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elephants are white. Close to this country are fome mines of metals and precious fones, which are the subject of continual contention betwixt the chiefs of Pegu, Arakan, Tiprah, and the Mugs.'

• Bungalah originally was called Pung; it derived the ad. ditional al from that being the name given to little gardens which the ancient rajahs caused to be raised in all the low lands at the foot of the mountains: their breadth was usually twenty cubits, and height ten cubits *.

• The air of Bengal is very temperate : the rains begin in the month of April and continue for fix months, falling molt fregaent and heaviest in the latter months ; when the low lands are sometimes intirely over Aowed, excepting the little mounds of earth described above. For a long time past the air of Bengał had been unhealthy at the leaving off of the rains, aflicting both man and cattle; but under the auspices of his present majesty the calamity has ceased.

+ 1 he finest river + in this subah is called Gung (Ganges) the source of which has never been traced. The Hindoo priests say that it flows from the hair of the giant Sermehâh in the northern mountains, from whence it runs through the fubahs of Dehly, Agra, and Bahar into Bengal. Near the town of Cauzyhurtâh in the fircar of Barbuckabad, it sends a branch to the east called Pudhâtry, which emp:ies itself into the sea at Chittagong. The main river in its course to the southward forms three lireams, the Suroostee, the Jown, and the Gung, called in the Hindoo lana guage Terbeenee : the Gung, after being divided into a thoufand channels, joins the sea at Sâ:agong; and the Saroostee and Jown discharge theńiselves in like manner. The Hindoos have a very high veneration for the water of the Gung, but some particular parts of it are esteemed more holy than others : the great people have this water brought them from valt distances, it being esteemed neceffary in the performances of some religious ceremonies. The water of the Gung has been celebrated in all ages, not only for its fanctiry, but also on account of its sweer. ness, lightness, and wholesomeness, and for that it does not become putrid, though kept a whole year.

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« * The name of this country, according to the Persian ortho. graphy, is more commonly writien Bungàlâ than Bungalah; but in Bengal character it is written Bangâiâ.'

† In the beginning of April (and sometimes earlier in the southern parts of Bengal) there are frequent storms of thunder, lightening, wind, and rain from the north-west quarter: these squalls moderate the heat very much, and they consiitue till the setting in of the periodical rains, which generally commence in the beginning of June, and by which the country is in many parts overowed. If the rains break up early in Septeinher, the wea: ther is intensely hot, and the inhabitants are very fickly.'

« There • There is another very large river called Berhumputter, which runs from Khata to Coch, and from chence to Bazouhá, where it joins the sea *.

's On one side of the main ocean is the falt river of Buslorah (besides the sea already mentioned) and there is another sea that joins the river at Egypt, from whence it runs paft Persia to Ec iopia, where there are a million of inhabitants : this last is called the sea of Aiman, and also the sea of Persia. The inhabitants of Ethiopia cultivate rice in great abundance, of which they have a variety of species : this foil is so fer ile, that every, fingle grain will yield a measure of fifteen seer +. Their hara vel's seldom fail; and the same ground will produce three crops in a year : vegetation is here so extremely quick, that as fast as the water rises the plants of rice grow above is, so that the ear is never immerled; men of experience affirm that a single italk will grow fixty cubits in one night 1.'

In one of the notes to this passage we are told, that Alexander carried his conquest to the borders of China. These affertions should be received with caution. This romantic hero, according to the ancient historians, penetcated no fare ther into India than the fabulofus Hydafpes , or the river Hypasiskwhich falls into the Indus, above a thousand miles from the western boundaries of China. Oriental writers ascribe many things to Alexander, which he never performed. The Nubian geographer relates, that the Mediterranean sea was formerly a large lake ; that Alexander opened a passage for the water on the side of the ocean, which rushed into the Mediterranean with such impetuofity, and occafioned such a swelling of the sea, that several cities, with their inhabitants, were overwhelmed on both sides. Upon which the author of the Latin translation to that work has this remark : quod Europæi Herculi, bec Arabes adscribunt Alexandró. What the Eve ropeans ascribe to Hercules, the Arabians ascribe to Alexander.'-Their histories are equally fabulous.

• * The word tranlated sea is in the original salt river, and is here applied to the bay of Bengal."

't Seebo, which is the word used in the original for this mea. fure, is an earthen water pot, generally countaining fifteen seer or quarts; for a seer is equal to two pounds avoirdupois, and a pint of common water weighs a pound.'

Sixty cubits is so very incredible a length, that I am inclined to think this must be an error of the transcriber, and that it was originally written only fix cubits, which I have heard positively as. serted by the people of Dacca not to be more than the growth in a lingle day of a particular fpecies of rice produced in that province.' Vide Ruæum in Hor. Od. lib. i. 22. | Plin, vi, 17. Geog. Nubieps. Clim, 4. pars 1. p. 147, 148.

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The assertion in the last note, even with our author's propored alteration from 60 cubits to 6, is utterly incredible. We may venture to say, that no plant upon the face of the earth, ever thot qut its branches to the extent of three yards in one night. Writers lhould see these miracles before they venture to record them.

