Obrazy na stronie

parties. This seems to be an implied discharge of the other two, for this agreement between Dallas and him, is evidence that he had given the indorser credit, as the money was only to be paid within that time. If there is a new time given to one of the parties, it discharges the other, because it is giving that person new credit.

• If this rule is right, it presses hard on Mr. Black, and in favour of Mr. Peele, for even in that agreement the costs which had been incurred in the prosecution against Mr. Peele, were taken off him, and laid upon Mr. Dallas, and these articles are put into the account of Dallas. This imports to-Mr. Peele, not only a discharge from the principal debt, but likewise from the colts; here is one article changed, and in tbat case Mr. Peele is difcbarged, and he takes Mr. Dallas for his paymaster; there the matter refted the 5th of November. When we come to the parole evidence this is confirmed. There is a material circum: Itance which bears hard on the plaintiff; as long as Mr. Dallas is not insolvent, Mr. Black rested on him. There is one part of Mr. Barber's evidence material; I do not rely on the bill being originally given to accommodate Mr. Dallas; it was nothing to Mr. Black how it was obtained; but he says, after this agree ment, they had other accounts with Mr. Dallas, which were fettled before the infolvency, and he believes if he had had that bill he could have obtained payment; and gives his reasons why he believes this. This is the foundation of the law, viz. that if you suspend proceedings against the indorsee, thereby giving kim credit, you deprive the drawer and acceptor from recovering what they otherwife

might have done. Mr. Barber tells you he had more due from Dallas, which he got, and he believes he could have got this too, but it only rests on his belief. Therefore, if you believe this circumstance, it bears hard on Mr. Black; and, if the rule is right, which I have given you, and that you are of opinion that Mr. Black discharged the defendant, and accepted of Dallas, you will find a verdi&t for the defena dant; if you think he did not discharge him, you will find for she plaintiff. A verdict was given for the defendant.'

[ocr errors]

A Differtation on the Value of Life Annuities, deduced from general

Principles, clearly demonstrated and particularly applied to the Schemes of the Laudable and Amicable Societies of Annuitants, for ibe Benefit of Age. By W. Backhouse. 8.00. 25. Richardson

and Urquhart. THI *HIS publication is chiefly intended to snew what difference much versed in such calculations; and he computes the general question both direct and reversed ; that is, he first estimates what annuity ought to be expected for the payments required to be made by each society, and compares the con-. clusions with the annuities that are actually given by them ; he then computes what payments ought to be made for the annuities that are given by those societies, and thence finds the difference of these true fums from the similar sums required by the societies. These differences in some instances are very considerable, and he remarks that the 'Ainicable Society has lately been under the neceflity of reducing its annuities from 24 to 6 pounds only!

there is between the true values of annuities and the values as estimated either by the Laudable Society or by the Amicable Society of annuitants for the benefit of age. Mr. Backhouse diversifies and illustrates his problems in many different ways, to remove all doubt of the truth of the computations which those persons might entertain who are not


As Mr. Backhouse's design was partly to instruct and enable gentlemen, adventurers in such societies, to compute and judge for themselves, he has contrived to make his book contain, in a simple, plain, and easy manner, all the rules and tables that are necessary for computing such kind of annuities on lives. He has also explained, in an easy and familiar way, such parts of the general doctrine of chances as are necessary in the investigation of annuities on lives, and has explained fome of the more simple kinds of algebraic expressions for the use of readers who are unacquainted with that science. Hereby rendering his book an useful introduction to those subjects.

To obviate the objections sometimes made by persons unacquainted with computations in chances and annuities on lives, Mr. Backhouse has given the following short differtation in the Preface.

• A general opinion has always prevailed, that any conclufion drawn from calculations, founded on principles so unstable as those on the duration of life, must ever keep pace with the instability of that data which furnish the enquiry.

And since the duration of life is a matter immediately under the influence of Divine Agency, for wise purposes kept secret froin human knowledge, it is but a natural inference, to suppose the result of any enquiry depending thereon, muft ever be fruitless and vain.

• This, I say, being the general received opinion, it no longer remains a matter of surprise, to find so little regard paid to, and still less belief put in, calculations of this nature, where the duration of life is their firft principle.

• But if we examine more attentively into this matter, it will be found, that these researches do not pretend to fathom the depths of infinite wisdom, and fix a certain criterion to the duration of any particular life, but only take the probability of its duration, as gathered from observations on the bills of Vol. XLVI. August, 1778.



mortality of cities and great towns, where such bills have been kept.

And this probability, when applied to focieties and large bodies of men, will come very near to measure the mean duratron of life in those societies, and the larger they are, the nearer will this probability approach to the true measure ; till at last, if we conceive a society as large as the place from whence the observations were made (and under the same circumstances with respect to any influence on health) this probability would then just measure the duration of life in that fociety collectively considered. It follows from hence, that the Smaller a society is, the further will this probability recede from the true measure of life ; till at laft, if we conceive a society diminished to one person, this probability will then only shew the number of chances that he has to live longer than the mean age of man, or die before he attains to it. And seeing, that from the whole race of mankind, there are as many die before they attain to this mean age, as those who live beyond it, it is therefore fufficiently manifeft, that the number of chances for any one person's living longer than here prescribed, must be equal to the number of chances for his dying before.'

Terra : a philosophical Discourse of Earth. Relating to the Culture

and Improvement of it for Vegetation, and the Propagation of Plants, as it was presented to the Royal Society. By J. Evelyn, Esq. F. R. S. A new Edition, With Notes by A. Hunter,

M.D. F. R. S, Sve. 35. in boards. Cadell. THIS Treatise on Earth was originally published about a

century ago, and underwent several impressions during the life of its author, who was one of the principal ornaments of the Royal Society foon after its establishment.

