this sentence

If the utmost degree of ftillness were thought not to be absolutely neceffary to be insisted on, a man's own lodging-soom might at any time, by the contrivance above-mentioned, be fitted up for the purpose.'

That is, for the purpose of a dungeon. The contrivance above mentioned is to adapt to the window a black skuttle inflected to a right angle. But this we conceive to be no very effe&tual method of inflicting a severer punishment on an of. fender, by-confining him to his apartment, and · fitting up his own lodging room as a dungeon.'-Our author indeed does recollect himself afterwards, and adds, that sometbing of the effect depends upon the strangeness of the place, and upon its being known to be appropriated to a penal purpose.

When Mr. Bentham comes to the 39th section of the bill, which prescribes the times of work, he makes some very sensible observations : but, speaking of the great difficulty of filling up the time of the offenders on Sundays, and observing that one expedient is to protract the time of divine service, he gives us the following passage

• Another way of adding to the church service is by mufice This will, at any rate, be a very agreeable employment to many; and, if properly managed, may be a very useful one to all ; even to those who have no natural relish for music in itself, The influence which church-music has over the generality of men, in bringing them to a composed and serious turn of mind, is well known. The music might be either vocal only, or allifted by an organ. In either case, the vocal part might, with a little infraction, be performed by the congregation themselves; as it is at the Magdalen, and other public foun: dations.'

them. upon

That church-music has much influence over the generality of men, in bringing them to a composed and serious turn of mind, we do not deny--but the generality of men are not of. fenders sentenced to hard-labour and confinement for crimes committed against society. The powers, which music is said to have possessed in the days of old, either never existed, or have long since ceased. It were as wise to think of building a hard-labour house, like Orpheus, , with the ailistance of music, as to think of reforming by it the offenders confined in one. That which redeemed Eurydice from hell, would hardly redeem a single villain from fin. He might, at the conclusion of his confinement, be a better vocal or infrumental performer, but would not, upon that account, be a better man.-- Besides,

. The man who hath not music in himself

Is fit for treasons, stratagems, anu spoils;' consequently he, who has committed treasons, stratagems or spoils, can have no music in his soul, nor be moved with con. cord of sweet sounds.'

Upon the whole, he concludes, (as to their employments on Sundays, &c.) I can fee no better expedient at present than that of permitting them (not cbliging them, but permitting them) to betake themselves to some easy sedentary employment; such as knitting, spinning, or weaving, that might afford them a small profit. This profit, if made their own, would make the employment pleasant to them. Devotion, it is true, is better on such a day ihan induitsy; but industry is better on every day than total idleness; that is, than despondency or mischief. The neceffity in this case seems at least as strong as that which has induced the legislature to permit the practice of certain trades on the day in question, and which is universally, understood to authorize persons of all descriptions to puriue most of their household occupations. It were hard if an iottitution, confefsedly no original part of the religion we profefs, but only adopt. ed into it by early pradlice, and in later times sanctioned by hu. man authority, must, at all events, be permitted to oppoíe the main ends of religion, innocence and peace.'

. This is a wise: and practicable scheme, which cannot fail, we fhz uld think, to be adopted. Are not the negroes, of whom the greatest bawlers for liberty have made beasts of bure den, suffered to enploy Sunday, which Thines no labbath day to them,' in the cultivation of a particular piece of ground set apart for the support of their miserable existence ?

In the obfervavions upon sellion 40, wbichi directs the apo parel of the offenders to have certain obvious marks or badges upon it, we find more of this trifling. True it is that trifles, light as air,' are to the legislator, and ought to be, matters of serious confideration. But the legislator has before him matters of still more serious confideration than trifles; and will have little time to attend to Mr. Bentham's differtation, however ingenious, ontemporary and perpetual marks, or upon inherent marks produced by either mechanical means or chymical.' Nor will a legislator have much attention to give to this gentleman's treatise, however learned, upon the partial shaving of a part of the face,' or 'the shaving of one eye. brow; especially, as it is wisely added, that, as to the former plan, it is inapplicable to boys and women'-and, as to the eye-brow scheme, we are most gravely informed that,