An Inquiry into the Nature, and Genuine Laws of Poetry : inciding

a particular Defence of the Writings, and Genius of Mr. Pope. By Percival Stockdale. Small 8vo. 26. 6d. Jewed. Conant, IN the writings of Mr. Pope we find no abftrufe terms, no

harsh expressions, no affected turns, no extravagant metaphors ; but, on the contrary, that elegant fimplicity, which we admire in the works of the greatest poets of antiquity. His language is easy, yet nervous and expreffive. He fets before us the most beautiful images, in which there is nothing glaring, wild, or fantastic. The ear is charmed with the melody of his numbers; the foul warmed and transported with his animated sentiments, and his glowing descriptions. Those critics who speak of this illustrious writer, as a lukewarm and mechanical poet, are such as mistake affectation for gracefulness, and bombast for fublimity. Dr. Warton indeed, though he pays him many deserved encomiums, has ventured to ask, What there is transcendently fublime or pathetic in Pope? In his works, he says, there is nihil inane, nihil arceffitum ;- puro tamen fronti, quam magno fumini proprior,' as Quindilian remarks of Lycias ; and he applies to him what Voltaire says of Boileau : Perhaps he was incapable of the sublime, which elevates the soul, and of the pathetic, by which it is melted, But he was formed to enlighten those, on whom nature had bestowed both properties. His labour, his severity, his purity, his accuracy, and his harmony, constituted him the poet of reason.'

These reflections have given offence to the author of this Inquiry; and he rises up with the highest resentment, in vindication of a writer who, as he justly remarks, has done ho. pour to his country, and to human nature.'

Dr. Warton, he says, among his other fcholaftic dreams, afferts, that to estimate the merit of any poet, we must divest his thoughts of measure and rhyme, and read and weigh them in a prosaic order.

In his observations on this rule our author affirms, that if we deem poetry, diffolved and emafculated into profe, a cria terion of poetical merit, we, may as well mutilate the statue of a Phidias, and throw its fragments promiscuously around us, that we may be ftruck with the beauty of the work, and form a right judgement of the excellency of the artist : or, to feel the music of one of Handel's oratorios, and thence to ertimate his genius, we may as well play all its notes, but not in bis order and combination.'

Take, says Dr. Warton, ten lines of the fliad, Paradise Loft, or even of the Georgics of Virgil, and fee, whether by any process of critical chymistry, you can lower and reduce them to the tameness of prose." Mr. Stockdale makes this experiment, and thews, that by such a tranfpofition, the poetry of Homer and Milton would be entirely divested of its force and beauty. But he adds :

• I believe I may, without presumption, infft, that if the trial of poetical excellence, recommended by Horace, and by Warton, was, in the eye of the true critic, a legal trial; the poet never existed who would suffer less by encountering this frozen ordeal than Pope. But why did not our severe judge bring him to the bar of this rigid fentence, in all his vigour? Why did he not give him a chance for his life ? His arbitrary process would have had, at least, the appearance of equity, if he had tried its effect on one of the many admirable passages which he has quoted in his book, and which demonstrate the futility of its whole tenour, instead of dragging to his Hoe ratian rack the beginning of the first Ethic Epiftle, in which the great exertion of our poet would have been incompatible with his subject, and in which he sports in the easy style of epistolary familiarity. The pertinacious critic, to evince the mediocrity of Pope's poetry ; to reach his hostile aim to ftab the poet in a vital part, should have tried his experiment on a capital quotation. Many such quotations be hath given us from the Rape of the Lock, which are completely beautiful ; and many from the Eloïsa to Abelard, which are superlatively great. If our priest, for instance, had condemned such lines, to his barbarous purgatory, from the latter poem, as chose in which Eloïsa paints, in the ftrongest colours, the objects around her convent; and describes, with almost unexampled animation, their effects on her mind, when her piety was absorbed in her passion ; I make no doubt but a discerning reader, if he had not been in. formed of the metamorphosis, would have thought it the fentiments, and language of one endowed with a vigorous ima. gination. But in those lines, thus transposed, the port would not have been discovered ; for they would have wanted the indifpenfble characteristics of poetry ; they would have been spoiled of its beautiful symmetry; of its captivating graces ; of its harmonious expression. If he had exhibited such a specimen, he would not have been lefs abfurd; but he would have been more ingenuous: and if his poftulatum was founded in trath, he would have unquestionably proved that Mr. Pope was not a poet. I shall here transcribe the lines to which I have now alluded; not as they might have been shortened, and stretched, disocated, and mutilated, by our literary Procruftes ; but in their own form, and prejure. Many such teftimonies 1 could produce to warrant my zeal for Pope.


• The darksome pines that o'er yon rocks reclined,
Wave high, and murmur to the hollow wind ;
The wandering streams that shine between the hills;
The grots that echo to the tinkling rills;
The dying gales that pant upon the trees,
The lakes that quiver to the curling breeze;
No more thefe scenes my meditation aid,
Or lull to rest the visionary maid.
But o'er the twilight groves, and dusky caves,
Long sounding iles, and intermingled graves,
Black Melancholy fits, and round her throws
A death-like filence, and a dread repose :
Her gloomy presence saddens all the scene;
Shades every flower, and darkens every green';
Deepens the murmur of the falling floods,
And breathes a browner horrour on the woods.'

Eloïsa to Abelard, v. 154.. « The active imagination of the susceptible reader, on whom Pope's Epistle from Eloïsa to Abelard hath had its fall play, has precluded a minute encomium on this admirable quotation : it must have called forth all his sensibility to nature, to fym. pathy, and to love.'

As Dr. Warton may appeal to the authority of Horace, Sar. iv. 60, our author disclaims an implicit obedience to the didates of that eminent critic.-Horace however does not re. commend the trial in question. He only says, that he him. felf, in his Satires, uses a familiar style; and that if his words were thrown out of their poetical arrangement, we should not be able to discern the least appearance of the poet. Whereas, says he, if we transpose these lines of Ennius,

--Postquam discordia tetra Belli ferratos postes, portafque refregit, we should still perceive the limbs of a mangled poet ; viz, certain words and images appropriated to poetry : as we might discover the fragments of a broken statue, by a finger or a toe; and from thence conclude that these pieces were the work of an artist, and not merely common ftones. Our author therefore makes an improper concession, to the disadvantage of Horace, in a cale, where that judicious critic has maintained no absurdity. They are mistaken, who imagine, that


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