His design was not to investigate the chemical nature of earth, from an abstract view of its qualities as an element of matter ; but to consider it in the more extensive and useful light of its being the great basis of every vegetative process in the natural world. Consistently with this plan, the author's observations are every where practical, and lead to the improvement of agri culture.

For the gratification of those who may be desirous of seeing in what manner this celebrated treatise is executed, we fall insert the author's observations on the different kinds of manure

« Horse

• Horse-dung, the least pinguid and fat of any, taken as it falls, being the most fiery, excites to sudden fermentation above any; wherefore, it is then fic only for the hot-bed, and when that fervoor is paft, may be spread on fields where we would have a rank grass to spring, but is at no hand to be admitted into the garden, or where you desire good roots should grow, unless the ground be very stiff, cold, or wet, and then too it had need be well rotted, left, instead of coring it, it leave couch-grafs and pernicious weeds, worse than the disease. The seeds of hay and other plants, of which the horses eat, come oftentimes entire from them; and we observe, that such vegetables do commonly spring up from the soil of cattle as they chiefly eat; as long knot-grass from this beast ; short, clean, and sweet paftore from Theep and cows; the fonchus, or low-chistle, from the swine. Ground mucked with horse-dung is always the most infected of any, and if it be not perfectly consumed, it makes your roots grow forked, fills them with worms, and imparts to them an unpleasing relish ; but being laid on at the beginning of winter, and turned in at spring, it succeeds sometimes with pulse.

« The soil of affes is highly esteemed, for its being better dia gested by the long mastication and chewing of that dull animal ; but fiece we have no quantity of it in this country, it does the less concern us.

• Neats dung, of all other, is universally the most harmless, and the most useful ; excellent to mingle with sandy and hot grounds, lean or dry, and being applied before winter, renders it the most like natural earth, and is therefore for the garden and orchard preferred to any other. To use it therefore with the most certain success in such thirty grounds, apply a plentiful surface of it, so blended, as the rain and showers may wash in the virtue of it thoroughly; but this is beft done by making the dung the finer, and what if reduced to powder, Sprinkled for the garden, or otherwise working it in at a soaking wet (not stormy) season ; but leave it covered with it for fome time, if the rain descend in too great excess.

The next is sheeps dung, which is of a middle temper between that and pigeons ; profitable in cold grounds, and to imprego nate liquors, of choice use in the garden

• The dung of swine is esteemed the coldest and leaft acri-, monious, (though some there be who contradict it) and there. fore to be applied to burning lands; but always so early interred as never to appear above ground, where it is apt to produce weeds in abundance, from the greedy devouring of what that animal eats.

This, though not so proper for the garden, (and the moft itinking) is said yet to edulcorate and sweeten fruit so sensibly, as to convert the bitcerelt almond into sweet, and therefore recommended, above all others, for experiments of change and alteration : some qualify it with bran, or chaff well consumed,


K 2

greatly comfortable to fruit-trees, but especially the hairs and bristles buried about the roots of pear-trees.

Pigeons dung, and that of poultry, (especially of aquatic fowls, which is too fiery) being full of volatile salts, is hot and burning, and therefore most applicable to the coldest ground. There is nothing more effectual to revive the weak and lan. guishing roots of fruit-trees than this laid early to them; but firft be sure they pass their mordicant and piercing spirits, and be discreetly mixed : be this therefore observed as a constant rule, that the hotter compofts be early and thinly spread, é contra, the colder.

• Very efficacious is this dung to keep frosts out of the earth, and therefore of great use to cover the mould in cases of exotic and tender plants ; but if the heat be not well qualified, the very fteam will kill them in a moment; therefore let a full winter pass over this lætation for most uses. The best way of preparing it, is to reduce it into powder, and mingle it with the mould, and to water with its infufion, which alone does wonders ; or, if it has been well exposed and abated, you may use it at the spring without addition ; but if you desire fomething that is exquisite, macerate it well rotted in the lees of wine, ftale urine, and a little brimstone beaten very fine, then mingle it with your earth, for one of the richest compofts. But let this be noted, that, as the effect of this dung is sudden, so it Jafts not long, and therefore muft the oftener be senewed.

• The flesh of carrion and dead animals, being (as I think my lord Bacon tells us) prepared already by so many curious elaborations of its juices, is highly effectual, but it Thould be very well consumed and ventilated, till it have quite loft its intulerable smell, and therefore never applied too crude *.

• Blood is excellent almost with any foil where fruit is plante ed, especially the mural. To improve the blood of the grape, it is of great advantage, being somewhas diluted, and poured about the roots. It has been affuredly reported by divers eyewitnesses, that after the battle of Badnam Fields, in Devonfhire, (where the late lord Hopton obtained a fignal victory) the carnage being great, the blood of the flain did so fertilize the fields, where corn had been sown a little before, that the year following produced fo extraordinary a crop, as most of the wheat-stalks bare two, three, four, yea to seven, and some

• The offal of the shambles, when mixed with earth and fresh horse dung, makes a compost of the richest quality; but this can. not be obtained in large quantities. Some years ago, I recom. mended a compost, the basis of which was the offal of whales fleth, after the oil had been taken from it. This, compounded with horse dung and earth, is now much used by the farmers who live in the neighbourhood of sea ports where ships are fitted out for the Greenland seas. The manner of preparing this rich kind of manure is described in the Georgical Essays, p. 385.'

« PoprzedniaDalej »