• In the first place, it is not absolutely a sure one. Some pere fons have paturally so little hair on their eye brows, that, if the whole of it were taken off from both, it might not be missed : • and artificial eye.brows are said to have been made of mouseskin, or in other ways, and that so natural, as not to be detected without previous suspicion. In the next place, there is some danger that a mark continually renewed, as this must be, by repeated shavings, would be in some degree perpetual. If the fame eye brow were to be constantly subjected to the operation, the hair might be fo thickened as to appear different from the other eye-brow. If sometimes one eye-brow and fometimes the other were to be shaved, there must frequently be times when the growth of them will be alike, and the distinction no longer apparent. As far then as it goes, the best expedient seems to be the keeping them constantly both shaved.'

The differtation is elaborate, and the conclusion wonderful !

One precaution clearly would be proper to take the most minute description of every offender immediately upon his confinement, that, in case of an escape, he might be 'advertised fo particularly as almost to insure his being re-taken.

Emblematical devices, we are afraid, would have as little effect upon the spectators of a hard-labour house, as music upon the inhabitants of one.--As to

a suitable motto over the door,' there can be no good objection to it; but, with regard to any emblem or device, the plainest is the best; and the best we remember is a kind of ornament or finishing, over the door of the new Newgate in London, formed only of real fetters and chains, and which would have had an appearance still more aweful to the eye of a spectator, had they been left to the common influence of wind and weather, and not been prevented from growing rusty, and looking consequently more terrible, by being painted white.--Such an emblem

feelingly persuades us what it means. Of those which Mr. Bentham would recommend, explanations muft be printed


and distributed to every spe&ator, in, the fame manner as the metaphorical frontispieces to magazines, &c. are always accompanied by their interpretations.

But the thanks of society are justly due to the veriest trifler, if he was betrayed into trifling by a desire to serve society; even though he should not discover those abilities which are evidently possessed by this writer.

We shall transcribe a note from another part of the work, on account of the useful hint it contains, which we hope to see executed by some friend to society.

• A few years ago, I began sketching out a plan for a colleâion of documents of this kind, to be published by authority under the name of bills of delinquency, with analogy to the bills of mortality above spoken of: but the despair of seeing any shing of that fort carried into execution soon occasioned me to abandon it. My idea' was to extend it to all perfons convicted on criminal prosecutions. Indeed, if the result of all law proceedings in general were digefted into tables it might furnish useful matter for a variety of political speculations.'

By this note it appears that our author has long dedicated himfelf to the service of the public; and from his preface we learn that he is employed also . in finishing a work of some bulk, in which he has been treating the subject of punishment more at large.' Hoc eft vivere-- fic itur ad afira! The present hafty performance is an ample specimen of this writer's abilities; and gives us room to form the greatest ex. pectations of the work he has in hand.

FOREIGN ARTICLES. Wilhelm Friedrich Hetzels Geschichte der Hebræischen Sprache une

Literatur ; nebeft einem Anhange, welcher eine kurze Einleiting in die mit der Hebræischen Sprache verwandten orientalischen Dialecte enthalt; or, The History of the Hebrew Language and Literature; witk an Appendix, containing a port Introduction to the History of those Eastern diale&ts that are related to the Hebrew Tongue. Své. Halle.

(German.) THE judicious and sensible author of this book begins with some

observations on the name and origin of the Hebrew language; with asserting that it is, under certain reftrictions, the first or moft ancient language in the world, and with some fenfible remarks on its pretended fanctity. He then proceeds to an historical account of its nature, fate, and revolutions through all ages, first as a liv. ing, and afterwards as a dead language. From the beginning to. the total deftruction of the Jewith Itate, soon after Jesus Christ, the Hebrew language was a living or mother tongue; and from that time to the present it bas been a dead one. Its history therefore naturally divides itself into two sections, each of them subdivided into several diftinct periods.


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